TAU Nanocenter

47 articles

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Apr 2021 • Science Advances

The coherence of light is fundamentally tied to the quantum coherence of the emitting particle

Aviv Karnieli, Nicholas Rivera, Ady Arie, Ido Kaminer

Coherent emission of light by free charged particles is believed to be successfully captured by classical electromagnetism in all experimental settings. However, recent advances triggered fundamental questions regarding the role of the particle wave function in these processes. Here, we find that even in seemingly classical experimental regimes, light emission is fundamentally tied to the quantum coherence and correlations of the emitting particle. We use quantum electrodynamics to show how the particle’s momentum uncertainty determines the optical coherence of the emitted light. We find that the temporal duration of Cherenkov radiation, envisioned for almost a century as a shock wave of light, is limited by underlying entanglement between the particle and light. Our findings enable new capabilities in electron microscopy for measuring quantum correlations of shaped electrons. Last, we propose new …

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Mar 2021 • Optics Express

Geometric representation and the adiabatic geometric phase in four-wave mixing processes

Yongyao Li, Jiantao Lü, Shenhe Fu, Ady Arie

Feb 2021 • Nature communications

Emulating spin transport with nonlinear optics, from high-order skyrmions to the topological Hall effect

Aviv Karnieli, Shai Tsesses, Guy Bartal, Ady Arie

Exploring material magnetization led to countless fundamental discoveries and applications, culminating in the field of spintronics. Recently, research effort in this field focused on magnetic skyrmions–topologically robust chiral magnetization textures, capable of storing information and routing spin currents via the topological Hall effect. In this article, we propose an optical system emulating any 2D spin transport phenomena with unprecedented controllability, by employing three-wave mixing in 3D nonlinear photonic crystals. Precise photonic crystal engineering, as well as active all-optical control, enable the realization of effective magnetization textures beyond the limits of thermodynamic stability in current materials. As a proof-of-concept, we theoretically design skyrmionic nonlinear photonic crystals with arbitrary topologies and propose an optical system exhibiting the topological Hall effect. Our work paves the …

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Jan 2021 • Optica

Quantum correlations in electron microscopy

Chen Mechel, Yaniv Kurman, Aviv Karnieli, Nicholas Rivera, Ady Arie, Ido Kaminer

Electron microscopes provide a powerful platform for exploring physical phenomena with nanoscale resolution, based on the interaction of free electrons with the excitations of a sample such as phonons, excitons, bulk plasmons, and surface plasmons. The interaction usually results in the absorption or emission of such excitations, which can be detected directly through cathodoluminescence or indirectly through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). However, as we show here, the underlying interaction of a free electron and an arbitrary optical excitation goes beyond what was predicted or measured so far, due to the interplay of entanglement and decoherence of the electron-excitation system. The entanglement of electrons and optical excitations can provide new analytical tools in electron microscopy. For example, it can enable measurements of optical coherence, plasmonic lifetimes, and electronic length …

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Jan 2021 • Cancers

Persistent Inflammatory Stimulation Drives the Conversion of MSCs to Inflammatory CAFs That Promote Pro-Metastatic Characteristics in Breast Cancer Cells

Linor Rubinstein-Achiasaf, Dina Morein, Hagar Ben-Yaakov, Yulia Liubomirski, Tsipi Meshel, Eti Elbaz, Orly Dorot, Edward Pichinuk, Michael Gershovits, Miguel Weil, Adit Ben-Baruch

Simple Summary Breast cancer progression is prominently regulated by the persistent presence of inflammatory mediators and by stromal cells that are located in the tumors. Here, we connected these two elements by demonstrating that potent pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β) lead to the conversion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to inflammatory cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). These inflammation-driven CAFs secrete metastasis-promoting factors that elevate the dispersion, scattering, and migration of breast cancer cells via activation of tumor cell receptors that signal through Ras proteins and via Gαi proteins; the latter receptors were identified as the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR1/2. Together, these findings demonstrate that, in breast tumors, chronic inflammation can induce the deleterious process of MSC-to-CAF conversion and thus sets pro-inflammatory mediators as key targets for inhibition, potentially leading to lower levels of pro-metastatic CAFs in breast tumors. Abstract The pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) are expressed simultaneously and have tumor-promoting roles in breast cancer. In parallel, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) undergo conversion at the tumor site to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are generally connected to enhanced tumor progression. Here, we determined the impact of consistent inflammatory stimulation on stromal cell plasticity. MSCs that were persistently stimulated by TNFα + IL-1β (generally 14–18 days) gained a CAF-like morphology …

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2021 • Light, Science & Applications

Storing and retrieving multiple images in 3D nonlinear photonic crystals

Ady Arie

A nonlinear hologram enables to record the amplitude and phase of a waveform by spatially modulating the second order nonlinear coefficient, so that when a pump laser illuminates it, this waveform is reconstructed at the second harmonic frequency. The concept was now extended to enable the generation of multiple waveforms from a single hologram, with potential applications in high density storage, quantum optics, and optical microscopy.

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2021 • Frontiers

Inflammation-driven breast tumor cell plasticity: stemness/EMT, therapy resistance and dormancy

Tamir Baram, Linor Rubinstein-Achiasaf, Hagar Ben-Yaakov, Adit Ben-Baruch

Cellular heterogeneity poses an immense therapeutic challenge in cancer due to a constant change in tumor cell characteristics, endowing cancer cells with the ability to dynamically shift between states. Intra-tumor heterogeneity is largely driven by cancer cell plasticity, demonstrated by the ability of malignant cells to acquire stemness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) properties, to develop therapy resistance and to escape dormancy. These different aspects of cancer cell remodeling are driven by intrinsic as well as by extrinsic signals, the latter being dominated by factors of the tumor microenvironment. As part of the tumor milieu, chronic inflammation is generally regarded as a most influential player that supports tumor development and progression. In this review article, we put together recent findings on the roles of inflammatory elements in driving forward key processes of tumor cell plasticity. Using breast cancer as a representative research system, we demonstrate the critical roles played by inflammation-associated myeloid cells (mainly macrophages), pro-inflammatory cytokines [such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and inflammatory chemokines [primarily CXCL8 (interleukin 8, IL-8) and CXCL1 (GROα)] in promoting tumor cell remodeling. These inflammatory components form a common thread that is involved in regulation of the three plasticity levels: stemness/EMT, therapy resistance and dormancy. In view of the fact that inflammatory elements are a common denominator shared by different aspects of tumor cell plasticity, it is possible that their targeting may have a critical clinical benefit for cancer …

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