TAU Nanocenter

128 articles

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Jul 2023 • Advanced Optical Materials

Highly efficient 3d nonlinear photonic crystals in ferroelectrics

Shan Liu, Lei Wang, Leszek Mateusz Mazur, Krzysztof Switkowski, Bingxia Wang, Feng Chen, Ady Arie, Wieslaw Krolikowski, Yan Sheng

Nonlinear photonic crystals (NPCs) with spatially modulated second‐order nonlinear coefficients are indispensable in nonlinear optics and modern photonics. To access full degrees of freedom in the generation and control of coherent light at new frequencies, three dimensional (3D) NPCs have been recently fabricated employing the femtosecond laser writing technique in ferroelectric crystals. However, the nonlinear interaction efficiencies in 3D NPCs so far are rather low, which has been a major barrier to further development. Here, fabrication challenges of large‐scale 3D NPCs have been overcome to realize more than four orders of magnitude efficiency improvement over previously reported crystals. With the generation of second harmonic vortex beam as an example, the measured conversion efficiencies as high as 2.9 × 10−6 W−1 (femtosecond pulse‐pumped) and 1.2 × 10−5 W−1 (continuous‐wave …

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Jun 2023 • Optics Express

Frequency-domain engineering of bright squeezed vacuum for continuous-variable quantum information

Inbar Hurvitz, Aviv Karnieli, Ady Arie

Multimode bright squeezed vacuum is a non-classical state of light hosting a macroscopic photon number while offering promising capacity for encoding quantum information in its spectral degree of freedom. Here, we employ an accurate model for parametric down-conversion in the high-gain regime and use nonlinear holography to design quantum correlations of bright squeezed vacuum in the frequency domain. We propose the design of quantum correlations over two-dimensional lattice geometries that are all-optically controlled, paving the way toward continuous-variable cluster state generation on an ultrafast timescale. Specifically, we investigate the generation of a square cluster state in the frequency domain and calculate its covariance matrix and the quantum nullifier uncertainties, that exhibit squeezing below the vacuum noise level.

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Jun 2023 • The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, cd_9_5, 2023

Unveiling the Volumetric Orbital Angular Momentum Density Flow of Light by Symmetry Breaking of its Second Harmonic

Ofir Yesharim, Inbar Hurvitz, Shaul Pearl, Aviv Karnieli, Ady Arie

Optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) is studied these days in numerous fundamental and applicative scenarios, including for example space division-multiplex optical communication, quantum communication and particle manipulation. The shape of OAM beams depends both on the transverse coordinates and on the propagation coordinate thus exhibiting rotational energy flows that vary in three-dimensional (3D) space [1]. Despite decades of research in the field of OAM, these 3D energy flows remained experimentally hidden. This is because symmetry breaking, that allows a glimpse to the rotational nature of these flows, changes the beam shape and destructs its original “fluid” like flow.

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May 2023 • CLEO: Fundamental Science, FM3E. 5, 2023

Universal quantum computing with anharmonic photonic cavities and free-electron ancillas

Aviv Karnieli, Shai Tsesses, Renwen Yu, Nicholas Rivera, Ady Arie, Ido Kaminer, Shanhui Fan

We propose and analyze a new paradigm for optical quantum computation using anharmonic photonic cavity qubits and free-electron ancillas. Our approach enables deterministic, high-fidelity quantum gates and preparation of cluster states between remote cavities.

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May 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2305.10248

Frequency-domain engineering of bright squeezed vacuum for continuous-variable quantum information

Inbar Hurvitz, Aviv Karnieli, Ady Arie

Multimode bright squeezed vacuum is a non-classical state of light hosting a macroscopic photon number while offering promising capacity for encoding quantum information in its spectral degree of freedom. Here, we employ an accurate model for parametric downconversion in the high-gain regime and use nonlinear holography to design quantum correlations of bright squeezed vacuum in the frequency domain. We propose the design of quantum correlations over two-dimensional lattice geometries that are all-optically controlled, paving the way toward continuous-variable cluster state generation on an ultrafast timescale. Specifically, we investigate the generation of a square cluster state in the frequency domain and calculate its covariance matrix and the quantum nullifier uncertainties, that exhibit squeezing below the vacuum noise level.

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Apr 2023 • Advanced Materials

Post‐Maturation Reinforcement of 3d‐Printed Vascularized Cardiac Tissues

Eric Silberman, Hadas Oved, Michael Namestnikov, Assaf Shapira, Tal Dvir

Despite advances in biomaterials engineering, a large gap remains between the weak mechanical properties that can be achieved with natural materials and the strength of synthetic materials. Here, we present a method for reinforcing an engineered cardiac tissue fabricated from differentiated iPSCs and an ECM‐based hydrogel in a manner that is fully biocompatible. The reinforcement occurs as a post‐fabrication step, which allows for the use of 3D printing technology to generate thick, fully cellularized, and vascularized cardiac tissues. After tissue assembly and during the maturation process in a soft hydrogel, a small, tissue‐penetrating reinforcer is deployed, leading to a significant increase in the tissue's mechanical properties. The tissue's robustness is demonstrated by injecting the tissue in a simulated minimally invasive procedure and showing that the tissue is functional and undamaged at the nano‐, micro …

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Apr 2023 • Physica Scripta

Focused polarization ellipse field singularities: Interaction of spin-orbital angular momentum and the formation of optical Möbius strips

Sushanta Kumar Pal, Lavi Somers, Rakesh Kumar Singh, P Senthilkumaran, Ady Arie

We study here the intensity distribution and formation of optical polarization Möbius strips by tightly focusing of C-point singularity beams. These beams are characterized by a central circular polarization point (C-point) surrounded by a spatially varying elliptic polarization. Under tight focusing conditions, the different polarization components of the beam interfere and exhibit clear difference between left-handed and right handed input beams. The transverse polarization distribution at the focal plane is similar to the input distribution for left-handed lemon beam, but exhibits 180 rotation for right handed lemon beam. Moreover, the longitudinal polarization component exhibits spiral phase distribution, owing to spin-orbit angular momentum conversion at the focal plane, with opposite winding directions for the left-handed and right-handed input beams. We show that the shape of the resulting Möbius strip is determined …

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Apr 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2304.06810

Designing Nonlinear Photonic Crystals for High-Dimensional Quantum State Engineering

Eyal Rozenberg, Aviv Karnieli, Ofir Yesharim, Joshua Foley-Comer, Sivan Trajtenberg-Mills, Sarika Mishra, Shashi Prabhakar, Ravindra Pratap, Daniel Freedman, Alex M Bronstein, Ady Arie

We propose a novel, physically-constrained and differentiable approach for the generation of D-dimensional qudit states via spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in quantum optics. We circumvent any limitations imposed by the inherently stochastic nature of the physical process and incorporate a set of stochastic dynamical equations governing its evolution under the SPDC Hamiltonian. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model through the design of structured nonlinear photonic crystals (NLPCs) and shaped pump beams; and show, theoretically and experimentally, how to generate maximally entangled states in the spatial degree of freedom. The learning of NLPC structures offers a promising new avenue for shaping and controlling arbitrary quantum states and enables all-optical coherent control of the generated states. We believe that this approach can readily be extended from bulky crystals to thin Metasurfaces and potentially applied to other quantum systems sharing a similar Hamiltonian structures, such as superfluids and superconductors.

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Apr 2023 • Advanced Materials

Post‐maturation reinforcement of 3D‐printed vascularized cardiac tissues

Eric Silberman, Hadas Oved, Michael Namestnikov, Assaf Shapira, Tal Dvir

Despite advances in biomaterials engineering, a large gap remains between the weak mechanical properties that can be achieved with natural materials and the strength of synthetic materials. Here, we present a method for reinforcing an engineered cardiac tissue fabricated from differentiated iPSCs and an ECM‐based hydrogel in a manner that is fully biocompatible. The reinforcement occurs as a post‐fabrication step, which allows for the use of 3D printing technology to generate thick, fully cellularized, and vascularized cardiac tissues. After tissue assembly and during the maturation process in a soft hydrogel, a small, tissue‐penetrating reinforcer is deployed, leading to a significant increase in the tissue's mechanical properties. The tissue's robustness is demonstrated by injecting the tissue in a simulated minimally invasive procedure and showing that the tissue is functional and undamaged at the nano‐, micro …

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Apr 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2304.06810

Designing nonlinear photonic crystals for high-dimensional quantum state engineering

Eyal Rozenberg, Aviv Karnieli, Ofir Yesharim, Joshua Foley-Comer, Sivan Trajtenberg-Mills, Sarika Mishra, Shashi Prabhakar, Ravindra Pratap, Daniel Freedman, Alex M Bronstein, Ady Arie

We propose a novel, physically-constrained and differentiable approach for the generation of D-dimensional qudit states via spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in quantum optics. We circumvent any limitations imposed by the inherently stochastic nature of the physical process and incorporate a set of stochastic dynamical equations governing its evolution under the SPDC Hamiltonian. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model through the design of structured nonlinear photonic crystals (NLPCs) and shaped pump beams; and show, theoretically and experimentally, how to generate maximally entangled states in the spatial degree of freedom. The learning of NLPC structures offers a promising new avenue for shaping and controlling arbitrary quantum states and enables all-optical coherent control of the generated states. We believe that this approach can readily be extended from bulky crystals to thin Metasurfaces and potentially applied to other quantum systems sharing a similar Hamiltonian structures, such as superfluids and superconductors.

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Apr 2023 • Pharmaceutics

Imageable AuNP-ECM Hydrogel Tissue Implants for Regenerative Medicine

Malka Shilo, Ester-Sapir Baruch, Lior Wertheim, Hadas Oved, Assaf Shapira, Tal Dvir

In myocardial infarction, a blockage in one of the coronary arteries leads to ischemic conditions in the left ventricle of the myocardium and, therefore, to significant death of contractile cardiac cells. This process leads to the formation of scar tissue, which reduces heart functionality. Cardiac tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary technology that treats the injured myocardium and improves its functionality. However, in many cases, mainly when employing injectable hydrogels, the treatment may be partial because it does not fully cover the diseased area and, therefore, may not be effective and even cause conduction disorders. Here, we report a hybrid nanocomposite material composed of gold nanoparticles and an extracellular matrix-based hydrogel. Such a hybrid hydrogel could support cardiac cell growth and promote cardiac tissue assembly. After injection of the hybrid material into the diseased area of the heart, it could be efficiently imaged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, as the scar tissue could also be detected by MRI, a distinction between the diseased area and the treatment could be made, providing information about the ability of the hydrogel to cover the scar. We envision that such a nanocomposite hydrogel may improve the accuracy of tissue engineering treatment.

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Mar 2023 • arXiv e-prints

Additive manufacturing of solid diffractive optical elements via near index matching

Reut Kedem Orange, Nadav Opatovski, Dafei Xiao, Boris Ferdman, Onit Alalouf, Sushanta Kumar Pal, Ziyun Wang, Henrik von der Emde, Michael Weber, Steffen J Sahl, Aleks Ponjavic, Ady Arie, Stefan W Hell, Yoav Shechtman

Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have a wide range of applications in optics and photonics, thanks to their capability to perform complex wavefront shaping in a compact form. However, widespread applicability of DOEs is still limited, because existing fabrication methods are cumbersome and expensive. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective fabrication approach for solid, high-performance DOEs. The method is based on conjugating two nearly refractive index-matched solidifiable transparent materials. The index matching allows for extreme scaling up of the elements in the axial dimension, which enables simple fabrication of a template using commercially available 3D printing at tens-of-micrometer resolution. We demonstrated the approach by fabricating and using DOEs serving as microlens arrays, vortex plates, including for highly sensitive applications such as vector beam generation and super …

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Mar 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2303.13275

Universal and ultrafast quantum computation based on free-electron-polariton blockade

Aviv Karnieli, Shai Tsesses, Renwen Yu, Nicholas Rivera, Ady Arie, Ido Kaminer, Shanhui Fan

Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), wherein a quantum emitter is coupled to electromagnetic cavity modes, is a powerful platform for implementing quantum sensors, memories, and networks. However, due to the fundamental tradeoff between gate fidelity and execution time, as well as limited scalability, the use of cavity-QED for quantum computation was overtaken by other architectures. Here, we introduce a new element into cavity-QED - a free charged particle, acting as a flying qubit. Using free electrons as a specific example, we demonstrate that our approach enables ultrafast, deterministic and universal discrete-variable quantum computation in a cavity-QED-based architecture, with potentially improved scalability. Our proposal hinges on a novel excitation blockade mechanism in a resonant interaction between a free-electron and a cavity polariton. This nonlinear interaction is faster by several orders of magnitude with respect to current photon-based cavity-QED gates, enjoys wide tunability and can demonstrate fidelities close to unity. Furthermore, our scheme is ubiquitous to any cavity nonlinearity, either due to light-matter coupling as in the Jaynes-Cummings model or due to photon-photon interactions as in a Kerr-type many-body system. In addition to promising advancements in cavity-QED quantum computation, our approach paves the way towards ultrafast and deterministic generation of highly-entangled photonic graph states and is applicable to other quantum technologies involving cavity-QED.

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Mar 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2303.15197

Additive manufacturing of solid diffractive optical elements via near index matching

Reut Kedem Orange, Nadav Opatovski, Dafei Xiao, Boris Ferdman, Onit Alalouf, Sushanta Kumar Pal, Ziyun Wang, Henrik von der Emde, Michael Weber, Steffen J Sahl, Aleks Ponjavic, Ady Arie, Stefan W Hell, Yoav Shechtman

Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have a wide range of applications in optics and photonics, thanks to their capability to perform complex wavefront shaping in a compact form. However, widespread applicability of DOEs is still limited, because existing fabrication methods are cumbersome and expensive. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective fabrication approach for solid, high-performance DOEs. The method is based on conjugating two nearly refractive index-matched solidifiable transparent materials. The index matching allows for extreme scaling up of the elements in the axial dimension, which enables simple fabrication of a template using commercially available 3D printing at tens-of-micrometer resolution. We demonstrated the approach by fabricating and using DOEs serving as microlens arrays, vortex plates, including for highly sensitive applications such as vector beam generation and super-resolution microscopy using MINSTED, and phase-masks for three-dimensional single-molecule localization microscopy. Beyond the advantage of making DOEs widely accessible by drastically simplifying their production, the method also overcomes difficulties faced by existing methods in fabricating highly complex elements, such as high-order vortex plates, and spectrum-encoding phase masks for microscopy.

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Mar 2023 • Physica Scripta

Focused polarization ellipse field singularities: interaction of spin-orbital angular momentum and the formation of optical Möbius strips

Sushanta Kumar Pal, Lavi Somers, Rakesh Kumar Singh, Paramasivam Senthilkumaran, Ady Arie

We study here the intensity distribution and formation of optical polarization Mobius strips by tightly focusing of C-point singularity beams. These beams are characterized by a central circular polarization point (C-point) surrounded by a spatially varying elliptic polarization. Under tight focusing conditions, the different polarization components of the beam interfere and exhibit clear difference between left-handed and right handed input beams. The transverse polarization distribution at the focal plane is similar to the input distribution for left-handed lemon beam, but exhibits 180 degree rotation for right handed lemon beam. Moreover, the longitudinal polarization component exhibits spiral phase distribution, owing to spin-orbit angular momentum conversion at the focal plane, with opposite winding directions for the left-handed and right-handed input beams. We show that the shape of the resulting Mobius strip is …

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Mar 2023 • Physica Scripta

Observation of Bohm trajectories and quantum potentials of classical waves

Georgi Gary Rozenman, Denys I Bondar, Wolfgang P Schleich, Lev Shemer, Ady Arie

In 1952 David Bohm proposed an interpretation of quantum mechanics, in which the evolution of states results from trajectories governed by classical equations of motion but with an additional potential determined by the wave function. There exist only a few experiments that test this concept and they employed weak measurement of non-classical light. In contrast, we reconstruct the Bohm trajectories in a classical hydrodynamic system of surface gravity water waves, by a direct measurement of the wave packet. Our system is governed by a wave equation that is analogous to the Schrödinger equation which enables us to transfer the Bohm formalism to classical waves. In contrast to a quantum system, we can measure simultaneously their amplitude and phase. In our experiments, we employ three characteristic types of surface gravity water wave packets: two and three Gaussian temporal slits and temporal Airy …

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Mar 2023 • ICLR 2023 Workshop on Physics for Machine Learning, 2023

A Machine Learning Approach to Generate Quantum Light

Eyal Rozenberg, Aviv Karnieli, Ofir Yesharim, Joshua Foley-Comer, Sivan Trajtenberg-Mills, Sarika Mishra, Shashi Prabhakar, Ravindra Pratap Singh, Daniel Freedman, Alex M Bronstein, Ady Arie

Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) is a key technique in quantum optics used to generate entangled photon pairs. However, generating a desirable D-dimensional qudit state in the SPDC process remains a challenge. In this paper, we introduce a physically-constrained and differentiable model to overcome this challenge, and demonstrate its effectiveness through the design of shaped pump beams and structured nonlinear photonic crystals. We avoid any restrictions induced by the stochastic nature of our physical process and integrate a set of stochastic dynamical equations governing its evolution under the SPDC Hamiltonian. Our model is capable of learning the relevant interaction parameters and designing nonlinear quantum optical systems that achieve desired quantum states. We show, theoretically and experimentally, how to generate maximally entangled states in the spatial degree of freedom. Additionally, we demonstrate all-optical coherent control of the generated state by reshaping the pump beam. Our work has potential applications in high-dimensional quantum key distribution and quantum information processing.

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Feb 2023 • Science Advances

Direct generation of spatially entangled qudits using quantum nonlinear optical holography

Ofir Yesharim, Shaul Pearl, Joshua Foley-Comer, Irit Juwiler, Ady Arie

Nonlinear holography shapes the amplitude and phase of generated new harmonics using nonlinear processes. Classical nonlinear holography influenced many fields in optics, from information storage, demultiplexing of spatial information, and all-optical control of accelerating beams. Here, we extend the concept of nonlinear holography to the quantum regime. We directly shape the spatial quantum correlations of entangled photon pairs in two-dimensional patterned nonlinear photonic crystals using spontaneous parametric down conversion, without any pump shaping. The generated signal-idler pair obeys a parity conservation law that is governed by the nonlinear crystal. Furthermore, the quantum states exhibit quantum correlations and violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, thus enabling entanglement-based quantum key distribution. Our demonstration paves the way for controllable on-chip …

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Feb 2023 • ACS ES&T Engineering

Passive Ozone Injection through Gas-Permeable Membranes for Advanced In Situ Groundwater Remediation

Anwar Dawas, Yinon Yecheskel, Emil Bein, Uwe Hübner, Ines Zucker

In this work, we examine an alternative ozone delivery method for groundwater remediation using permeable membranes. A cylindrical polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was used for passive ozone injection in a two-dimensional system simulating in situ groundwater treatment. Liquid velocity and presence of ozone consumers (e.g., nitrite) were found to regulate the ozone diffusion rate through the membrane and the resultant dissolved ozone concentration. A higher liquid velocity (examined in a 340–920 cm day–1 range) resulted in an increase in ozone diffusion rates (up to 2 μmol s–1 m–2) and a decrease in dissolved ozone concentration due to a dilution effect. Similarly, increasing the nitrite concentration from 0.5 to 25 mM enhanced the ozone diffusion rate by up to 5.64 μmol s–1 m–2. To examine the membrane performance, carbamazepine was used as a fast-reacting model pollutant. Up to 80 …

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Feb 2023 • Science Advances

Direct generation of spatially entangled qudits using quantum nonlinear optical holography

Ofir Yesharim, Shaul Pearl, Joshua Foley-Comer, Irit Juwiler, Ady Arie

Nonlinear holography shapes the amplitude and phase of generated new harmonics using nonlinear processes. Classical nonlinear holography influenced many fields in optics, from information storage, demultiplexing of spatial information, and all-optical control of accelerating beams. Here, we extend the concept of nonlinear holography to the quantum regime. We directly shape the spatial quantum correlations of entangled photon pairs in two-dimensional patterned nonlinear photonic crystals using spontaneous parametric down conversion, without any pump shaping. The generated signal-idler pair obeys a parity conservation law that is governed by the nonlinear crystal. Furthermore, the quantum states exhibit quantum correlations and violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, thus enabling entanglement-based quantum key distribution. Our demonstration paves the way for controllable on-chip …

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Feb 2023 • ACS ES&T Engineering

Passive Ozone Injection through Gas-Permeable Membranes for Advanced In Situ Groundwater Remediation

Anwar Dawas, Yinon Yecheskel, Emil Bein, Uwe Hübner, Ines Zucker

In this work, we examine an alternative ozone delivery method for groundwater remediation using permeable membranes. A cylindrical polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was used for passive ozone injection in a two-dimensional system simulating in situ groundwater treatment. Liquid velocity and presence of ozone consumers (e.g., nitrite) were found to regulate the ozone diffusion rate through the membrane and the resultant dissolved ozone concentration. A higher liquid velocity (examined in a 340–920 cm day–1 range) resulted in an increase in ozone diffusion rates (up to 2 μmol s–1 m–2) and a decrease in dissolved ozone concentration due to a dilution effect. Similarly, increasing the nitrite concentration from 0.5 to 25 mM enhanced the ozone diffusion rate by up to 5.64 μmol s–1 m–2. To examine the membrane performance, carbamazepine was used as a fast-reacting model pollutant. Up to 80 …

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