TAU Nanocenter

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Oct 2021 • ACS ES&T Water

Ozone Consumption by Soils: A Critical Factor in In Situ Ozonation Processes

Zhian Ying, Yinon Yecheskel, Mingxin Huo, Uwe Hübner, Ines Zucker

In situ chemical ozonation (ISCO3), in which gaseous ozone is being injected into the subsurface, is a common method for remediating contaminated groundwater that is largely affected by the inevitable consumption of ozone by soil itself (rather than the target contaminants). In this study, ozone consumption by two main soil types of Israeli coastline aquifer was examined. Iron-rich soil showed considerably higher reactivity than did calcareous soil. We further investigated the effect of both physical and chemical soil characteristics on finite and catalytic ozone decay, hydroxyl-radical formation, and ozone transport behavior. Ozone consumption increased by >90% in the presence of fine soil particles (<100 μm), resulting from the large number of reactive sites and the higher content of ozone consumers compared to coarse soil particles. Soil organic matter consumed ozone twice as fast as iron components, promoted …

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Sep 2021 • Science of The Total Environment 788, 147670, 2021

Questioning the suitability of available microplastics models for risk assessment–A critical review

Andrey Ethan Rubin, Amit Kumar Sarkar, Ines Zucker

The rise of microplastic (MP) pollution in the environment has been bolstering concerns regarding MPs' unknown environmental fate, transport, and potential toxicity toward living forms. However, the use of real environmental plastics for risk assessment is often hindered due to technical and practical challenges such as plastics' heterogeneity and their wide size distribution in the environment. To overcome this issue, most available data in the field is generated using plastic models as surrogates for environmental samples. In this critical review, we describe the gaps in risk assessments drawn from these plastic models. Specifically, we compare physicochemical properties of real environmental plastic particles to synthesized polymeric micro-beads, one of the most commonly used plastic models in current literature. Several surface and bulk characteristics including size, surface chemistry, polymer type, and …

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Aug 2021 • Science

Imprinting the quantum statistics of photons on free electrons

Raphael Dahan, Alexey Gorlach, Urs Haeusler, Aviv Karnieli, Ori Eyal, Peyman Yousefi, Mordechai Segev, Ady Arie, Gadi Eisenstein, Peter Hommelhoff, Ido Kaminer

The interaction between free electrons and light stands at the base of both classical and quantum physics, with applications in free-electron acceleration, radiation sources, and electron microscopy. Yet to this day, all experiments involving free-electron–light interactions are fully explained by describing the light as a classical wave. We observed quantum statistics effects of photons on free-electron–light interactions. We demonstrate interactions that pass continuously from Poissonian to super-Poissonian and up to thermal statistics, revealing a transition from quantum walk to classical random walk on the free-electron energy ladder. The electron walker serves as the probe in nondestructive quantum detection, measuring the second-order photon-correlation g(2)(0) and higher-orders g(n)(0). Unlike conventional quantum-optical detectors, the electron can perform both quantum weak measurements and projective …

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Aug 2021 • Nature Reviews Cardiology, 1-17, 2021

Bioengineering approaches to treat the failing heart: from cell biology to 3D printing

Moran Yadid, Hadas Oved, Eric Silberman, Tal Dvir

Aug 2021 • Physical Review Letters

Superradiance and subradiance due to quantum interference of entangled free electrons

Aviv Karnieli, Nicholas Rivera, Ady Arie, Ido Kaminer

When multiple quantum emitters radiate, their emission rate may be enhanced or suppressed due to collective interference in a process known as super-or subradiance. Such processes are well known to occur also in light emission from free electrons, known as coherent cathodoluminescence. Unlike atomic systems, free electrons have an unbounded energy spectrum, and, thus, all their emission mechanisms rely on electron recoil, in addition to the classical properties of the dielectric medium. To date, all experimental and theoretical studies of super-and subradiance from free electrons assumed only classical correlations between particles. However, dependence on quantum correlations, such as entanglement between free electrons, has not been studied. Recent advances in coherent shaping of free-electron wave functions motivate the investigation of such quantum regimes of super-and subradiance. In this …

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Aug 2021 • Nonlinear Optics, NM2B. 2, 2021

High efficiency generation of path entangled bi-photons directly from 2D poled nonlinear crystal

Giuseppe Di Domenico, Shaul Pearl, Aviv Karnieli, Sivan Trajtenberg-Mills, Irit Juwiler, Hagai S Eisenberg, Ady Arie

A new photonic N00N state source is presented, where the two entangled photons are directly generated at a spatially shaped periodically poled nonlinear crystal. An interference experiment shows the super resolution that characterize such states.

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Jul 2021 • Physical Review Letters

Diffractive guiding of waves by a periodic array of slits

Dror Weisman, C Moritz Carmesin, Georgi Gary Rozenman, Maxim A Efremov, Lev Shemer, Wolfgang P Schleich, Ady Arie

We show that in order to guide waves, it is sufficient to periodically truncate their edges. The modes supported by this type of wave guide propagate freely between the slits, and the propagation pattern repeats itself. We experimentally demonstrate this general wave phenomenon for two types of waves:(i) plasmonic waves propagating on a metal-air interface that are periodically blocked by nanometric metallic walls, and (ii) surface gravity water waves whose evolution is recorded, the packet is truncated, and generated again to show repeated patterns. This guiding concept is applicable for a wide variety of waves.

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Jul 2021 • Advanced Materials

Nanoengineered Peptide‐Based Antimicrobial Conductive Supramolecular Biomaterial for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

Priyadarshi Chakraborty, Hadas Oved, Darya Bychenko, Yifei Yao, Yiming Tang, Shai Zilberzwige‐Tal, Guanghong Wei, Tal Dvir, Ehud Gazit

Owing to their dynamic nature and ordered architecture, supramolecular materials strikingly resemble organic components of living systems. Although short‐peptide self‐assembled nanostructured hydrogels are regarded as intriguing supramolecular materials for biotechnology, their application is often limited due to their low stability and considerable challenge of combining other desirable properties. Herein, a di‐Fmoc‐based hydrogelator containing the cell‐adhesive Arg–Gly–Asp (RGD) fragment that forms a mechanically stable, self‐healing hydrogel is designed. Molecular dynamics simulation reveals the presence of RGD segments on the surface of the hydrogel fibers, highlighting their cell adherence capacity. Aiming to impart conductivity, the 3D network of the hydrogel is further nanoengineered by incorporating polyaniline (PAni). The composite hydrogels demonstrate semiconductivity, excellent …

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Jul 2021 • Environmental science & technology

Engineered Polystyrene-Based Microplastics of High Environmental Relevance

Amit Kumar Sarkar, Andrey Ethan Rubin, Ines Zucker

Microplastic (MP) pollution—an emerging environmental challenge of the 21st century—refers to accumulation of environmentally weathered polymer-based particles with potential environmental and health risks. Because of technical and practical challenges when using environmental MPs for risk assessment, most available data are generated using plastic models of limited environmental relevancy (i.e., with physicochemical characteristics inherently different from those of environmental MPs). In this study, we assess the effect of dominant weathering conditions—including thermal, photo-, and mechanical degradation—on surface and bulk characteristics of polystyrene (PS)-based single-use products. Further, we augment the environmental relevance of model-enabled risk assessment through the design of engineered MPs. A set of optimized laboratory-based weathering conditions demonstrated a synergetic …

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Jun 2021 • The European Physical Journal Special Topics

Projectile motion of surface gravity water wave packets: An analogy to quantum mechanics

Georgi Gary Rozenman, Matthias Zimmermann, Maxim A Efremov, Wolfgang P Schleich, William B Case, Daniel M Greenberger, Lev Shemer, Ady Arie

We study phase contributions of wave functions that occur in the evolution of Gaussian surface gravity water wave packets with nonzero initial momenta propagating in the presence and absence of an effective external linear potential. Our approach takes advantage of the fact that in contrast to matter waves, water waves allow us to measure both their amplitudes and phases.

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Jun 2021 • Cells

Continuous Inflammatory Stimulation Leads via Metabolic Plasticity to a Prometastatic Phenotype in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

Dina Morein, Linor Rubinstein-Achiasaf, Hadar Brayer, Orly Dorot, Edward Pichinuk, Hagar Ben-Yaakov, Tsipi Meshel, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Adit Ben-Baruch

Chronic inflammation promotes cancer progression by affecting the tumor cells and their microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that a continuous stimulation (~6 weeks) of triple-negative breast tumor cells (TNBC) by the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) + interleukin 1β (IL-1β) changed the expression of hundreds of genes, skewing the cells towards a proinflammatory phenotype. While not affecting stemness, the continuous TNFα + IL-1β stimulation has increased tumor cell dispersion and has induced a hybrid metabolic phenotype in TNBC cells; this phenotype was indicated by a transcription-independent elevation in glycolytic activity and by increased mitochondrial respiratory potential (OXPHOS) of TNBC cells, accompanied by elevated transcription of mitochondria-encoded OXPHOS genes and of active mitochondria area. The continuous TNFα + IL-1β stimulation has promoted in a glycolysis-dependent manner the activation of p65 (NF-κB), and the transcription and protein expression of the prometastatic and proinflammatory mediators sICAM-1, CCL2, CXCL8 and CXCL1. Moreover, when TNBC cells were stimulated continuously by TNFα + IL-1β in the presence of a glycolysis inhibitor, their conditioned media had reduced ability to recruit monocytes and neutrophils in vivo. Such inflammation-induced metabolic plasticity, which promotes prometastatic cascades in TNBC, may have important clinical implications in treatment of TNBC patients.

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Jun 2021 • Chemical Engineering Journal 413, 127393, 2021

Ozone membrane contactors for water and wastewater treatment: A critical review on materials selection, mass transfer and process design

Emil Bein, Ines Zucker, Jörg E Drewes, Uwe Huebner

Gas-liquid membrane contactors are frequently proposed as promising alternative for traditional ozone injection methods in water treatment. However, information on successfully implemented large-scale applications is scarce. This review discusses the state of research of ozone membrane contactors for water and wastewater applications with a focus on material stability, mass transfer performance and process design. It aims to identify favorable operating conditions, the benefits compared to traditional injection methods and critical aspects for upscaling. Reported experimental ozone mass transfer coefficients (K) in hollow fiber and single tube contactors were analyzed for relevant influential parameters and compared to calculations using the Lévêque solution and the Kreulen modification. Volumetric mass transfer coefficients (Kas) were used for comparison with other ozone delivery methods. Differences …

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Jun 2021 • Cells

Chemotherapy Shifts the Balance in Favor of CD8+ TNFR2+ TILs in Triple-Negative Breast Tumors

Tamir Baram, Nofar Erlichman, Maya Dadiani, Nora Balint-Lahat, Anya Pavlovski, Tsipi Meshel, Dana Morzaev-Sulzbach, Einav Nili Gal-Yam, Iris Barshack, Adit Ben-Baruch

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is primarily treated via chemotherapy; in parallel, efforts are made to introduce immunotherapies into TNBC treatment. CD4+ TNFR2+ lymphocytes were reported as Tregs that contribute to tumor progression. However, our published study indicated that TNFR2+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TNFR2+ TILs) were associated with improved survival in TNBC patient tumors. Based on our analyses of the contents of CD4+ and CD8+ TILs in TNBC patient tumors, in the current study, we determined the impact of chemotherapy on CD4+ and CD8+ TIL subsets in TNBC mouse tumors. We found that chemotherapy led to (1) a reduction in CD4+ TNFR2+ FOXP3+ TILs, indicating that chemotherapy decreased the content of CD4+ TNFR2+ Tregs, and (2) an elevation in CD8+ TNFR2+ and CD8+ TNFR2+ PD-1+ TILs; high levels of these two subsets were significantly associated with reduced tumor growth. In spleens of tumor-bearing mice, chemotherapy down-regulated CD4+ TNFR2+ FOXP3+ cells but the subset of CD8+ TNFR2+ PD-1+ was not present prior to chemotherapy and was not increased by the treatment. Thus, our data suggest that chemotherapy promotes the proportion of protective CD8+ TNFR2+ TILs and that, unlike other cancer types, therapeutic strategies directed against TNFR2 may be detrimental in TNBC.

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May 2021 • 2021 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 1-2, 2021

Inverse design of quantum holograms in three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals

Eyal Rozenberg, Aviv Karnieli, Ofir Yesharim, Sivan Trajtenberg-Mills, Daniel Freedman, Alex M Bronstein, Ady Arie

We introduce a systematic approach for designing 3D nonlinear photonic crystals and pump beams for generating desired quantum correlations between structured photon-pairs. Our model is fully differentiable, allowing accurate and efficient learning and discovery of novel designs.

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May 2021 • 2021 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 1-2, 2021

The Temporal Talbot Effect on the Surface of Water

Georgi Gary Rozenman, Lev Shemer, Matthias Zimmermann, Maxim A Efremov, Wolfgang P Schleich, Ady Arie

We study the evolution of linear and nonlinear Talbot carpets emerging in surface gravity water waves. In our measurements, we are able to record both amplitude and phase of the Temporal Talbot effect.

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May 2021 • 2021 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 1-2, 2021

Smith-Purcell Metasurface Lens

Aviv Karnieli, Dolev Roitman, Matthias Liebtrau, Shai Tsesses, Nika Van Nielen, Albert Polman, Ido Kaminer, Ady Arie

We demonstrate focused emission of visible and near-infrared Smith-Purcell radiation by a free-electron-driven metasurface lens emitter. Our findings pave the way for free-electron light sources focusing at wavelengths lacking efficient optics.

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May 2021 • Advanced Science 8 (10), 2003751, 2021

3D tissue and organ printing—hope and reality

Assaf Shapira, Tal Dvir

Three‐dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging, groundbreaking strategy in tissue engineering, allowing the fabrication of living constructs with an unprecedented degree of complexity and accuracy. While this technique greatly facilitates the structuring of native tissue‐like architectures, many challenges still remain to be faced. In this review, the fruits of recent research that demonstrate how advanced bioprinting technologies, together with inspiring creativity, can be used to address these challenges are presented and discussed. Next, the future of the field is discussed, in terms of expected developments, as well as possible directions toward the realization of the vision of fully functional, engineered tissues, and organs. Last, a few hypothetical scenarios for the role 3D bioprinting may play in future tissue engineering are depicted, with an emphasis on its impact on tomorrow's regenerative medicine.

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May 2021 • 2021 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 1-2, 2021

Superradiant and subradiant light emission from entangled free electrons

Aviv Karnieli, Nicholas Rivera, Ido Kaminer, Ady Arie

We show how quantum correlations such as entanglement give rise to a new quantum regime of superradaince and subradiance from free-electrons, demonstrating that light emission can be sensitive to the quantum state of many-body wavefunctions.

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May 2021 • CLEO: QELS_Fundamental Science, FTh1J. 1, 2021

Experimental Observation of the Stern Gerlach Effect in Nonlinear Optics

Ofir Yesharim, Aviv Karnieli, Giuseppe Di Domenico, Sivan Trajtenberg-Mills, Ady Arie

The optical analogue of the Stern Gerlach effect is experimentally demonstrated, using the sum frequency generation process, whereby a light beam is deflected into two distinct angles owing to a gradient in the nonlinear coupling.

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May 2021 • CLEO: QELS_Fundamental Science, FTh1J. 2, 2021

Nonlinear optical spintronics: topological Hall effect and Anderson localization

Aviv Karnieli, Shai Tsesses, Ido Kaminer, Guy Bartal, Ady Arie

We propose nonlinear optical systems that are analogous to spin-transport in magnetic materials. We find a topological Hall effect for light in skyrmionic nonlinear photonic crystals, and spin-Anderson localization in optical spin-glass.

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May 2021 • Advanced Science

One‐Step 3D Printing of Heart Patches with Built‐In Electronics for Performance Regulation

Masha Asulin, Idan Michael, Assaf Shapira, Tal Dvir

Three dimensional (3D) printing of heart patches usually provides the ability to precisely control cell location in 3D space. Here, one‐step 3D printing of cardiac patches with built‐in soft and stretchable electronics is reported. The tissue is simultaneously printed using three distinct bioinks for the cells, for the conducting parts of the electronics and for the dielectric components. It is shown that the hybrid system can withstand continuous physical deformations as those taking place in the contracting myocardium. The electronic patch is flexible, stretchable, and soft, and the electrodes within the printed patch are able to monitor the function of the engineered tissue by providing extracellular potentials. Furthermore, the system allowed controlling tissue function by providing electrical stimulation for pacing. It is envisioned that such transplantable patches may regain heart contractility and allow the physician to monitor the …

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