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Mar 2019 • 2019 12th German Microwave Conference (GeMiC), 170-173, 2019

Sinc-shaped, Nyquist Channel Demultiplexing with Silicon Photonics

Arijit Misra, Dvir Munk, Moshe Katzman, Stefan Preubler, Avi Zadok, Thomas Schneider

Sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses have a rectangular spectrum. In the spectral domain, adjacent Nyquist wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) channels can be multiplexed without any guard band. Theoretically, they can be used to transmit the maximum possible symbol and data rate. The demultiplexing of channels requires filters with transfer functions that are as close as possible to rectangular shapes. Here we present the successful demultiplexing of rectangular-shaped optical Nyquist dense wavelength division multiplexed channels, modulated with an advanced modulation format, with an eight-channel integrated silicon photonics device.

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Mar 2019 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVI …, 2019

Development of local surface plasmon resonance sensor using gold nanoparticles

Marianna Beiderman, Menachem Motiei, Rachela Popovtzer, Dror Fixler

The healthcare industry is moving towards personalized medicine and patients seek greater role in their care. In this paper we describe a proof of concept of versatile optical sensor that potentially can be used for in vivo detection of biological events. The developed sensor comprises of a silver thin film glass slide and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and allows detection of chemical changes using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and fluorescence lifetime detection modalities. A change in spectrum was observed after removal of GNPs by 2-mercaptoethanol. Moreover, GNP conjugated to fluorescein were tested using fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) to enhance sensing capabilities and provide additional dimension for detection. The sensor has the potential to provide real-time analyses of different biological molecules, such as antibody and antigen, receptor and …

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Mar 2019 • International Society for Optics and Photonics

Speckle based sensing of chemicals by an acoustic excitation in aqueous solutions

Hadar Genish, Nisan Ozana, Zeev Zalevsky

The optical activity of glucose in aqueous solutions offers a very high specificity in detecting the presence of glucose. In this presentation we will present several concepts for non-invasive detection of glucose, being realized in-vitro as well as in-vivo. In all cases the sensing concept is based upon analysis of time changing spatial statistics of back scattered speckle patterns when being analyzed by properly defocused optics. We will focus on an experimental approach in which we try to employ contactless measurement of acoustic excitations in solutions containing various chemical while using analysis of those time changing speckle pattern. Solutions containing glucose should response differently than those where glucose is absent. To perform this measurement, we excited acoustic waves in a solution and measured the changes in the speckle pattern. The basic concept is that while the solution is acoustically …

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Mar 2019 • Optical, Opto-Atomic, and Entanglement-Enhanced Precision Metrology 10934 …, 2019

Squeezing enhanced Raman spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

Yoad Michael, Michael Rosenbluh, Avi Pe'er

The sensitivity of coherent Raman spectroscopy methods such as Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (SRS) or Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), is ultimately limited by shot noise from the stimulating fields. We present sub-shot-noise and background-free squeezed-light Raman spectroscopy, where the resonant Raman gain of the sample is enhanced by the quantum squeezing of two parametric amplifiers, while the nonresonant background of the Raman response in the sample is eliminated by destructive interference. Our configuration incorporates the Raman sample between two parametric amplifiers that squeeze the light in orthogonal quadrature axes (forming a nonlinear SU(1,1) interferometer), where the presence of a resonant Raman response induces a nonlinear phase shift, which can be measured below the shot-noise limit due to the squeezed illumination. Seeding the interferometer …

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Mar 2019 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVI …, 2019

Fluorescence depolarization studies of heteroatom-doped CDs

M Chenchiliyan, HK Sadhanala, K Sharma, A Le Marois, A Gedanken, ...

In this work, we exploited time-resolved fluorescence polarization anisotropy (TRFA) to characterize un-doped and doped carbon dots (CDs). The rotational correlation time related to the size of the particle through classical Stokes-Einstein -Debye equation. The TRFA technique applied in this study achieves picoseconds time resolution, which approximately corresponds to the particle size determination at sub-nanometer precision. The calculated diameter of the CDs from the measured depolarization time constants in aqueous solution is well matches with the actual size of the CDs within the precision. This study proves that the TRFA method is highly complementary with other size determination techniques.

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Mar 2019 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVI …, 2019

Development of local surface plasmon resonance sensor using gold nanoparticles

M Beiderman, M Motiei, R Popovtzer, D Fixler

The healthcare industry is moving towards personalized medicine and patients seek greater role in their care. In this paper we describe a proof of concept of versatile optical sensor that potentially can be used for in vivo detection of biological events. The developed sensor comprises of a silver thin film glass slide and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and allows detection of chemical changes using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and fluorescence lifetime detection modalities. A change in spectrum was observed after removal of GNPs by 2-mercaptoethanol. Moreover, GNP conjugated to fluorescein were tested using fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) to enhance sensing capabilities and provide additional dimension for detection. The sensor has the potential to provide real-time analyses of different biological molecules, such as antibody and antigen, receptor and …

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Mar 2019 • arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.11954

Solar Energy Conversion and the Shockley-Queisser Model, a Guide for the Perplexed

Jean-Francois Guillemoles, Thomas Kirchartz, David Cahen, Uwe Rau

The Shockley-Queisser model is a landmark in photovoltaic device analysis by defining an ideal situation as reference for actual solar cells. However, the model and its implications are easily misunderstood. Thus, we present a guide to help understand and avoid misinterpreting it. Focusing on the five assumptions, underlying the model, we define figures of merit to quantify how close real solar cells approach each of these assumptions.

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Mar 2019 • Optical, Opto-Atomic, and Entanglement-Enhanced Precision Metrology 10934 …, 2019

Interaction-free ghost-imaging of structured objects (Conference Presentation)

Yingwen Zhang, Alicia Sit, Frédéric Bouchard, Hugo Larocque, Eliahu Cohen, Avshalom C Elitzur, James L Harden, Robert W Boyd, Ebrahim Karimi

Correlated light (either classical or quantum) can be employed in various ways to improve resolution and measurement sensitivity. In an “interaction-free” measurement, a single photon can be used to reveal the presence of an object placed within one arm of an interferometer without being absorbed by it. This method has previously been applied to imaging. With a technique known as “ghost imaging”, entangled photon pairs are used for detecting an opaque object with significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio while preventing over-illumination. Here, we integrate these two methods to obtain a new imaging technique which we term “interaction-free ghost-imaging” that possesses the benefits of both techniques. While improving the image quality of conventional ghost-imaging, this new technique is also sensitive to phase and polarization changes in the photons introduced by a structured object. Furthermore …

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Mar 2019 • arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.01349

Knowledge of Quantum Hidden Variables Enables Backwards-In-Time Signaling

Avishy Carmi, Eliahu Cohen, Lorenzo Maccone, Hrvoje Nikolic


Mar 2019 • Reporters, Markers, Dyes, Nanoparticles, and Molecular Probes for Biomedical …, 2019

Predicting treatment outcome and enhancing immunotherapy with anti-PDL1 gold nanoparticles

Rinat Meir, Katerina Shamalov, Cyrille J Cohen, Rachela Popovtzer

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has shown unprecedented clinical success in treatment of cancer. However, not all patients show adequate response, and the treatment can lead to a broad range of adverse effects. Therefore, early identification of potential responders to therapy, using non-invasive means, is a critical challenge for improving ICB. Herein, we engineered anti-Programmed Death Ligand 1 (aPDL1) nanoparticles with enhanced ICB immunotherapy efficacy. Using a mouse model for colon cancer, we show that the nanoparticles accumulated, penetrated and efficiently prevented tumor growth. Moreover, we found a direct correlation between the amount of nanoparticle accumulation within the tumor at 48 hours, as determined by CT, and the therapeutic response. This enabled subject stratification as potential responders or non-responders, at an early time point. Thus, by integrating prognostic and …

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Mar 2019 • Optical Society of America

Flexible Photonic Spectral Shaping at Ultrahigh Resolution of 125MHz

Tomer Yeminy, Sagie Asraf, Dan Sadot, Zeev Zalevsky

We experimentally demonstrate a proof of concept resolution-enhanced flexible spectral shaper, using a spectral encoding block with high resolution features before the spatial diffractive element. Ultrahigh 125MHz resolution is obtained, refining present limit of 0.8 GHz.

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Mar 2019 • Angewandte Chemie International Edition

Inside Cover: EPR Spectroscopy Detects Various Active State Conformations of the Transcriptional Regulator CueR (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 10/2019)

Hila Sameach, Shreya Ghosh, Lada Gevorkyan‐Airapetov, Sunil Saxena, Sharon Ruthstein

Cu II--NTA spin labeling of the transcription regulator CueR, an E. coli copper-sensing protein, enabled the high-resolution detection of its various conformational states, as described by S. Ruthstein and co-workers in their Communication on page 3053 ff. Two of the conformations, activators 1 and 2, represent CueR as it binds DNA and Cu I ions. The computed structures suggest that one is more compressed on the DNA than the other and the transition between those states depends on Cu I concentration in the bacterial cell.

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Mar 2019 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVI …, 2019

Cellular internalization pathways of glucose-functionalized gold nanoparticles

Chen Tzror-Azankot, Tamar Dreifuss, Tal-Shachar Ben-Gal, Avi Jacob, Tamar Sadan, Menachem Motiei, Rachela Popovtzer

Nanomaterials functionalized with glucose have shown a great potential in cancer diagnosis and treatment. We have recently demonstrated that gold nanoparticles (GNP), functionalized with glucose, can be used for specific and sensitive tumor detection when combined with computed tomography (CT) - GNP functionalized with glucose in the second carbon position were used as a metabolically targeted contrast agents, and were able to discriminate between cancer and inflammation, which is a superior ability when comparing the FDG-PET which is not tumor specific. Here we aim to understand the uptake mechanisms of the glucose functionalized GNP using a comprehensive in vitro study in several cell types with different metabolic features, and examining the glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) involvement in the uptake process. We found that the glucose functionalized GNP are not toxic to the cells in the tested …

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Mar 2019 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVI …, 2019

Enhanced entangled-photon-pair interaction with metallic nanoparticles

A Ashkenazy, A Stefanov, D Fixler

In recent years, many quantum lights-based applications were suggested, ranging from encrypted communication and precision metrology to fluorescent biomolecules detection and advanced spectroscopy schemes. Such applications mostly rely on entanglement, the property of correlations between particles which cannot be explained by classical mechanisms, to overcome classical light limitations. Some of these applications, e.g. nonlinear spectroscopy, require the use of entangled-photon-pair interaction (EPPI) with the matter. However, such entangled pairs, generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), are scarce, and multi-photon interaction with matter is usually very weak and barely detectable. Therefore, an enhancement of this interaction is needed. In our research, we investigate a novel way to achieve such enhanced EPPI using metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), which are known …

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Mar 2019 • International Society for Optics and Photonics

Non-contact optical wavefront shaping for focusing light and high-resolution imaging inside and behind biological scattering medium

Abhijit Sanjeev, Yuval Kapellner, Nadav Shbero, Eran Gur, Zeev Zalevsky

Optical wavefront shaping is one of the most effective techniques in focusing light inside a scattering medium. Unfortunately, most of these techniques require direct access to the scattering medium or need to know the scattering properties of the medium beforehand. Through our scheme we develop a novel concept in which both the illumination and the detection is on the same side of the inspected object and the imaging process is a real time fast converging operation that does not require to capture large plurality of images. We model the scattering medium being a biological tissue as a Matrix having mathematical properties matched to the physical and biological aspects of the sample. In our adaptive optics scheme, we aim to estimate the scattering function and thus to encode the intensity of the illuminating laser light source using DMD (Digital Micromirror Device) with an inverse scattering function of the …

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Feb 2019 • JOSA B

Signal-dependent pump-to-probe noise transfer due to Kerr nonlinearity in silicon ring resonators

Tomer Yeminy, Zeev Zalevsky, Dan Sadot

The pump-probe configuration has been extensively implemented in silicon ring resonators (RRs) for all-optical switching and wavelength conversion. While the pump’s influence on the probe’s signal is well known, the effect of the pump on the probe’s noise has not been studied. Here, we analytically and numerically analyze the impact of the pump’s signal and noise on the probe’s noise distribution. We show that the probe’s output noise has two sources: the probe’s input noise passing through the RR’s transfer function and a new noise term generated by the RR’s transfer function fluctuations caused by the pump’s noise via the Kerr effect. Furthermore, this pump-induced noise can significantly reduce the probe’s output optical signal-to-noise ratio by up to 15 dB. As the new noise term strongly depends on the pump’s power, wavelength conversion of optical communications signals with amplitude modulation …

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Feb 2019 • WILEY

FLOW SENSING IN-DEPTH OF A TISSUE VIA ANALYSIS OF THE SPATIAL STATISTICS OF THE BACK SCATTERED LASER ILLUMINATION

Mark Goldberg, Ran Califa, Sagi Polani, Javier Garcia-Monreal, Zeev Zalevsky


Feb 2019 • International Society for Optics and Photonics

Tunable prism based upon novel piezoelectric nanoparticle/sol-gel design used for active solar cells concentrators

Gilad Rachamim, Margarita Ritenberg, Raz Jelinek, Zeev Zalevsky

Active solar concentrators attract significant interest in photovoltaic (PV) research activity since they can substantially reduce the area of PV cells while still collecting significant amount of solar energy via large aperture collecting optics. Solar concentrators include lenses or curved mirrors directing light from the sun into a smaller spatial spot falling on the PV cell. However, the main problem of active concentrators, severely limiting their practicality, is the high cost and low angular accuracy of sun tracking apparatuses. Specifically, tracking of the sun in existing concentrators is currently done through elaborate and expensive mechanical/optical systems, which exhibit lower performance over time and require energy input by themselves. In this paper we develop a novel active solar concentrator without any mechanical tracking. We aim to accomplish this goal through designing tunable prisms via novel chemical system …

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Feb 2019 • International Society for Optics and Photonics

Bio-sensor based on multiclass support vector machine with a reject option

Stav Buchsbaum, Yossi Keshet, Nisan Ozana, Zeev Zalevsky

In this work we explore the problem of multiclass classification where the classifier may abstain from classifying on some observation. We derivate a new surrogate loss function and a multiclass decision rule by using a reject threshold on posterior probabilities in the Bayes decision rule, known as Chow's rule. The goal of the decision rule is to minimize the value of given misprediction and rejection cost functions specified by the user. We suggest a general training algorithm by plug-in the surrogate loss in to Support Vector Machine (SVM) structure. We then test the algorithm on various real -life problem in the photonic medical sensing field where accuracy is critical. We present an example of a non-invasive way of detecting glucose level in blood to help patients with Diabetes mellitus diseases while the sensing is performed with speckle-based approach to analyze remote sensing of biomedical parameters. The …

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Feb 2019 • Physical Review A

Structured quantum projectiles

Hugo Larocque, Robert Fickler, Eliahu Cohen, Vincenzo Grillo, Rafal E Dunin-Borkowski, Gerd Leuchs, Ebrahim Karimi

Matter wave interferometry is becoming an increasingly important technique in quantum metrology. However, unlike its photonic counterpart, this technique relies on the interference of particles possessing a nonzero rest mass and an electric charge. Matter waves can therefore experience alterations in their wavelike features while propagating through uniform fields to which a linear potential can be attributed, eg, the Newtonian gravitational potential. Here, we derive the propagation kernel attributed to matter waves within such a potential. This kernel thereafter allows us to provide analytical formulations for structured matter waves subjected to a linear potential. Our formulations are in agreement with both the classical dynamics attributed to such waves and with previous interferometry experiments. Eigenbasis representations of structured matter waves are also introduced along with their application to enhanced …

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Feb 2019 • Optica

Experimental realization of wave-packet dynamics in cyclic quantum walks

Farshad Nejadsattari, Yingwen Zhang, Frédéric Bouchard, Hugo Larocque, Alicia Sit, Eliahu Cohen, Robert Fickler, Ebrahim Karimi

Quantum walks present novel tools for redesigning quantum algorithms, universal quantum computations, and quantum simulators. Hitherto, one- and two-dimensional quantum systems (lattices) have been simulated and studied with photonic systems. Here, we report the photonic simulation of cyclic quantum systems, such as hexagonal structures. We experimentally explore the wavefunction dynamics and probability distribution of a quantum particle located on a six-site system, along with three- and four-site systems while under different initial conditions. Various quantum walk systems employing Hadamard, C-NOT, and Pauli-Z gates are experimentally simulated, where we find configurations capable of simulating particle transport and probability density localization. Our technique can potentially be integrated into small-scale structures using microfabrication, and thus would open a venue towards simulating …

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