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Jun 2019 • Optics letters

Non-contact photoacoustic imaging using laser speckle contrast analysis

Matan Benyamin, Hadar Genish, Ran Califa, Ariel Schwartz, Zeev Zalevsky, Nisan Ozana

A novel method for non-contact and continuous detection of photoacoustic signals is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The approach is based on analysis of the contrast of time-varying speckle patterns, and suggests a more robust alternative in respect to interferometric and refractometric available solutions.

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Jun 2019 • Optical Society of America

Model for the description of remote photoacoustic sensing using speckle-analysis

Benjamin Lengenfelder, Martin Hohmann, Florian Klämpfl, Azhar Zam, Manuel Weiß, Stefan J Rupitsch, Zeev Zalevsky, Michael Schmidt

Remote photoacoustic tomography by speckle-analysis which is based on the measurement of the surface tilt is interesting for a lot of medical applications such as endoscopy or wound imaging. In this work, a new model which is capable to simulate the resulting surface tilt after photoacoustic excitation is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation is coupled to a stress simulation which allows the determination of the temporal surface deformation and the resulting tilt. A first comparison to experimental results from literature is done and discussed. In future, this model might help to optimize the speckle-sensing technique for photoacoustic signal detection. Furthermore, it could be used to develop and test image reconstruction algorithms.

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Jun 2019 • Journal of Optics

Improving Raman spectra of pure silicon using super-resolved method

Dror Malka, Binyamin Adler Berke, Yaakov Tischler, Zeev Zalevsky

In this paper, we demonstrated a method to super-resolved Raman spectroscopy, which improves the resolution of pure silicon spectra. Experimental investigations were carried out on the spectra of pure silicon. A tunable Fabry–Perot (FP) filter was added to the classical Raman setup in which measuring the spectra for different states of the FP filter coupled with decoded experimental results yielded a spectrum of higher resolution having a reduced linewidth in the pure silicon spectrum. Therefore, this method can be very helpful for improving the detection of silicon material in nanostructures using a low resolution Raman spectroscopy system.

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Jun 2019 • PLoS genetics

Hepatitis C virus leaves an epigenetic signature post cure of infection by direct-acting antivirals

Shira Perez, Antony Kaspi, Tom Domovitz, Ateret Davidovich, Anat Lavi-Itzkovitz, Tomer Meirson, Jacinta Alison Holmes, Chia-Yen Dai, Chung-Feng Huang, Raymond T Chung, Assy Nimer, Assam El-Osta, Gur Yaari, Salomon M Stemmer, Ming-Lung Yu, Izhak Haviv, Meital Gal-Tanamy

The increasing worldwide prevalence of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), characterized by resistance to conventional chemotherapy, poor prognosis and eventually mortality, place it as a prime target for new modes of prevention and treatment. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is the predominant risk factor for HCC in the US and Europe. Multiple epidemiological studies showed that sustained virological responses (SVR) following treatment with the powerful direct acting antivirals (DAAs), which have replaced interferon-based regimes, do not eliminate tumor development. We aimed to identify an HCV-specific pathogenic mechanism that persists post SVR following DAAs treatment. We demonstrate that HCV infection induces genome-wide epigenetic changes by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) for histone post-translational modifications that are epigenetic markers for active and repressed chromatin. The changes in histone modifications correlate with reprogramed host gene expression and alter signaling pathways known to be associated with HCV life cycle and HCC. These epigenetic alterations require the presence of HCV RNA or/and expression of the viral proteins in the cells. Importantly, the epigenetic changes induced following infection persist as an "epigenetic signature" after virus eradication by DAAs treatment, as detected using in vitro HCV infection models. These observations led to the identification of an 8 gene signature that is associated with HCC development and demonstrate persistent epigenetic alterations in HCV infected and post SVR liver biopsy samples. The …

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Jun 2019 • ECS Meeting Abstracts

Practical Limitations Associated with Metallic Magnesium Sulphur Batteries

Michael Salama, Ran Attias, Yosef Gofer, Doron Aurbach

Rechargeable magnesium batteries (RMBs) have attracted a lot of attention in recent decades due to the theoretical properties of these systems in terms of energy density, safety, and price. Nevertheless, to date, fully rechargeable magnesium battery prototypes with sufficient longevity and reversibility were realized only with low voltage and low capacity intercalation cathodes. The community is therefore actively looking for high-capacity cathodes that can work with metallic magnesium anodes in viable RMB systems. One of the most promising cathode materials, in terms of very high theoretical specific capacity is sulfur. A number of recent works studied the electrochemical performances of rechargeable sulfur cathodes in RMB, with success to some extent on the cathode side. Nevertheless, the formation of soluble polysulfide’s during discharge affects strongly the behavior of the anode side. we are focusing on …

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Jun 2019 • ECS Meeting Abstracts

Development of Most Important Cathodes for Li Ion Batteries that can Promote the Electro-Mobility Revolution

Doron Aurbach

Electro-mobility is the major challenge today in the field of electrochemical power sources. However, we encounter too many unsupported promises, too much noise! Examples: Many publications on ‘novel’ nano-materials, not suitable for practical battery applications. Nanomaterials may mean high surface area and pronounced side reactions. For instance - thousands of papers on conversion reactions anodes (nanomaterials), none of them show performance at elevated temperatures, why? Also nano-materials have puffy structure (difficult to process into electrodes). A lot of words (recently also conferences) on “ beyond Li-ion batteries”. Beyond… for what purposes? Hard to see what can be relevant for electrochemical propulsion beyond Li-ion batteries. In fact, the only relevant partner may be H2/O2 fuel cells, which are becoming highly relevant power sources because hydrogen can be stored in EVs at high …

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Jun 2019 • Review of Scientific Instruments

Design and testing of a system for measuring high-frequency AC losses in superconducting wires and coils carrying DC and AC currents

Y Nikulshin, V Ginodman, A Friedman, Y Yeshurun, S Wolfus

Development of high-power superconducting applications requires the accurate estimation of AC losses in the superconductor. In applications such as superconducting magnetic energy storage, the charge/discharge/persistent switching frequency of the coil, resulting from pulse width modulation control algorithms, is usually in the kilohertz regime. Therefore, a thorough investigation of the losses in the kilohertz regime of AC currents superimposed on large DC currents is essential in order to ensure the device stable operation at a predefined temperature. We describe here a unique experimental setup designed and built for characterizing AC losses in superconducting wires and coils under such special conditions. To minimize the eddy currents induced in the apparatus, a cryostat vacuum vessel was made of Delrin, an insulating synthetic polymer. The measurement setup allows driving DC currents up to 150 A …

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Jun 2019 • ACS applied materials & interfaces

Engineering Irrigation Drippers with Rechargeable N-Halamine Nanoparticles for Antifouling Applications

Michal Natan, Ori Gutman, Dekel Segev, Shlomo Margel, Ehud Banin

The increased demand for water highlights the need to utilize reclaimed water of various types. In agriculture, for example, which is considered the largest consumer of freshwater, irrigation with treated wastewater can replace much of the need for freshwater. Wastewater is generally used for irrigation through drippers, releasing small amounts of water to the crops. The contaminants found in treated wastewater increase the accumulation of fouling on the drippers, ultimately culminating in blocking of water exit. Thus, there is a crucial need to develop novel approaches to limit biofilm formation on the dripper. Here, we describe the synthesis of N-halamine-derivatized cross-linked polymethacrylamide nanoparticles (NPs) by copolymerization of the monomer methacrylamide and the cross-linker monomer N,N-methylenebisacrylamide and their subsequent embedding in the polyethylene that is used to fabricate the …

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Jun 2019 • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics

Estimation of the rate of entangled-photon-pair interaction with metallic nanoparticles based on classical-light second-harmonic generation measurements

A Ashkenazy, K Wang, M Unternährer, D Fixler, A Stefanov

Entangled-photon-pair interaction (EPPI) with matter is a key element in many suggested quantum-light applications and an enhancement of this interaction is of great importance. In this paper, we suggest and investigate the use of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), with their exceptional capability of light–matter coupling at their localized surface plasmon resonance, for a potential enhancement of EPPI. We specifically investigate second-harmonic generation and theoretically estimate the rate of EPPI with MNPs using measurements with classical-light. We perform a simple measurement based on approximating the optical-setup factor of hyper-Rayleigh scattering. Experimental results, obtained for solutions of silver NPs (SNPs) with different densities, show a hyperpolarizability of about The results indicate that the use of SNPs can indeed be advantageous for EPPI, with an estimated three orders-of …

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Jun 2019 • Advanced Materials

Ultrasmall Oxygen‐Deficient Bimetallic Oxide MnWOX Nanoparticles for Depletion of Endogenous GSH and Enhanced Sonodynamic Cancer Therapy

Fei Gong, Liang Cheng, Nailin Yang, Oshra Betzer, Liangzhu Feng, Qiang Zhou, Yonggang Li, Ruihua Chen, Rachela Popovtzer, Zhuang Liu

Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) triggered by ultrasound (US) has attracted increasing attention owing to its abilities to overcome critical limitations including low tissue‐penetration depth and phototoxicity in photodynamic therapy. Herein, the design of a new type of sonosensitizer is revealed, namely, ultrasmall oxygen‐deficient bimetallic oxide MnWOX nanoparticles, for multimodal imaging‐guided enhanced SDT against cancer. As‐made MnWOX nanoparticles with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modification show high physiological stability and biocompatibility. Interestingly, such MnWOX‐PEG nanoparticles exhibit highly efficient US‐triggered production of 1O2 and •OH, higher than that of previously reported sonosensitizers (e.g., protoporphyrin IX and titanium dioxide), because the oxygen‐deficient structure of MnWOX serves as an electron trap site to prevent electron–hole recombination. The glutathione depletion …

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Jun 2019 • Superconductor Science and Technology

Effect of magnetic sheath on filament AC losses and current distribution in MgB2 superconducting wires: numerical analysis

Y Nikulshin, Y Yeshurun, S Wolfus

Finite element method (FEM) analysis is employed to study and compare AC losses in a wide frequency range in two MgB 2 superconducting wires in self-field and in the presence of external AC field. The modelled wires, of the same external dimensions, are mono-and 36-superconducting filaments embedded in either magnetic Monel or a nonmagnetic metallic wire sheath. We demonstrate that in a multifilamentary wire in self-field the Monel sheath serves as a'pole piece'at the filament outer surface and alters local magnetic fields, current flow and AC losses distribution within the filament. In comparison with the nonmagnetic sheath with the same electrical conductivity, AC current in the wire with the magnetic sheath penetrates significantly deeper into the filaments and AC losses in the filament and in the magnetic sheath increase significantly. In contrast, the symmetry of the monofilament wire makes the current …

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Jun 2019 • ACS ENERGY LETTERS

Deep Defect States in Wide-Band-Gap ABX (3) Halide Perovskites (vol 4, pg 1150, 2019)

Igal Levine, Omar Garcia Vera, Michael Kulbak, Janardan Dagar, Davide-Raffaele Ceratti, Carolin Rehermann, Jose A Marquez, Sergiu Levcenko, Thomas Unold, Gary Hodes, Isaac Balberg, David Cahen, Thomas Dittrich


Jun 2019 • European Quantum Electronics Conference, eg_p_17, 2019

Ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of millimeter-sized halide perovskite single crystals

X Trung Nguyen, Daniel Timmer, Yevgeny Rakita, David Cahen, Antonietta De Sio, Christoph Lienau

Halide perovskites (HaPs) have rapidly grown as highly promising photovoltaic materials. Despite the impressive device efficiencies, however, the fundamental mechanisms governing their unusual optoelectronic properties are still unclear [1]. In particular, the nature of their elementary optical excitations, their dynamics and interactions on ultrafast timescales are currently debated. Due to the comparatively low exciton binding energy, typically< 50 meV [2], the near-bandgap absorption in HaPs is a mixture of excitons and free carrier transitions. This makes it challenging to distinguish the contributions of these two species to the nonlinear optical spectra in experiments, in particular at room temperature.

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Jun 2019 • ACS ENERGY LETTERS

Deep Defect States in Wide-Band-Gap ABX (3) Halide Perovskites (vol 4, pg 1150, 2019)

Igal Levine, Omar Garcia Vera, Michael Kulbak, Janardan Dagar, Davide-Raffaele Ceratti, Carolin Rehermann, Jose A Marquez, Sergiu Levcenko, Thomas Unold, Gary Hodes, Isaac Balberg, David Cahen, Thomas Dittrich


Jun 2019 • ACS ENERGY LETTERS

Deep Defect States in Wide-Band-Gap ABX (3) Halide Perovskites (vol 4, pg 1150, 2019)

Igal Levine, Omar Garcia Vera, Michael Kulbak, Janardan Dagar, Davide-Raffaele Ceratti, Carolin Rehermann, Jose A Marquez, Sergiu Levcenko, Thomas Unold, Gary Hodes, Isaac Balberg, David Cahen, Thomas Dittrich


Jun 2019 • ACS ENERGY LETTERS

Deep Defect States in Wide-Band-Gap ABX (3) Halide Perovskites (vol 4, pg 1150, 2019)

Igal Levine, Omar Garcia Vera, Michael Kulbak, Janardan Dagar, Davide-Raffaele Ceratti, Carolin Rehermann, Jose A Marquez, Sergiu Levcenko, Thomas Unold, Gary Hodes, Isaac Balberg, David Cahen, Thomas Dittrich


Jun 2019 • ACS ENERGY LETTERS

Deep Defect States in Wide-Band-Gap ABX (3) Halide Perovskites (vol 4, pg 1150, 2019)

Igal Levine, Omar Garcia Vera, Michael Kulbak, Janardan Dagar, Davide-Raffaele Ceratti, Carolin Rehermann, Jose A Marquez, Sergiu Levcenko, Thomas Unold, Gary Hodes, Isaac Balberg, David Cahen, Thomas Dittrich


Jun 2019 • ACS ENERGY LETTERS

Deep Defect States in Wide-Band-Gap ABX (3) Halide Perovskites (vol 4, pg 1150, 2019)

Igal Levine, Omar Garcia Vera, Michael Kulbak, Janardan Dagar, Davide-Raffaele Ceratti, Carolin Rehermann, Jose A Marquez, Sergiu Levcenko, Thomas Unold, Gary Hodes, Isaac Balberg, David Cahen, Thomas Dittrich


Jun 2019 • ACS ENERGY LETTERS

Deep Defect States in Wide-Band-Gap ABX (3) Halide Perovskites (vol 4, pg 1150, 2019)

Igal Levine, Omar Garcia Vera, Michael Kulbak, Janardan Dagar, Davide-Raffaele Ceratti, Carolin Rehermann, Jose A Marquez, Sergiu Levcenko, Thomas Unold, Gary Hodes, Isaac Balberg, David Cahen, Thomas Dittrich


Jun 2019 • ACS ENERGY LETTERS

Deep Defect States in Wide-Band-Gap ABX (3) Halide Perovskites (vol 4, pg 1150, 2019)

Igal Levine, Omar Garcia Vera, Michael Kulbak, Janardan Dagar, Davide-Raffaele Ceratti, Carolin Rehermann, Jose A Marquez, Sergiu Levcenko, Thomas Unold, Gary Hodes, Isaac Balberg, David Cahen, Thomas Dittrich


Jun 2019 • ACS ENERGY LETTERS

Deep Defect States in Wide-Band-Gap ABX (3) Halide Perovskites (vol 4, pg 1150, 2019)

Igal Levine, Omar Garcia Vera, Michael Kulbak, Janardan Dagar, Davide-Raffaele Ceratti, Carolin Rehermann, Jose A Marquez, Sergiu Levcenko, Thomas Unold, Gary Hodes, Isaac Balberg, David Cahen, Thomas Dittrich


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