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Mar 2021 • ChemElectroChem 8 (5), 798-811, 2021

Tunnel‐Type Sodium Manganese Oxide Cathodes for Sodium‐Ion Batteries

Munseok S Chae, Yuval Elias, Doron Aurbach

Tunnel‐type sodium manganese oxide is attracting attention as a cheap and earth‐abundant cathode material for sodium‐ion batteries, offering more stable cycling performance than other layered materials due to its special structural ordering. Developments and applications in aqueous and nonaqueous electrolyte solutions are reviewed, and problems and possible solutions are discussed in detail.

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Mar 2021 • Cell death discovery

Gut-Ex-Vivo system as a model to study gluten response in celiac disease

Mara Gagliardi, Nausicaa Clemente, Romina Monzani, Luca Fusaro, Eleonora Ferrari, Valentina Saverio, Giovanna Grieco, Elżbieta Pańczyszyn, Flavia Carton, Claudio Santoro, Sara Del Mare-Roumani, Sivan Amidror, Nissan Yissachar, Francesca Boccafoschi, Silvia Zucchelli, Marco Corazzari

Celiac disease (CD) is a complex immune-mediated chronic disease characterized by a consistent inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract induced by gluten intake in genetically predisposed individuals. Although initiated by the interaction between digestion-derived gliadin, a gluten component, peptides, and the intestinal epithelium, the disorder is highly complex and involving other components of the intestine, such as the immune system. Therefore, conventional model systems, mainly based on two-or three-dimension cell cultures and co-cultures, cannot fully recapitulate such a complex disease. The development of mouse models has facilitated the study of different interacting cell types involved in the disorder, together with the impact of environmental factors. However, such in vivo models are often expensive and time consuming. Here we propose an organ ex vivo culture (gut-ex-vivo system) based on small …

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Mar 2021 • Nature Machine Intelligence

High-resolution radar road segmentation using weakly supervised learning

Itai Orr, Moshik Cohen, Zeev Zalevsky

Autonomous driving has recently gained lots of attention due to its disruptive potential and impact on the global economy; however, these high expectations are hindered by strict safety requirements for redundant sensing modalities that are each able to independently perform complex tasks to ensure reliable operation. At the core of an autonomous driving algorithmic stack is road segmentation, which is the basis for numerous planning and decision-making algorithms. Radar-based methods fail in many driving scenarios, mainly as various common road delimiters barely reflect radar signals, coupled with a lack of analytical models for road delimiters and the inherit limitations in radar angular resolution. Our approach is based on radar data in the form of a two-dimensional complex range-Doppler array as input into a deep neural network (DNN) that is trained to semantically segment the drivable area using weak …

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Mar 2021 • Journal of the American Chemical Society

Structure and Functionality of an Alkylated LixSiyOz Interphase for High-Energy Cathodes from DNP-ssNMR Spectroscopy

Shira Haber, Rosy, Arka Saha, Olga Brontvein, Raanan Carmieli, Arava Zohar, Malachi Noked, Michal Leskes

Degradation processes at the cathode–electrolyte interface are a major limitation in the development of high-energy lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Deposition of protective thin coating layers on the surface of high-energy cathodes is a promising approach to control interfacial reactions. However, rational design of effective protection layers is limited by the scarcity of analytical tools that can probe thin, disordered, and heterogeneous phases. Here we propose a new structural approach based on solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) for characterizing thin coating layers. We demonstrate the approach on an efficient alkylated LixSiyOz coating layer. By utilizing different sources for DNP, exogenous from nitroxide biradicals and endogenous from paramagnetic metal ion dopants, we reveal the outer and inner surface layers of the deposited artificial …

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Mar 2021 • Advanced Functional Materials 31 (13), 2008547, 2021

Laser‐Based Printing: From Liquids to Microstructures

Nina Armon, Ehud Greenberg, Eitan Edri, Ornit Nagler‐Avramovitz, Yuval Elias, Hagay Shpaisman

Assembly of materials into microstructures under laser guidance is attracting wide attention. The ability to pattern various materials and form 2D and 3D structures with micron/sub‐micron resolution and less energy and material waste compared with standard top‐down methods make laser‐based printing promising for many applications, for example medical devices, sensors, and microelectronics. Assembly from liquids provides a smaller feature size than powders and has advantages over other states of matter in terms of relatively simple setup, easy handling, and recycling. However, the simplicity of the setup conceals a variety of underlying mechanisms, which cannot be identified simply according to the starting or resulting materials. This progress report surveys the various mechanisms according to the source of the material—preformed or locally synthesized. Within each category, methods are defined …

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Mar 2021 • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C

Direct Probing of Gap States and Their Passivation in Halide Perovskites by High-Sensitivity, Variable Energy Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Igal Levine, Kohei Shimizu, Alberto Lomuscio, Michael Kulbak, Carolin Rehermann, Arava Zohar, Mojtaba Abdi-Jalebi, Baodan Zhao, Susanne Siebentritt, Fengshuo Zu, Norbert Koch, Antoine Kahn, Gary Hodes, Richard H Friend, Hisao Ishii, David Cahen

Direct detection of intrinsic defects in halide perovskites (HaPs) by standard methods utilizing optical excitation is quite challenging, due to the low density of defects in most samples of this family of materials (≤1015 cm–3 in polycrystalline thin films and ≤1011 cm–3 in single crystals, except melt-grown ones). While several electrical methods can detect defect densities <1015 cm–3, such as deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) or thermally stimulated current (TSC), they require preparation of ohmic and/or rectifying electrical contacts to the sample, which not only poses a challenge by itself in the case of HaPs but also may create defects at the contact–HaP interface and introduce extrinsic defects into the HaP. Here, we show that low-energy photoelectron spectroscopy measurements can be used to obtain directly the energy position of gap states in Br-based wide-bandgap (Eg > 2 eV) HaPs. By measuring …

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Mar 2021 • Journal of Neural Engineering

Cortical responses to prosthetic retinal stimulation are significantly affected by the light-adaptive state of the surrounding normal retina

Tamar Arens-Arad, Rivkah Lender, Nairouz Farah, Yossi Mandel

Objective. Restoration of central vision loss in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by implanting a retinal prosthesis is associated with an intriguing situation wherein the central prosthetic vision co-exists with natural normal vision. Of major interest are the interactions between the prosthetic and natural vision. Here we studied the effect of the light-adaptive state of the normal retina on the electrical visual evoked potentials (VEPs) arising from the retinal prosthesis. Approach. We recorded electrical VEP elicited by prosthetic retinal stimulation in wild-type rats implanted with a 1 mm photovoltaic subretinal array. Cortical responses were recorded following overnight dark adaption and compared to those recorded following bleaching of the retina by light (520 nm) at various intensities and durations. Main results. Compared to dark-adapted responses, bleaching induced a 2-fold decrease in the …

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Mar 2021 • Langmuir

Immobilization of heteroatom-doped carbon dots onto nonpolar plastics for antifogging, antioxidant, and food monitoring applications

P Das, S Ganguly, S Margel, A Gedanken

This work presents the facile synthesis of heteroatom-doped fluorescent carbon quantum dots (C-dots), which could serve as an antioxidant. Herein, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur codoped carbon dots (NPSC-dots) have been synthesized by a single-step hydrothermal strategy. Owing to the radical scavenging activity of the NPSC-dots, they were tested against several methods as well as in practical applications. The antioxidant ability of the NPSC-dots was efficiently utilized on plastic films by coating with these NPSC-dots. For the very first time, NPSC-dots were immobilized onto nonpolar plastic films (polypropylene) via photochemical covalent grafting to extend the shelf life of food items or storage without affecting the quality of plastic films. The NPSC-dot-coated PP film with negligible deterioration of transparency was extensively studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy …

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Mar 2021 • Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research

Electrochemical and Thermal Behavior of Modified Li and Mn‐Rich Cathode Materials in Battery Prototypes: Impact of Pentasodium Aluminate Coating and Comprehensive Understanding …

Hadar Sclar, Sandipan Maiti, Nicole Leifer, Noam Vishkin, Miryam Fayena‐Greenstein, Meital Hen, Judith Grinblat, Michael Talianker, Nickolay Solomatin, Ortal Tiurin, Maria Tkachev, Yair Ein‐Eli, Gil Goobes, Boris Markovsky, Doron Aurbach

Mar 2021 • Neuromolecular medicine

Specific susceptibility to COVID-19 in adults with Down syndrome

Tomer Illouz, Arya Biragyn, Milana Frenkel-Morgenstern, Orly Weissberg, Alessandro Gorohovski, Eugene Merzon, Ilan Green, Florencia Iulita, Lisi Flores-Aguilar, Mara Dierssen, Ilario De Toma, Hefziba Lifshitz, Stylianos E Antonarakis, Eugene Yu, Yann Herault, Marie-Claude Potier, Alexandra Botté, Randall Roper, Benjamin Sredni, Ronit Sarid, Jacqueline London, William Mobley, Andre Strydom, Eitan Okun

The current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, which causes COVID-19, is particularly devastating for individuals with chronic medical conditions, in particular those with Down Syndrome (DS) who often exhibit a higher prevalence of respiratory tract infections, immune dysregulation and potential complications. The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is much higher in DS than in the general population, possibly increasing further the risk of COVID-19 infection and its complications. Here we provide a biological overview with regard to specific susceptibility of individuals with DS to SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as data from a recent survey on the prevalence of COVID-19 among them. We see an urgent need to protect people with DS, especially those with AD, from COVID-19 and future pandemics and focus on developing protective measures, which also include interventions by health systems worldwide for reducing …

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Mar 2021 • Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research

Electrochemical and Thermal Behavior of Modified Li and Mn‐Rich Cathode Materials in Battery Prototypes: Impact of Pentasodium Aluminate Coating and Comprehensive Understanding …

Hadar Sclar, Sandipan Maiti, Nicole Leifer, Noam Vishkin, Miryam Fayena‐Greenstein, Meital Hen, Judith Grinblat, Michael Talianker, Nickolay Solomatin, Ortal Tiurin, Maria Tkachev, Yair Ein‐Eli, Gil Goobes, Boris Markovsky, Doron Aurbach

In continuation of the work on the stabilization of the electrochemical performance of Li and Mn‐rich LixNiyCozMnwO2 (HE‐NCM, x > 1, w > 0.5, x + y + z + w = 2) cathode materials via atomic layer deposition (ALD) surface coatings, herein, the active role of aluminum oxides‐based coatings, during prolonged cycling in battery prototypes with graphite anodes, is discussed. Notable progress in electrochemical cycling and rate performance of Na‐aluminate‐coated Li1.142Mn0.513Ni0.230Co0.115O2 cathode material is established. These coated electrodes delivered a stable discharge capacity of 145 mAh g−1 (66% retention), compared to only 118 mAh g−1 (55% retention) for the uncoated sample at a 1.0 C rate after 400 cycles. Steady average discharge potential, lower voltage hysteresis, and stable energy density profiles are the noteworthy achievements for the coated material during cycling …

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Mar 2021 • bioRxiv

Experimental evolution reveals post-transcriptional regulation as a novel driver of Leishmania fitness gain

Laura Piel, K Shanmugha Rajan, Giovanni Bussotti, Hugo Varet, Rachel Legendre, Caroline Proux, Thibaut Douché, Quentin Giai-Gianetto, Thibault Chaze, Thomas Cokelaer, Barbora Vojtkova, Nadav Gordon-Bar, Tirza Doniger, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Praveenkumar Rengaraj, Céline Besse, Anne Boland, Jovana Sadlova, Jean-François Deleuze, Mariette Matondo, Ron Unger, Petr Volf, Shulamit Michaeli, Pascale Pescher, Gerald F Späth

The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani causes fatal human visceral leishmaniasis in absence of treatment. Genome instability has been recognized as a driver in Leishmania fitness gain in response to environmental change or chemotherapy. How genome instability generates beneficial phenotypes despite potential deleterious gene dosage effects is unknown. Here we address this important open question applying experimental evolution and integrative systems approaches on parasites adapting to in vitro culture. Phenotypic analyses of parasites from early and late stages of culture adaptation revealed an important fitness tradeoff, with selection for accelerated growth in promastigote culture (fitness gain) impairing infectivity (fitness costs). Comparative genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics analyses revealed a complex regulatory network driving parasite fitness, with genome instability causing highly reproducible, gene dosage-dependent changes in protein abundance linked to post-transcriptional regulation. These in turn were associated with a gene dosage-independent reduction in abundance of flagellar transcripts and a coordinated increase in abundance of coding and non-coding RNAs implicated in ribosomal biogenesis and protein translation. We correlated differential expression of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) with changes in rRNA modification, providing first evidence that Leishmania fitness gain in culture may be controlled by post-transcriptional and epitranscriptomic regulation. Our findings propose a novel model for Leishmania fitness gain in culture, where differential regulation of mRNA stability and the …

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Mar 2021 • Langmuir

Higher ultrasonic frequency liquid phase exfoliation leads to larger and monolayer to few-layer flakes of 2D layered materials

M Telkhozhayeva, E Teblum, R Konar, O Girshevitz, I Perelshtein, H Aviv, ...

Among the most reliable techniques for exfoliation of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, sonication-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) is considered as a cost-effective and straightforward method for preparing graphene and its 2D inorganic counterparts at reasonable sizes and acceptable levels of defects. Although there were rapid advances in this field, the effect and outcome of the sonication frequency are poorly understood and often ignored, resulting in a low exfoliation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate that simple mild bath sonication at a higher frequency and low power positively contributes to the thickness, size, and quality of the final exfoliated products. We show that monolayer graphene flakes can be directly exfoliated from graphite using ethanol as a solvent by increasing the frequency of the bath sonication from 37 to 80 kHz. The statistical analysis shows that ∼77% of the measured graphene …

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Mar 2021 • EPL (Europhysics Letters)

Quasi-two-dimensional electron gas at the oxide interfaces for topological quantum physics

A Barthelemy, N Bergeal, M Bibes, A Caviglia, R Citro, M Cuoco, A Kalaboukhov, B Kalisky, A Perroni, J Santamaria, D Stornaiuolo, M Salluzzo

The development of" fault-tolerant" quantum computers, unaffected by noise and decoherence, is one of the fundamental challenges in quantum technology. One of the approaches currently followed is the realization of" topologically protected" qubits which make use of quantum systems characterized by a degenerate ground state of composite particles, known as" non-Abelian anyons", able to encode and manipulate quantum information in a non-local manner. In this paper, we discuss the potential of quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (q2DEG) at the interface between band insulating oxides, like LaAlO 3 and SrTiO 3, as an innovative technological platform for the realization of topological quantum systems. Being characterized by a unique combination of unconventional spin-orbit coupling, magnetism, and 2D-superconductivity, these systems naturally possess most of the fundamental characteristics needed for …

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Mar 2021 • Advanced Healthcare Materials 10 (5), 2001167, 2021

Construction of enzyme nanoreactors to enable tumor microenvironment modulation and enhanced cancer treatment

Xiaowen Liu, Yu Hao, Rachela Popovtzer, Liangzhu Feng, Zhuang Liu

Enzymes play pivotal roles in regulating and maintaining the normal functions of all living systems, and some of them are extensively employed for diagnosis and treatment of diverse diseases. More recently, several kinds of enzymes with unique catalytic activities have been found to be promising options to directly suppress tumor growth and/or augment the therapeutic efficacy of other treatments by modulating the hostile tumor microenvironment (TME), which is reported to negatively impair the therapeutic efficacy of different cancer treatments. In this review, first a summary is presented on the chemical approaches utilized for the construction of distinct enzyme nanoreactors with well‐retained catalytic performance and reduced immunogenicity. Then, the utilization of such enzyme nanoreactors in attenuating tumor hypoxia, modulating extracellular matrix, and amplifying tumor oxidative stress is discussed in depth …

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Mar 2021 • Nature Photonics

Reply to ‘Ideal solar cell efficiencies’

Jean-Francois Guillemoles, Thomas Kirchartz, David Cahen, Uwe Rau

Guillemoles et al. reply—We wrote our Comment 1 as a brief and concise guide to the Shockley–Queisser (SQ) model 2, chiefly aiming to explain how real-world solar cells (non-concentrating, single-junction) must be related to the efficiency limits that result from the SQ model. There is a need for such a Comment, especially in the context of a widened portfolio of new very efficient solar cell materials and a rapidly growing community. As obvious from the title 1, we target non-specialist readers. Such approach 3 has the risk that the resulting text is unsatisfactory for specialist readers. The author of the Correspondence on our Comment 4 is certainly such specialist reader. Thus, to reply to the Correspondence we need to leave the level at which we presented the topic in our Comment, to make clear that while there can be differences of opinion as how to explain the issue to the ‘perplexed’, what is written in our …

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Mar 2021 • Electrochemistry Communications

Changes in the interfacial charge-transfer resistance of Mg metal electrodes, measured by dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

Ran Attias, Ben Dlugatch, Munseok S Chae, Yosef Goffer, Doron Aurbach

The interfacial electrochemical characteristics of unpassivated Mg metal electrodes have been studied using Staircase Galvano Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (SGEIS) in THF/C6H5MgCl/AlCl3 solutions over a wide range of applied dc currents. The results shed light on the mechanism of electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg. We found that at the stationary condition (at the OCV, when no current flows) there is a very high interfacial charge-transfer resistance of around 40,000 Ωcm2. The impedance decreases to several hundred Ωcm2 when dynamic, though steady, processes of Mg deposition or dissolution take place. The alternating process through which impedance spectroscopy is measured is superimposed on this system. We show that the high impedance measured at the OCV with a low direct current is due to interfacial adsorption phenomena. However, the adsorption phenomena …

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Mar 2021 • Optica

Hypercubic cluster states in the phase-modulated quantum optical frequency comb

Xuan Zhu, Chun-Hung Chang, Carlos González-Arciniegas, Avi Pe’er, Jacob Higgins, Olivier Pfister

We propose and fully analyze the simplest technique to date (to our knowledge) for generating light-based universal quantum computing resources, namely, 2D, 3D, and n-hypercubic cluster states in general. The technique uses two standard optical components: first, a single optical parametric oscillator pumped below threshold by a monochromatic field, which generates Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen entangled states, a.k.a. two-mode squeezed states, over the quantum optical frequency comb; second, phase modulation at frequencies that are multiples of the comb spacing (via RF or optical means). The compactness of this technique paves the way to implementing quantum computing on chip using quantum nanophotonics.

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Mar 2021 • Physical Review Research

Experimental tests of multiplicative Bell inequalities and the fundamental role of local correlations

Dilip Paneru, Amit Te'eni, Bar Y Peled, James Hubble, Yingwen Zhang, Avishy Carmi, Eliahu Cohen, Ebrahim Karimi

Bell inequalities are mathematical constructs that demarcate the boundary between quantum and classical physics. A new class of multiplicative Bell inequalities originating from a volume maximization game (based on products of correlators within bipartite systems) has been recently proposed. For these new Bell parameters, it is relatively easy to find the classical and quantum, ie, Tsirelson, limits. Here, we experimentally test the Tsirelson bounds of these inequalities using polarization-entangled photons for a different number of measurements (n), each party can perform. For n= 2, 3, 4, we report the experimental violation of local hidden variable theories. In addition, we experimentally compare the results with the parameters obtained from a fully deterministic strategy, and observe the conjectured nature of the ratio. Finally, utilizing the principle of “relativistic independence” encapsulating the locality of uncertainty …

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Mar 2021 • Frontiers in Physics

Influence of detector size and positioning on near-infrared measurements and ISO-pathlength point of turbid materials

Hamootal Duadi, Idit Feder, Dror Fixler

Measuring physical phenomena in an experimental system is commonly limited by the detector. When dealing with spatially defined behaviors, the critical parameter is the detector size. In this work, we examine near-infrared (NIR) measurements of turbid media using different size detectors at different positions. We examine cylindrical and semi-infinite scattering samples and measuring their intensity distribution. An apparent crossing point between samples with different scatterings was previously discovered and named the iso-pathlength point (IPL). Monte Carlo simulations show the expected changes due to an increase in detector size or similarly as the detector’s location is distanced from the turbid element. First, the simulations show that the intensity profile changes, as well as the apparent IPL. Next, we show that the average optical pathlength, and as a result, the differential pathlength factor, are mostly influenced by the detector size in the range close to the source. Experimental measurements using different size detectors at different locations validated the influence of these parameters on the intensity profiles and apparent IPL. These findings must be considered when assessing optical parameters based on multiple scattering models. In these cases, such as NIR assessment of tissue oxygenation, the size and location may cause false results of absorption or optical path.

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Mar 2021 • Frontiers in immunology

Machine learning analysis of naïve B-cell receptor repertoires stratifies celiac disease patients and controls

Or Shemesh, Pazit Polak, Knut EA Lundin, Ludvig M Sollid, Gur Yaari

Celiac disease (CeD) is a common autoimmune disorder caused by an abnormal immune response to dietary gluten proteins. The disease has high heritability. HLA is the major susceptibility factor, and the HLA effect is mediated via presentation of deamidated gluten peptides by disease-associated HLA-DQ variants to CD4+ T cells. In addition to gluten-specific CD4+ T cells the patients have antibodies to transglutaminase 2 (autoantigen) and deamidated gluten peptides. These disease-specific antibodies recognize defined epitopes and they display common usage of specific heavy and light chains across patients. Interactions between T cells and B cells are likely central in the pathogenesis, but how the repertoires of naïve T and B cells relate to the pathogenic effector cells is unexplored. To this end, we applied machine learning classification models to naïve B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires from CeD patients and healthy controls. Strikingly, we obtained a promising classification performance with an F1 score of 85%. Clusters of heavy and light chain sequences were inferred and used as features for the model, and signatures associated with the disease were then characterized. These signatures included amino acid (AA) 3-mers with distinct bio-physiochemical characteristics and enriched V and J genes. We found that CeD-associated clusters can be identified and that common motifs can be characterized from naïve BCR repertoires. The results may indicate a genetic influence by BCR encoding genes in CeD. Analysis of naïve BCRs as presented here may become an important part of assessing the risk of individuals to develop CeD. Our …

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