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Mar 2022 • Optica

Quasi-static optical parametric amplification

Marc Jankowski, Nayara Jornod, Carsten Langrock, Boris Desiatov, Alireza Marandi, Marko Lončar, Martin M Fejer

Supplement 1 - A comprehensive theoretical treatment of quasi-static optical parametric amplification in the frequency domain, with an example waveguide design.

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Mar 2022 • Physical Review B

Enhancement of superconductivity upon reduction of carrier density in proximitized graphene

Gopi Nath Daptary, Udit Khanna, Eyal Walach, Arnab Roy, Efrat Shimshoni, Aviad Frydman

The superconducting transition temperature (T c) of single-layer graphene coupled to an indium oxide (InO) film, a low carrier-density superconductor, is found to increase with decreasing carrier density and is largest close to the average charge neutrality point in graphene. Such an effect is very surprising in conventional BCS superconductors. We study this phenomenon both experimentally and theoretically. Our analysis suggests that the InO film induces random electron and hole doped puddles in the graphene. The Josephson effect across these regions of opposite polarity enhances the Josephson coupling between the superconducting clusters in InO, along with the overall T c of the bilayer heterostructure. This enhancement is most effective when the chemical potential of the system is tuned between the charge neutrality points of the electron and hole doped regions.

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Mar 2022 • European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry

Formation of Iron (III) Trimesate Xerogel by Ultrasonic Irradiation

Guido Ennas, Aharon Gedanken, Giada Mannias, Vijay B Kumar, Alessandra Scano, Ze'ev Porat, Martina Pilloni

Fe−BTC materials have attracted vast attention owing to their high chemical stability, adaptable synthesis, and potential applications. Herein, we describe, for the first time, the preparation of iron trimesate gels by ultrasonic (US) irradiation of an aqueous solution of Iron (III) nitrate and trimesic acid. Two different procedures were used: (1) sonication for 10 or 20 minutes, (2) 3 minutes sonication under controlled pH (pH 3–5). After drying, stable Fe−BTC xerogels were obtained from both procedures. The xerogels consisted of interconnected spherical nanoparticles with similar microstructure when analyzed by FT‐IR and PXRD and similar thermal behavior under oxygen in the range of 25–900 °C. When analyzed by Nitrogen adsorption‐desorption at 77 K, all samples showed a permanent porosity with a narrow micropore distribution below 10 Å. Different textural properties were found among samples obtained …

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Mar 2022 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Synergy between Cobalt–Chromium-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets and Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution

Bibhudatta Malik, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, SK Tarik Aziz, Sumit Majumder, Rajashree Konar, Aharon Gedanken, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Enormous potential loss and sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) limit the practical implementation of water electrolyser systems. We attempt to address these technical challenges through the synthesis of cobalt–chromium-layered double hydroxide nanosheets (CoCr LDH) on oxidized-carbon nanotube (O-CNT) backbones as efficient OER electrocatalysts. Microscopic and elemental distribution analysis suggests that interconnected sheets of CoCr LDH masks over O-CNTs. We tested various compositions of the CoCr LDH_O-CNT hybrid (by varying the molar ratios of Co and Cr) along with the weight adjustment between CoCr LDH and O-CNTs to obtain an optimal OER activity. Due to the synergistic effect, the CoCr-LDH(3:1)_O-CNT (2:1) exhibits the lowest overpotential of 290 mV at 10 mA cm–2 with a corresponding smaller Tafel slope of 42 mV dec–1, which outperforms the other tested …

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Mar 2022 • Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences XXII 11965, 29-37, 2022

NIR Fluorescence lifetime macroscopic imaging with a time-gated SPAD camera

X Michalet, A Ulku, JT Smith, C Bruschini, S Weiss, E Charbon, X Intes

The performance of SwissSPAD2 (SS2), a large scale, widefield time-gated CMOS SPAD imager developed for fluorescence lifetime imaging, has recently been described in the context of visible range and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of dyes with lifetimes in the 2.5 – 4 ns range. Here, we explore its capabilities in the NIR regime relevant for small animal imaging, where its sensitivity is lower and typical NIR fluorescent dye lifetimes are much shorter (1 ns or less). We carry out this study in a simple macroscopic imaging setup based on a compact NIR picosecond pulsed laser, an engineered diffuser-based illumination optics, and NIR optimized imaging lens suitable for well-plate or small animal imaging. Because laser repetition rates can vary between models, but the synchronization signal frequency accepted by SS2 is fixed to 20 MHz, we first checked that a simple frequency-division scheme …

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Mar 2022 • ACS Energy Letters

Anion–diluent pairing for stable high-energy Li metal batteries

Chunnan Zhu, Chuangchao Sun, Ruhong Li, Suting Weng, Liwu Fan, Xuefeng Wang, Lixin Chen, Malachi Noked, Xiulin Fan

Rechargeable Li metal batteries (LMBs) have attracted wide attention as promising candidates for the next generation of energy-storage systems. However, limited Coulombic efficiency and unregulated dendrite growth restrict its application. Here, we report a kind of electrolyte by introducing fluorinated aromatic diluents into high-concentration electrolytes (HCEs). Unlike other localized HCEs, the fluorinated aromatic diluents pairing with anions promote the formation of a homogeneous and robust solid–electrolyte interphase (SEI), which endows Li metal with an ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency of ∼99.8%. The Li||LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 battery holds a capacity retention of >80% over 260 cycles even with a thin Li anode (20 μm) and a high cathode loading (3.5 mAh cm–2). A 1.8 Ah Li||NMC811 pouch cell with a lean electrolyte delivers an energy density of 340 Wh kg–1 and a stable cycling life over 200 cycles. The …

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Mar 2022 • Scientific Reports

Structured transmittance illumination coherence holography

Aditya Chandra Mandal, Tushar Sarkar, Zeev Zalevsky, Rakesh Kumar Singh

The coherence holography offers an unconventional way to reconstruct the hologram where an incoherent light illumination is used for reconstruction purposes, and object encoded into the hologram is reconstructed as the distribution of the complex coherence function. Measurement of the coherence function usually requires an interferometric setup and array detectors. This paper presents an entirely new idea of reconstruction of the complex coherence function in the coherence holography without an interferometric setup. This is realized by structured pattern projections on the incoherent source structure and implementing measurement of the cross-covariance of the intensities by a single-pixel detector. This technique, named structured transmittance illumination coherence holography (STICH), helps to reconstruct the complex coherence from the intensity measurement in a single-pixel detector without an …

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Mar 2022 • Materialia

Synthesis of nickel sulfide dendrites from nickel foil using thermal annealing

Pola Shriber, Maria Tkachev, Ayelet Atkins, Ilana Perelshtein, Sharon Bretler, Bruria Schmerling, Gino Mariotto, Marco Giarola, Yafit Fleger, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Similarly to other transition metal sulfides, nickel sulfide nanocrystals can be potentially used for functional device applications. However, controlling morphology and stoichiometry to target specific applications is a synthesis challenge. In this work we developed a rapid, one-step, chemical vapor deposition synthesis of nickel sulfide dendritic nanostructures with fractal geometry. Microtome-EDS compositional analysis of the mature crystal indicates a trend of decreasing sulfur and increasing nickel concentration towards the tip of the mature crystals. Following thorough investigation of these nanocrystals at different stages of their nucleation and growth by means of XRD, HR-SEM, HR-TEM, and Raman spectroscopy, we suggest possible kinetic mechanisms for the crystal formation and development. This work contributes to the understanding of growth mechanisms of dendritic structures with complex morphology.

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Mar 2022 • ACS Applied Energy Materials

Bifunctional Pt–Ni electrocatalyst synthesis with ultralow platinum seeds for oxygen evolution and reduction in alkaline medium

Melina Zysler, Victor Shokhen, Samuel Spencer Hardisty, Anya Muzikansky, David Zitoun

Pt–Ni polyhedral nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively studied as electrocatalysts, mainly for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but they display a poor activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, ultralow platinum Pt@Ni@Pt core–bishell nanorods were designed (less than 1 wt % of Pt), synthesized, and characterized to yield bifunctional electrocatalysts with high efficiency toward ORR and OER in alkaline media. Ultralow platinum Pt@Ni@Pt core–bishell nanorods achieve an unprecedented (for a Pt-based catalyst) overpotential of 0.29 V at 10 mA cm–2 and current density of 162 mA μg–1Pt at 1.6 V (vs RHE) for the OER, while still maintaining a very decent value of 0.32 A mg–1Pt at 0.85 V for the ORR. These values outperform the standard Pt catalyst for the ORR and the Ni catalyst for the OER, using less than 1 wt % Pt. We describe the two-step synthesis of the Pt@Ni@Pt nanorods, demonstrating the …

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Mar 2022 • Macromol 2 (1), 78-99, 2022

Antimicrobial Activities of Conducting Polymers and Their Composites

Moorthy Maruthapandi, Arumugam Saravanan, Akanksha Gupta, John HT Luong, Aharon Gedanken

Conducting polymers, mainly polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY) with positive charges bind to the negatively charged bacterial membrane to interfere with bacterial activities. After this initial electrostatic adherence, the conducting polymers might partially penetrate the bacterial membrane and interact with other intracellular biomolecules. Conducting polymers can form polymer composites with metal, metal oxides, and nanoscale carbon materials as a new class of antimicrobial agents with enhanced antimicrobial properties. The accumulation of elevated oxygen reactive species (ROS) from composites of polymers-metal nanoparticles has harmful effects and induces cell death. Among such ROS, the hydroxyl radical with one unpaired electron in the structure is most effective as it can oxidize any bacterial biomolecules, leading to cell death. Future endeavors should focus on the combination of conducting polymers and their composites with antibiotics, small peptides, and natural molecules with antimicrobial properties. Such arsenals with low cytotoxicity are expected to eradicate the ESKAPE pathogens: Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.

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Mar 2022 • Langmuir

Mussel-inspired polynorepinephrine/MXene-based magnetic nanohybrid for electromagnetic interference shielding in X-band and strain-sensing performance

Sayan Ganguly, Poushali Das, Arka Saha, Malachi Noked, Aharon Gedanken, Shlomo Margel


Mar 2022 • Acta Biomaterialia

Molecular differences in collagen organization and in organic-inorganic interfacial structure of bones with and without osteocytes

Raju Nanda, Shani Hazan, Katrein Sauer, Victoria Aladin, Keren Keinan-Adamsky, Björn Corzilius, Ron Shahar, Paul Zaslansky, Gil Goobes

Bone is a fascinating biomaterial comprised mostly of type-I collagen fibers as an organic phase, apatite as an inorganic phase, with water molecules residing at the interfaces between these phases. They are hierarchically organized with minor constituents such as non-collagenous proteins, citrate ions and glycosaminoglycans into a composite structure that is mechanically durable yet contains enough porosity to accommodate cells and blood vessels. The nanometer scale organization of the collagen fibrous structure and the mineral constituents in bone were recently extensively scrutinized. However, molecular details at the lowest hierarchical level still need to be unraveled to better understand the exact atomic-level arrangement of all these important components in the context of the integral structure of the bone. In this report, we unfold some of the molecular characteristics differentiating between two load …

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Mar 2022 • Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics 13, 385-405, 2022

Studying quantum materials with scanning SQUID microscopy

Eylon Persky, Ilya Sochnikov, Beena Kalisky

Electronic correlations give rise to fascinating macroscopic phenomena such as superconductivity, magnetism, and topological phases of matter. Although these phenomena manifest themselves macroscopically, fully understanding the underlying microscopic mechanisms often requires probing on multiple length scales. Spatial modulations on the mesoscopic scale are especially challenging to probe, owing to the limited range of suitable experimental techniques. Here, we review recent progress in scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy. We demonstrate how scanning SQUID combines unmatched magnetic field sensitivity and highly versatile designs, by surveying discoveries in unconventional superconductivity, exotic magnetism, topological states, and more. Finally, we discuss how SQUID microscopy can be further developed to answer the increasing demand for imaging …

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Mar 2022 • Journal of Applied Polymer Science

Polydopamine decorated carbon dots nanocomposite as an effective adsorbent for phenolic compounds

Moorthy Maruthapandi, Arumugam Saravanan, John HT Luong, Aharon Gedanken

Carbon dots (CDs) with an average diameter of 2.3 ± 0.5 nm were prepared from red cabbage by a facile one‐step hydrothermal process. The CDs and polydopamine (PDA) were then subjected to ultrasonication to form a polymer composite namely, PDA‐doped CDs (PDA@CDs). The PDA@CDs with an average size of 5 μm was proven as effective adsorbents for p‐chlorophenol (p‐CP) and p‐cyanophenol (p‐CNP) as two probing models. The adsorption capacity of PDA@CDs was estimated to be 153 mg/g for p‐CP and 178 mg/g for p‐CNP, compared favorably with those of various adsorbents used in the literature, only 24–123 mg/g. The PDA@CDs significantly improved the adsorption rate of the two phenols at neutral pH and room temperature. The adsorption kinetics was governed by the pseudo second‐order and intraparticle diffusion models. The PDA@CDs were reused as an active adsorbent …

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Mar 2022 • Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism

Effect of focused ion beam irradiation on superconducting nanowires

Lior Shani, Avital Fried, Yafit Fleger, Olga Girshevitz, Amos Sharoni, Yosef Yeshurun

Recent advances in focused ion beam (FIB) technology exploit accelerated helium or neon ions, rather than gallium, for maskless fabrication of superconducting nanocomponents. We present a study of the effect of the damage induced by the accelerated ions on the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, of a patterned ~ 85-nm-wide Nb wire, demonstrating a decrease of Tc from ~ 5.5 K in the wire patterned by He ions to ~ 2.8 and 2.3 K exploiting Ne and Ga ions, respectively. In an effort to gain insight into the origin of these changes in Tc, we performed Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulations to estimate the damage induced by each type of ion. The simulations show that the lateral distribution of the ion beam and the sputtering rate in using Ne or Ga are significantly larger than those caused by He, consistent with the changes in the measured electrical properties of the nanowire.

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Mar 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2203.17133

Reduced Material Loss in Thin-film Lithium Niobate Waveguides

Amirhassan Shams-Ansari, Guanhao Huang, Lingyan He, Zihan Li, Jeffrey Holzgrafe, Marc Jankowski, Mikhail Churaev, Prashanta Kharel, Rebecca Cheng, Di Zhu, Neil Sinclair, Boris Desiatov, Mian Zhang, Tobias J Kippenberg, Marko Loncar


Mar 2022 • Optical and Quantum Sensing and Precision Metrology II, PC120160Z, 2022

Nonlinear quantum interferometer in the time and frequency domains

Moti Fridman, Eliahu Cohen

Interferometers are highly sensitive to phase differences and are utilized in numerous schemes. Quantum interferometers are able to improve the sensitivity of classical interferometers beyond the shot-noise limit. This is done by employing squeezed states of light and destructive interference of the noise in the system. We developed a quantum SU(1,1) interferometer in the time domain. Our nonlinear quantum interferometer creates interference of the input signals at different times and frequencies. We can control the time and frequency differences for investigating the full temporal and spectral structure of the signal. This quantum interferometer can be utilized for sensing ultrafast phase changes, quantum imaging, temporal mode encoding, and studying the temporal structure of entangled photons.

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Mar 2022 • European Heart Journal-Digital Health

A novel contact-free atrial fibrillation monitor: a pilot study

Ben Sadeh, Ilan Merdler, Sapir Sadon, Lior Lupu, Ariel Borohovitz, Eihab Ghantous, Philippe Taieb, Yoav Granot, Orit Goldstein, Jonathan Calderón Soriano, Ricardo Rubio-Oliver, Joaquin Ruiz-Rivas, Zeev Zalevsky, Javier Garcia-Monreal, Maxim Shatsky, Sagi Polani, Yaron Arbel

Aims Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines support performing electrocardiogram (ECG) screenings to spot AF in high-risk patients. The purpose of this study was to validate a new algorithm aimed to identify AF in patients measured with a recent FDA-cleared contact-free optical device. Methods and results Study participants were measured simultaneously using two devices: a contact-free optical system that measures chest motion vibrations (investigational device, ‘Gili’) and a standard reference bed-side ECG monitor (Mindray®). Each reference ECG was evaluated by two board certified cardiologists that defined each trace as: regular rhythm, AF, other irregular rhythm or indecipherable/missing. A total of 3582, 30-s intervals, pertaining to 444 patients (41.9% with a history of AF) were made available for analysis. Distribution of …

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Mar 2022 • Physical Review B

Large-scale behavior of energy spectra of the quantum random antiferromagnetic Ising chain with mixed transverse and longitudinal fields

Richard Berkovits

In recent years, it became clear that the metallic regime of systems that exhibit a many-body localization (MBL) behavior shows properties that are quite different than the vanilla metallic region of the single-particle Anderson regime. Here we show that the large-scale energy spectrum of a canonical microscopical model featuring MBL displays a nonuniversal behavior at intermediate scales, which is distinct from the deviation from universality seen in the single-particle Anderson regime. The crucial step in revealing this behavior is a global unfolding of the spectrum performed using the singular value decomposition (SVD) which takes into account the sample to sample fluctuations of the spectra. The spectrum properties may be observed directly in the singular value amplitudes via the scree plot, or by using the SVD to unfold the spectra and then perform a number of states variance calculation. Both methods reveal …

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Mar 2022 • Scientific Reports

Structured transmittance illumination coherence holography

Aditya Chandra Mandal, Tushar Sarkar, Zeev Zalevsky, Rakesh Kumar Singh

The coherence holography offers an unconventional way to reconstruct the hologram where an incoherent light illumination is used for reconstruction purposes, and object encoded into the hologram is reconstructed as the distribution of the complex coherence function. Measurement of the coherence function usually requires an interferometric setup and array detectors. This paper presents an entirely new idea of reconstruction of the complex coherence function in the coherence holography without an interferometric setup. This is realized by structured pattern projections on the incoherent source structure and implementing measurement of the cross-covariance of the intensities by a single-pixel detector. This technique, named structured transmittance illumination coherence holography (STICH), helps to reconstruct the complex coherence from the intensity measurement in a single-pixel detector without an …

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Mar 2022 • ACS Energy Letters

Stabilizing High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes Using Functional Coatings of 2D Tungsten Diselenide

Sandipan Maiti, Rajashree Konar, Hadar Sclar, Judith Grinblat, Michael Talianker, Maria Tkachev, Xiaohan Wu, Aleksandr Kondrakov, Gilbert Daniel Nessim, Doron Aurbach

Functional surface coatings were applied on high voltage spinel (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4; LNMO) and Ni-rich (LiNi0.85Co0.1Mn0.05O2; NCM851005) NCM cathode materials using few-layered 2H tungsten diselenide (WSe2). Simple liquid-phase mixing with WSe2 in 2-propanol and low-temperature (130 °C) heat treatment in nitrogen flow dramatically improved electrochemical performance, including stable cycling, high-rate performance, and lower voltage hysteresis in Li coin cells at 30 and 55 °C. Significantly improved capacity retention at 30 °C [Q401/Q9 of 99% vs 38% for LNMO and Q322/Q23 of 64% vs 46% for NCM851005] indicated efficient functionality. TEM and XPS clarified the coating distribution and coordination with the cathode surface, while postcycling studies revealed its sustainability, enabling lower transition metal dissolution and minor morphological deformation/microcrack formation. A modified and …

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