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Jun 2022 • ACS Applied Electronic Materials

Current Mapping of Amorphous LaAlO3/SrTiO3 near the Metal–Insulator Transition

Anders V Bjørlig, Dennis V Christensen, Ricci Erlandsen, Nini Pryds, Beena Kalisky

The two-dimensional electron system found between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 hosts a variety of physical phenomena that can be tuned through external stimuli. This allows for electronic devices controlling magnetism, spin–orbit coupling, and superconductivity. Controlling the electron density by varying donor concentrations and using electrostatic gating are convenient handles to modify the electronic properties, but the impact on the microscopic scale, particularly of the former, remains underexplored. Here, we image the current distribution at 4.2 K in amorphous-LaAlO3/SrTiO3 using scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy while changing the carrier density in situ using electrostatic gating and oxygen annealing. We show how potential disorder affects the current and how homogeneous 2D flow evolves into several parallel conducting channels when approaching the metal-to-insulator …

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Jun 2022 • ChemistrySelect

Boron‐doped Carbon Dots with Surface Oxygen Functional Groups as a Highly Sensitive and Label‐free Photoluminescence Probe for the Enhanced Detection of Mg2+ Ions

Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Sudhakar Pagidi, Suhas Yadav, Marianna Beiderman, Ilya Grinberg, Dror Fixler, Aharon Gedanken

Magnesium ion (Mg2+) is one of the most significant cations in living systems with involvement in many biochemical reactions and cellular processes and hence, sensitive and specific detection of Mg2+ is therefore essential for various applications. Here, we report the solvothermal synthesis of boron‐doped carbon dots (BC10) with more oxygen surface states by using salicylaldehyde and naphthalene‐1‐boronic acid. The as‐prepared BC10 showed greenish‐white luminescence under 365 nm UV illumination with quantum yield (QY) of 5.5 % at optimum dilution with dimethyl sulfur oxide (DMSO) solvent. The BC10 in DMSO (DS‐BC10) have shown high selectivity and sensitivity towards Mg2+ ion through the increased PL intensity due to chelation‐enhanced photoluminescence (CHEP). The enhanced PL intensity was further supported by the increased QY by a factor of 12 after the addition of Mg2+ ions to 65 …

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Jun 2022 • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

On the practical applications of the magnesium fluorinated alkoxyaluminate electrolyte in Mg battery cells

Tjaša Pavčnik, Matic Lozinšek, Klemen Pirnat, Alen Vizintin, Toshihiko Mandai, Doron Aurbach, Robert Dominko, Jan Bitenc

High-performance electrolytes are at the heart of magnesium battery development. Long-term stability along with the low potential difference between plating and stripping processes are needed to consider them for next-generation battery devices. Within this work, we perform an in-depth characterization of the novel Mg[Al(hfip)4]2 salt in different glyme-based electrolytes. Specific importance is given to the influence of water content and the role of additives in the electrolyte. Mg[Al(hfip)4]2-based electrolytes exemplify high tolerance to water presence and the beneficial effect of additives under aggravated cycling conditions. Finally, electrolyte compatibility is tested with three different types of Mg cathodes, spanning different types of electrochemical mechanisms (Chevrel phase, organic cathode, sulfur). Benchmarking with an electrolyte containing a state-of-the-art Mg[B(hfip)4]2 salt exemplifies an improved …

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Jun 2022 • Pharmaceutics

Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal-like Adherent Stromal Cells as an Effective Cell Therapy for Cocaine Addiction in a Rat Model

Hilla Pe’er-Nissan, Hadas Ahdoot-Levi, Oshra Betzer, Pnina Shirel Itzhak, Niva Shraga-Heled, Iris Gispan, Menachem Motiei, Arthur Doroshev, Yaakov Anker, Rachela Popovtzer, Racheli Ofir, Gal Yadid

Recent research points to mesenchymal stem cells’ potential for treating neurological disorders, especially drug addiction. We examined the longitudinal effect of placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal-like cells (PLX-PAD) in a rat model for cocaine addiction. Sprague–Dawley male rats were trained to self-administer cocaine or saline daily until stable maintenance. Before the extinction phase, PLX-PAD cells were administered by intracerebroventricular or intranasal routes. Neurogenesis was evaluated, as was behavioral monitoring for craving. We labeled the PLX-PAD cells with gold nanoparticles and followed their longitudinal migration in the brain parallel to their infiltration of essential peripheral organs both by micro-CT and by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Cell locations in the brain were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We found that PLX-PAD cells attenuated cocaine-seeking behavior through their capacity to migrate to specific mesolimbic regions, homed on the parenchyma in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and restored neurogenesis. We believe that intranasal cell therapy is a safe and effective approach to treating addiction and may offer a novel and efficient approach to rehabilitation.

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Jun 2022 • SCIENTIFIC REPORTS

Sourcing Herod the Great's calcite-alabaster bathtubs by a multi-analytic approach (vol 12, 7524, 2022)

Ayala Amir, Amos Frumkin, Boaz Zissu, Aren M Maeir, Gil Goobes, Amnon Albeck


Jun 2022 • SCIENTIFIC REPORTS

Sourcing Herod the Great's calcite-alabaster bathtubs by a multi-analytic approach (vol 12, 7524, 2022)

Ayala Amir, Amos Frumkin, Boaz Zissu, Aren M Maeir, Gil Goobes, Amnon Albeck


Jun 2022 • Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University

Применение сорбентов на основе природного цеолита и шамотной глины для извлечения ионов натрия и калия из соленой воды: предварительное исследование

Gulziya A Seilkhanova, Akmaral B Rakhym, Anastasiya V Kan, Aruzhan K Kenessova, Yitzhak Mastai

treated with NaCl and HNO3 solutions were obtained to extract Na+ and K+ ions from saline water. The physicochemical characteristics of the obtained sorbents were studied by SEM, EDAX, and BET methods. It was found that successive treatment with NaCl and HNO3 solutions has a positive effect on the sorption properties of the studied materials. The maximum increase in the specific surface area from 4.5 m2/g to 39.3 m2/g is observed for acid-treated Z, and the specific surface area of ​​ChC also increases almost 2-fold from 8.4 m2/g to 15.3 m2/g. Na+ and K+ ions are extracted from water due to ion exchange with Z and ChC cations. As a result of determining the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the studied sorbents, it was found that treatment with a NaCl solution improves the ion exchange properties of the sorbent and leads to the formation of a “homoionic” form of aluminosilicates. Due to that the sorbents more easily enter ion exchange reactions. The authors established the sorption activity of the obtained materials based on natural Z and ChC with respect to Na+ and K+ cations. The maximum recovery rate is 28.45% for Na+ ions with the ChC-Na-H sorbent and 76.28% for K+ ions with the ChC-Na sorbent. Among Z-based sorbents, the most effective forms are Z-Na-H (15.44% Na+ recovery) and Z-Na (60.47% K+ recovery).

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Jun 2022 • Talanta

High throughput optical modulation biosensing for highly sensitive and rapid detection of biomarkers

Shmuel Burg, Shira Roth, Meir Cohen, Shira Avivi-Mintz, Michael Margulis, Hanan Rohana, Avi Peretz, Amos Danielli

Rapid, highly sensitive, and high-throughput detection of biomarkers at low concentrations is invaluable for early diagnosis of various diseases. In many highly sensitive immunoassays, magnetic beads are used to capture fluorescently labeled target molecules. The target molecules are then quantified by detecting the fluorescent signal from individual beads, which is time consuming and requires a complicated and expensive detection system. Here, we demonstrate a high-throughput optical modulation biosensing (ht-OMB) system, which uses a small permanent magnet to aggregate the beads into a small detection volume and eliminates background noise by steering a laser beam in and out of the cluster of beads. Shortening the aggregation, acquisition, and well-to-well scanning transition times enables reading a 96-well plate within 10 minutes. Using the ht-OMB system to detect human Interleukin-8, we …

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Jun 2022 • Laser and Particle Beams

Particles Detection System with CR-39 Based on Deep Learning

Gal Amit, Idan Mosseri, Ofir Even-Hen, Nadav Schneider, Elad Fisher, Hanan Datz, Eliahu Cohen, Noaz Nissim

We present a novel method that we call FAINE, fast artificial intelligence neutron detection system. FAINE automatically classifies tracks of fast neutrons on CR-39 detectors using a deep learning model. This method was demonstrated using a LANDAUER Neutrak® fast neutron dosimetry system, which is installed in the External Dosimetry Laboratory (EDL) at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). In modern fast neutron dosimetry systems, after the preliminary stages of etching and imaging of the CR-39 detectors, the third stage uses various types of computer vision systems combined with a manual revision to count the CR-39 tracks and then convert them to a dose in mSv units. Our method enhances these modern systems by introducing an innovative algorithm, which uses deep learning to classify all CR-39 tracks as either real neutron tracks or any other sign such as dirt, scratches, or even cleaning remainders. This new algorithm makes the third stage of manual CR-39 tracks revision superfluous and provides a completely repeatable and accurate way of measuring either neutrons flux or dose. The experimental results show a total accuracy rate of 96.7% for the true positive tracks and true negative tracks detected by our new algorithm against the current method, which uses computer vision followed by manual revision. This algorithm is now in the process of calibration for both alpha-particles detection and fast neutron spectrometry classification and is expected to be very useful in analyzing results of proton-boron11 fusion experiments. Being fully automatic, the new algorithm will enhance the quality assurance and effectiveness of external dosimetry, will lower the uncertainty for the reported dose measurements, and might also enable lowering the system’s detection threshold.

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Jun 2022 • Advanced Functional Materials

Operating Highly Stable LiCoO2 Cathodes up to 4.6 V by Using an Effective Integration of Surface Engineering and Electrolyte Solutions Selection

Tianju Fan, Wang Kai, Villa Krishna Harika, Cunsheng Liu, Amey Nimkar, Nicole Leifer, Sandipan Maiti, Judith Grinblat, Merav Nadav Tsubery, Xiaolang Liu, Meng Wang, Leimin Xu, Yuhao Lu, Yonggang Min, Netanel Shpigel, Doron Aurbach

The need for high power density cathodes for Li‐ion batteries can be fulfilled by application of a high charging voltage above 4.5 V. As lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) remains a dominant commercial cathode material, tremendous efforts are invested to increase its charging potential toward 4.6 V. Yet, the long‐term performance of high voltage LCO cathodes still remains poor. Here, an integrated approach combining the application of an aluminum fluoride coating and the use of electrolyte solutions comprising 1:1:8 mixtures of difluoroethylene:fluoroethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate and 1 m LiPF6 is reported. This results in superior behavior of LCO cathodes charged at 4.6 V with high initial capacity of 223 mAh g−1, excellent long‐term performance, and 78% capacity retention after 500 cycles. Impressive stability is also found at 450 °C with an initial capacity of 220 mAh g−1 and around 84% capacity retention …

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Jun 2022 • arXiv e-prints

Network Model of Active Fluctuations of Thin Elastic Shells Swollen by Hydrostatic Pressure

Ajoy Maji, Yitzhak Rabin

Many organisms have an elastic skeleton that consists of a closed shell of epithelial cells that is filled with fluid, and can actively regulate both elastic forces in the shell and hydrostatic pressure inside it. In this work we introduce a simple network model of such pressure-stabilized active elastic shells in which cross-links are represented by material points connected by non-linear springs of some given equilibrium lengths and spring constants. We mimic active contractile forces in the system by changing the parameters of randomly chosen springs and use computer simulations to study the resulting local and global deformation dynamics of the network. We elucidate the statistical properties of these deformations by computing the corresponding distributions and correlation functions. We show that pressure-induced stretching of the network introduces coupling between its local and global behavior: while the network …

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Jun 2022 • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

On the Practical Applications of the Magnesium Fluorinated Alkoxyaluminate Electrolyte in Mg Battery Cells

Tjaša Pavčnik, Matic Lozinšek, Klemen Pirnat, Alen Vizintin, Toshihiko Mandai, Doron Aurbach, Robert Dominko, Jan Bitenc

High-performance electrolytes are at the heart of magnesium battery development. Long-term stability along with the low potential difference between plating and stripping processes are needed to consider them for next-generation battery devices. Within this work, we perform an in-depth characterization of the novel Mg[Al(hfip)4]2 salt in different glyme-based electrolytes. Specific importance is given to the influence of water content and the role of additives in the electrolyte. Mg[Al(hfip)4]2-based electrolytes exemplify high tolerance to water presence and the beneficial effect of additives under aggravated cycling conditions. Finally, electrolyte compatibility is tested with three different types of Mg cathodes, spanning different types of electrochemical mechanisms (Chevrel phase, organic cathode, sulfur). Benchmarking with an electrolyte containing a state-of-the-art Mg[B(hfip)4]2 salt exemplifies an improved …

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Jun 2022 • Journal of Biological Chemistry

Identification and functional implications of pseudouridine RNA modification on small noncoding RNAs in the mammalian pathogen Trypanosoma brucei

K Shanmugha Rajan, Katerina Adler, Tirza Doniger, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Noa Aharon-Hefetz, Saurav Aryal, Yitzhak Pilpel, Christian Tschudi, Ron Unger, Shulamit Michaeli

Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite that causes sleeping sickness, cycles between an insect and a mammalian host. However, the effect of RNA modifications such as pseudouridinylation on its ability to survive in these two different host environments is unclear. Here, two genome-wide approaches were applied for mapping pseudouridinylation sites (Ψs) on small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), 7SL RNA, vtRNA, and tRNAs from T. brucei. We show using HydraPsiSeq and RiboMeth-seq, that the Ψ on C/D snoRNA guiding 2’-O-methylation increased the efficiency of the guided modification on its target, rRNA. We found differential levels of Ψs on these ncRNAs in the two life stages (insect host and mammalian host) of the parasite. Furthermore, tRNA isoform abundance and Ψ modifications were characterized in these two life stages demonstrating stage-specific regulation. We conclude that the differential Ψ modifications …

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Jun 2022 • Journal of the American Chemical Society

Inherent Minor Conformer of Bordetella Effector BteA Directs Chaperone-Mediated Unfolding

Adi Yahalom, Hadassa Shaked, Sharon Ruthstein, Jordan H Chill

The pathogen Bordetella pertussis uses a type-3 secretion system (T3SS) to inject its cytotoxic effector BteA into the host cell via a designated needle structure. Prior to injection BteA is bound to its cognate chaperone BtcA presumed to assist in effector unfolding en route to needle passage. We utilized NMR and EPR spectroscopy to uncover the molecular mechanism of BtcA-mediated unfolding of BteA. BtcA induces a global structural change in the effector, which adopts a more extended and partially unfolded conformation. EPR distance measurements further show that the structured helical-bundle form of free BteA exists in conformational equilibrium with a lowly populated minor species. The nature of this equilibrium was probed using NMR relaxation dispersion experiments. At 283 K structural effects are most pronounced for a contiguous surface spanning the A- and B-helices of BteA, extending at 303 K to a …

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Jun 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2106.00423

Reentrant transitions in a mixture of small and big particles interacting via soft repulsive potential

Itay Azizi, Alexander Y Grosberg, Yitzhak Rabin

We report the first observation of temperature-controlled reentrant transition in simulations of mixtures of small and big particles interacting via soft repulsive potential in 2d. As temperature increases, the system passes from a fluid mixture, to a crystal of big particles in a fluid of small particles and back to a fluid mixture. Solidification is driven by entropy gain of small particles which overcomes the free energy cost of confining big ones. Melting results from enhanced interpenetration of particles at high temperature which reduces the entropic forces that stabilize the crystal.

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Jun 2022 • Sexual Development, 1-12, 2022

SOX Genes and Their Role in Disorders of Sex Development

Rajini Sreenivasan, Nitzan Gonen, Andrew Sinclair

SOX genesare master regulatory genes controlling development and are fundamental to the establishment of sex determination in a multitude of organisms. The discovery of the master sex-determining gene SRY in 1990 was pivotal for the understanding of how testis development is initiated in mammals. With this discovery, an entire family of SOX factors were uncovered that play crucial roles in cell fate decisions during development. The importance of SOX genes in human reproductive development is evident from the various disorders of sex development (DSD) upon loss or overexpression of SOX gene function. Here, we review the roles that SOX genes play in gonad development and their involvement in DSD. We start with an overview of sex determination and differentiation, DSDs, and the SOX gene family and function. We then provide detailed information and discussion on SOX genes that have been …

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Jun 2022 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Multichannel nature of Efimov physics with ultracold 7Li atoms

Jose D'Incao, Yaakov Yudkin, Paul Julienne, Lev Khaykovich

We present our current understanding of various aspects of Efimov physics originating from the complex multichannel hyperfine structure and overlap of Feshbach resonances for 7Li atoms. This further help us to explain puzzling experimental observations with ultracold gases. We have characterized the energies of Efimov states and corresponding interference and resonance scattering phenomena associated to them as a function of an external magnetic field. Our results also indicate that Efimov states in the 7Li system can have a unique mixed hyperfine character which strongly affect their near-threshold behavior for repulsive interatomic interactions.[1] Y. Yudkin, R. Elbaz, L. Khaykovich, arXiv: 2004.02723.

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Jun 2022 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Multichannel nature of Efimov physics with ultracold 7Li atoms

Jose D'Incao, Yaakov Yudkin, Paul Julienne, Lev Khaykovich

We present our current understanding of various aspects of Efimov physics originating from the complex multichannel hyperfine structure and overlap of Feshbach resonances for 7Li atoms. This further help us to explain puzzling experimental observations with ultracold gases. We have characterized the energies of Efimov states and corresponding interference and resonance scattering phenomena associated to them as a function of an external magnetic field. Our results also indicate that Efimov states in the 7Li system can have a unique mixed hyperfine character which strongly affect their near-threshold behavior for repulsive interatomic interactions.[1] Y. Yudkin, R. Elbaz, L. Khaykovich, arXiv: 2004.02723.

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Jun 2022 • 2022 International Conference Laser Optics (ICLO), 01-01, 2022

Immunoglobulin-based hybrid targeted nanoagents for in vitro and in vivo multimodal imaging

AV Lunin, ES Korenkov, T Sadan, R Popovtzer, EN Mochalova, VR Cherkasov

Nanomedicine constantly broadens horizons of modern therapy and diagnostics. However, imaging nanoagents are of especial interest. Here, we report on novel, facile, and sustainable way to fabricate targeted multimodal imaging nanoparticles. Specifically, we synthesize nanoparticles using immunoglobulins and introduce nanoparticles of different nature into immunoglobulin-based matrix. We demonstrate applicability of the nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo.

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Jun 2022 • Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

RNA Editing of Israeli Founder Nonsense Mutations causing IRDs using Site-Directed Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA

Nina Schneider, Ricky Steinberg, Johanna Valensi, Amit Eylon, Eyal Banin, Erez Levanon, Shay Ben-Aroya, Dror Sharon

Purpose: Targeted RNA editing utilizing the ubiquitous human adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzyme is a possible new genetic therapeutic approach for the treatment of inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). Utilizing guideRNA (gRNA) to recruit the endogenously expressed ADAR enzyme to a mutated RNA and facilitating the deaminization of a specific adenosine to inosine (read as a guanine by the ribosome), allows for the correction of mRNA transcripts in a transient and tunable manner. According to our recent analyses, 40% of single nucleotide variants (SNVs)-causing IRDs are candidates for ADAR-directed editing. Our aim is to design and test gRNAs that induce targeted ADAR editing for 3 common Israeli mutations causing IRDs: TRPM1-p. K294*, FAM161A-p. R523*, and KIZ-p. R76*.Methods: After determining Israeli IRD candidate mutations, we used a yeast model to identify candidate gRNAs …

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Jun 2022 • Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

Investigating the survival and function of retinal ganglion cells in an organotypic culture: An in-vitro model for studying synaptogenesis

Nairouz Farah, Efrat Simon, Yossi Mandel

Purpose: Stem cells replacement therapy is becoming a promising pursued avenue for vision restoration in people with degenerative diseases of the outer retina. However, the integration and survival of the transplanted cells and the formation of fully functioning synapses remain a challenge. Our aim is to develop an in-vitro experimental paradigm which will allow us to address these issues while working under experimentally controlled conditions and avoiding immune system reactions faced in-vivoMethods: As a first step, we are utilizing organotypic retinal cultures from transgenic rats expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP6f while monitoring the survival of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) using both extracellular recordings (multi electrode arrays), and calcium imaging at various time points.Results: Our calcium imaging revealed robust spontaneous activity of the RGCs up to 72hrs, albeit decreasing throughout …

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