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Jun 2021 • Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical

Randomly repeated measurements on quantum systems: correlations and topological invariants of the quantum evolution

Klaus Ziegler, Eli Barkai, David A Kessler

Randomly repeated measurements during the evolution of a closed quantum system create a sequence of probabilities for the first detection of a certain quantum state. The related discrete monitored evolution for the return of the quantum system to its initial state is investigated. We found that the mean number of measurements until the first detection is an integer, namely the dimensionality of the accessible Hilbert space. Moreover, the mean first detected return time is equal to the average time step between successive measurements times the mean number of measurements. Thus, the mean first detected return time scales linearly with the dimensionality of the accessible Hilbert space. The main goal of this work is to explain the quantization of the mean return time in terms of a quantized Berry phase.

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Jun 2021 • Nature communications

Non-universal current flow near the metal-insulator transition in an oxide interface

Eylon Persky, Naor Vardi, Ana Mafalda RVL Monteiro, Thierry C van Thiel, Hyeok Yoon, Yanwu Xie, Benoît Fauqué, Andrea D Caviglia, Harold Y Hwang, Kamran Behnia, Jonathan Ruhman, Beena Kalisky

In systems near phase transitions, macroscopic properties often follow algebraic scaling laws, determined by the dimensionality and the underlying symmetries of the system. The emergence of such universal scaling implies that microscopic details are irrelevant. Here, we locally investigate the scaling properties of the metal-insulator transition at the LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 interface. We show that, by changing the dimensionality and the symmetries of the electronic system, coupling between structural and electronic properties prevents the universal behavior near the transition. By imaging the current flow in the system, we reveal that structural domain boundaries modify the filamentary flow close to the transition point, preventing a fractal with the expected universal dimension from forming.

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Jun 2021 • ACS Energy Letters

Influences of cations’ solvation on charge storage performance in polyimide anodes for aqueous multivalent ion batteries

Amey Nimkar, Fyodor Malchick, Bar Gavriel, Meital Turgeman, Gil Bergman, Tianju Fan, Shaul Bublil, Reut Cohen, Michal Weitman, Netanel Shpigel, Mikhael D Levi, Doron Aurbach

Among the examined organic electrodes for aqueous mono and multivalent ions batteries, polyimide is considered a promising candidate because of its high capacity and good cyclability in different electrolyte solutions. While most of the studies so far were focused on the energetic performance of polyimide anodes, much less is known about their charge storage mechanism and particularly how such electrodes are affected by the solvation properties of the inserted cations. Using in situ EQCM-D, a direct assessment of the cationic fluxes and their hydration shells inserted/extracted to/from PI electrodes upon potential application was performed for a large variety of mono and multivalent cations. Our observations demonstrated a pronounced withdrawal of water molecules from the polymeric electrodes during insertion of chaotropic cations and significantly less water withdrawal upon insertion of kosmotropic cations …

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Jun 2021 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Biofilm-Protected Catheters Nanolaminated by Multiple Atomic-Layer-Deposited Oxide Films

Reut Yemini, Shira Frank, Michal Natan, Gila Jacobi, Hagit Aviv, Melina Zysler, Ehud Banin, Malachi Noked

Jun 2021 • JoVE (Journal of Visualized Experiments)

An Intestinal Gut Organ Culture System for Analyzing Host-Microbiota Interactions

Shalhevet Azriel, Hadar Bootz, Alon Shemesh, Sivan Amidror, Nissan Yissachar

The structure of the gut tissue facilitates close and mutualistic interactions between the host and the gut microbiota. These cross-talks are crucial for maintaining local and systemic homeostasis; changes to gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) associate with a wide array of human diseases. Methods for dissecting host-microbiota interactions encompass an inherent tradeoff among preservation of physiological tissue structure (when using in vivo animal models) and the level of control over the experiment factors (as in simple in vitro cell culture systems). To address this tradeoff, Yissachar et al. recently developed an intestinal organ culture system. The system preserves a naive colon tissue construction and cellular mechanisms and it also permits tight experimental control, facilitating experimentations that cannot be readily performed in vivo. It is optimal for dissecting short-term responses of various gut components (such as epithelial, immunological and neuronal elements) to luminal perturbations (including anaerobic or aerobic microbes, whole microbiota samples from mice or humans, drugs and metabolites). Here, we present a detailed description of an optimized protocol for organ culture of multiple gut fragments using a custom-made gut culture device. Host responses to luminal perturbations can be visualized by immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections or whole-mount tissue fragments, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), or time-lapse imaging. This system supports a wide array of readouts, including next-generation sequencing, flow cytometry, and various cellular and biochemical assays. Overall, this three-dimensional organ …

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Jun 2021 • Physical Review Letters

García-Aguilar et al. Reply:

Ireth García-Aguilar, Ayelet Atkins, Piermarco Fonda, Eli Sloutskin, Luca Giomi

authors’ conclusions. Specifically, the stretching energy of a spherical crystal depends on the configuration of the topological defects and ranges from the numbers ES in Table I of Ref.[10] to infinity (as any two of the twelve seed disclinations approach each other). Thus, stretching cannot be excluded a priori, and its effect is, in fact, pivotal for the emergence of the icosahedral structure, where the twelve seed disclinations are maximally spaced. Similarly, because of the quartic dependence on r= RH0, where R is the droplet radius and H0 the spontaneous curvature, the gravitational energy EG is a rapidly increasing function of R. In the example considered by Haas et al., R= 10 μm [1], which, using H− 1 0≈ 60 nm and Π≈ 10− 8[10], gives r≈ 167 and ΠΔEGr4≈ 27. Thus, ΠΔEGr4 is much smaller than the dimensionless bending energy difference ΔEHr≈ 9× 103 [1]. Yet, it is sufficient to take a droplet of radius R= 45 …

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Jun 2021 • Advanced Materials

Enhancing Light–Matter Interactions in MoS2 by Copper Intercalation

Chen Stern, Avraham Twitto, Rifael Z Snitkoff, Yafit Fleger, Sabyasachi Saha, Loukya Boddapati, Akash Jain, Mengjing Wang, Kristie J Koski, Francis Leonard Deepak, Ashwin Ramasubramaniam, Doron Naveh

The intercalation of layered compounds opens up a vast space of new host–guest hybrids, providing new routes for tuning the properties of materials. Here, it is shown that uniform and continuous layers of copper can be intercalated within the van der Waals gap of bulk MoS2 resulting in a unique Cu–MoS2 hybrid. The new Cu–MoS2 hybrid, which remains semiconducting, possesses a unique plasmon resonance at an energy of ≈1eV, giving rise to enhanced optoelectronic activity. Compared with high‐performance MoS2 photodetectors, copper‐enhanced devices are superior in their spectral response, which extends into the infrared, and also in their total responsivity, which exceeds 104 A W−1. The Cu–MoS2 hybrids hold promise for supplanting current night‐vision technology with compact, advanced multicolor night vision.

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Jun 2021 • Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

A comprehensive study on the combustion kinetic modeling of typical electronic plastic waste—television set (TV) plastic shell

Qiyu Luo, Zhitong Yao, Wei Qi, Jianyuan Sun, Aharon Gedanken, Xinyang Chen, Yuhang Sun, Jie Liu, Shaodan Xu, Weihong Wu

Electronic waste is the fastest growing waste stream and one of the most significant constituents is electronic plastics. In this study, the combustion kinetic of typical electronic plastic waste—television set (TV) plastic shell—was investigated using two basic kinetic methods. The reaction mechanism and kinetic compensation effect were probed as well. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that its degradation process can be divided into four stages, namely, reaction initiation stage (20–300 °C), major reaction stage (300–450 °C), minor reaction stage (450–600 °C), and reaction cessation stage (600–1,000 °C). The activation energy (E) were calculated and indicated that, the kinetic parameters from six model-free methods gradually decreased with α increasing from 0.1 to 0.35, and then slightly increased. The Flynn--Wall--Ozawa (FWO) method was more reliable and E values decreased from 155.0 to 147 …

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Jun 2021 • Composites Part B: Engineering 223, 109102, 2021

3D printing for polymer/particle-based processing: A review

Weiheng Xu, Sayli Jambhulkar, Yuxiang Zhu, Dharneedar Ravichandran, Mounika Kakarla, Brent Vernon, David G Lott, Jeffrey L Cornella, Orit Shefi, Guillaume Miquelard-Garnier, Yang Yang, Kenan Song

The 3D printing method, alternatively known as additive manufacturing (AM), is promising for rapid tooling and layered micromanufacturing. However, significant fundamental research and applied study in the 3D printing area are still necessary to develop new manufacturing mechanisms for combining multi-materials for multiscale and multi-functionality behaviors. Among those materials, particles with unique mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical, and other functional properties can find broad applications in structural composites, thermal packaging, electrical devices, optoelectronics, biomedical implants, energy storage, filtration, and purification. This review will first briefly cover the 3D printing basics before presenting the critical factors in polymer/particle-based printing. We will then introduce a spectrum of different printing mechanisms, i.e., vat polymerization-based, jetting-based, material extrusion-based …

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Jun 2021 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Electrochemical and structural studies of LiNi0. 85Co0. 1Mn0. 05O2, a cathode material for high energy density Li-ion batteries, stabilized by doping with small amounts of tungsten

Yehonatan Levartovsky, Sooraj Kunnikuruvan, Arup Chakraborty, SANDIPAN MAITI, Judith Grinblat, Michael Talianker, Dam Thomas Major, Doron Aurbach

The specific capacity of Ni-rich LiNixCoyMnzO2 (x>0.5) cathodes is higher as their Ni content is higher and can reach values up to 240 mAh g-1 (x →1) while being charged below 4.3V vs. Li. This property is very important as charging below this potential does not endanger the anodic stability of the electrolyte solutions of Li ion batteries. However, as the content of Ni is higher, the electrochemical, structural and thermal stability is lower. Here we concentrate on LiNi0.85Co0.1Mn0.05O2 which was stabilized by doping with 1 mol% of W using a simple solid-state synthesis. Such doping improved pronouncedly the electrochemical, thermal and structural stability, although both X-ray diffraction and density functional theory (DFT) studies indicated negligible change in the structural parameters upon doping. For instance, 96% capacity retention was achieved for doped cathodes after 120 cycles at 45°C vs. Li anodes …

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Jun 2021 • Optics Express

Polarization dynamics of ultrafast solitons

Avi Klein, Sara Meir, Hamootal Duadi, Arjunan Govindarajan, Moti Fridman

We study the polarization dynamics of ultrafast solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers. We find that when a stable soliton is generated, its state of polarization shifts toward a stable state, and when the soliton is generated with excess power levels it experiences relaxation oscillations in its intensity and timing. On the other hand, when a soliton is generated in an unstable state of polarization, it either decays in intensity until it disappears, or its temporal width decreases until it explodes into several solitons, and then it disappears. We also found that when two solitons are simultaneously generated close to each other, they attract each other until they collide and merge into a single soliton. Although these two solitons are generated with different states-of-polarization, they shift their state of polarization closer to each other until the polarization coincides when they collide. We support our findings by numerical calculations of …

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Jun 2021 • Applied Physics Letters

Enhancement of photon detection in superconducting nanowire single photon detector exposed to oscillating magnetic field

Ilan Hakimi, Naor Vardi, Amos Sharoni, Michael Rosenbluh, Yosef Yeshurun

We measured the photon count rate (PCR) and dark count rate (DCR) of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) exposed to either a DC magnetic field (up to 60 mT) or to a low-amplitude oscillating field ( 0.12 – 0.48 mT, up to 50 kHz). In both cases, the results show an increase in the PCR and the DCR as the DC field or the frequency of the AC field increase. However, the ratio DCR/(PCR + DCR) increases significantly with an increasing DC field, whereas this ratio is approximately constant as the frequency of the AC field increases up to frequencies in the kHz regime. The results suggest a more favorable effect of AC fields on the operation of the SNSPD.

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Jun 2021 • Nature Methods

Diversity in immunogenomics: the value and the challenge

Kerui Peng, Yana Safonova, Mikhail Shugay, Alice B Popejoy, Oscar L Rodriguez, Felix Breden, Petter Brodin, Amanda M Burkhardt, Carlos Bustamante, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Martin M Corcoran, Darragh Duffy, Macarena Fuentes-Guajardo, Ricardo Fujita, Victor Greiff, Vanessa D Jönsson, Xiao Liu, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Maura Rossetti, Jianming Xie, Gur Yaari, Wei Zhang, Malak S Abedalthagafi, Khalid O Adekoya, Rahaman A Ahmed, Wei-Chiao Chang, Clive Gray, Yusuke Nakamura, William D Lees, Purvesh Khatri, Houda Alachkar, Cathrine Scheepers, Corey T Watson, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam, Serghei Mangul

Genomic studies have mainly used samples from individuals of European ancestry, at the expense of learning from the largest and most genetically diverse populations. For example, 78% of individuals included in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported in the GWAS Catalog (https://www. ebi. ac. uk/gwas/home) through January 2019 are of European descent 1, while Asian populations account for 59.5% of the world population based on the Population Reference Bureau’s World Population Data Sheet (https://www. prb. org/datasheets/). Though this is partially due to inadequate sampling of non-European populations, researchers tend to exclude data from minority groups when conducting statistical analyses 2 even when diverse datasets are available. The limited inclusion of samples from diverse populations hinders the equitable advancement of genomic medicine as a result of persistent uncertainty …

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Jun 2021 • Advances in Optics and Photonics 13 (2), 242-352, 2021

Integrated photonics on thin-film lithium niobate

Di Zhu, Linbo Shao, Mengjie Yu, Rebecca Cheng, Boris Desiatov, CJ Xin, Yaowen Hu, Jeffrey Holzgrafe, Soumya Ghosh, Amirhassan Shams-Ansari, Eric Puma, Neil Sinclair, Christian Reimer, Mian Zhang, Marko Lončar

Lithium niobate (LN), an outstanding and versatile material, has influenced our daily life for decades—from enabling high-speed optical communications that form the backbone of the Internet to realizing radio-frequency filtering used in our cell phones. This half-century-old material is currently embracing a revolution in thin-film LN integrated photonics. The successes of manufacturing wafer-scale, high-quality thin films of LN-on-insulator (LNOI) and breakthroughs in nanofabrication techniques have made high-performance integrated nanophotonic components possible. With rapid development in the past few years, some of these thin-film LN devices, such as optical modulators and nonlinear wavelength converters, have already outperformed their legacy counterparts realized in bulk LN crystals. Furthermore, the nanophotonic integration has enabled ultra-low-loss resonators in LN, which has unlocked many …

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Jun 2021 • The Journal of Chemical Physics

Second harmonic generation by strongly coupled exciton–plasmons: The role of polaritonic states in nonlinear dynamics

Maxim Sukharev, Adi Salomon, Joseph Zyss

We investigate second harmonic generation (SHG) from hexagonal periodic arrays of triangular nano-holes of aluminum using a self-consistent methodology based on the hydrodynamics-Maxwell–Bloch approach. It is shown that angular polarization patterns of the far-field second harmonic response abide to threefold symmetry constraints on tensors. When a molecular layer is added to the system and its parameters are adjusted to achieve the strong coupling regime between a localized plasmon mode and molecular excitons, Rabi splitting is observed from the occurrence of both single- and two-photon transition peaks within the SHG power spectrum. It is argued that the splitting observed for both transitions results from direct two-photon transitions between lower and upper polaritonic states of the strongly coupled system. This interpretation can be accounted by a tailored three-level quantum model, with results …

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Jun 2021 • Energy Storage Materials

Enhanced performance of Ti3C2Tx (MXene) electrodes in concentrated ZnCl2 solutions: a combined electrochemical and EQCM-D study

Bar Gavriel, Netanel Shpigel, Fyodor Malchik, Gil Bergman, Meital Turgeman, Mikhael D Levi, Doron Aurbach

The need for improved batteries and supercapacitors, which are not based on lithium compounds, promotes significant research efforts to find suitable alternative systems based on various mono and multivalent cations capable of delivering high energy and power density with good long-term stability. The progress in aqueous Zn-ion batteries and supercapacitors obtained over the past years lead to the development of new structures and compounds that enable revisable hosting of Zn-ions while keeping good structural integrity. Yet, as aqueous electrolytes involve also the generation and co-insertion of protons it is necessary to carefully define what is the charge storage mechanism in these Zn insertion compounds. In this work, the use of Ti3C2Tx as an anode for the Zn-ion system was evaluated for the first time in different ZnCl2 concentrations. Remarkable changes in the charge storage mechanism and the …

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Jun 2021 • Optical Fiber Communication Conference, F1B. 6, 2021

Opto-mechanical inter-core crosstalk in multi-core fibers

Hilel Hagai Diamandi, Avi Zadok

The constituent cores of multi-core fibers are coupled by acoustic modes, guided by the entire cladding cross-section. Acoustic coupling leads to inter core cross phase modulation. The effect is quantified in analysis and experiment.

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Jun 2021 • Journal of Solid State Chemistry

Alumina thin coat on pre-charged soft carbon anode reduces electrolyte breakdown and maintains sodiation sites active in Na-ion battery–Insights from NMR measurements

Shaul Bublil, Nicole Leifer, Raju Nanda, Yuval Elias, Miryam Fayena-Greenstein, Doron Aurbach, Gil Goobes

Atomic deposition of a thin layer of alumina on amorphous carbon materials was recently established to improve their electrochemical properties as anodes in sodium-ion batteries. It is shown that the highest performance for these materials can be achieved by pre-sodiation of the electrode before coating it. The basis for the enhanced performance is illuminated by 13C and 23Na MAS NMR analysis showing that this specific procedure diminishes parasitic reactions and preserves reversible access to active sodiation sites.

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Jun 2021 • Physical Review A

One-particle and two-particle visibilities in bipartite entangled Gaussian states

Danko Georgiev, Leon Bello, Avishy Carmi, Eliahu Cohen

Complementarity between one-particle visibility and two-particle visibility in discrete systems can be extended to bipartite quantum-entangled Gaussian states implemented with continuous-variable quantum optics. The meaning of the two-particle visibility originally defined by Jaeger, Horne, Shimony, and Vaidman with the use of an indirect method that first corrects the two-particle probability distribution by adding and subtracting other distributions with varying degree of entanglement, however, deserves further analysis. Furthermore, the origin of complementarity between one-particle visibility and two-particle visibility is somewhat elusive and it is not entirely clear what is the best way to associate particular two-particle quantum observables with the two-particle visibility. Here, we develop a direct method for quantifying the two-particle visibility based on measurement of a pair of two-particle observables that are …

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Jun 2021 • Nucleic acids research

Barcoded oligonucleotides ligated on RNA amplified for multiplexed and parallel in situ analyses

Songlei Liu, Sukanya Punthambaker, Eswar PR Iyer, Thomas Ferrante, Daniel Goodwin, Daniel Fürth, Andrew C Pawlowski, Kunal Jindal, Jenny M Tam, Lauren Mifflin, Shahar Alon, Anubhav Sinha, Asmamaw T Wassie, Fei Chen, Anne Cheng, Valerie Willocq, Katharina Meyer, King-Hwa Ling, Conor K Camplisson, Richie E Kohman, John Aach, Je Hyuk Lee, Bruce A Yankner, Edward S Boyden, George M Church

We present barcoded oligonucleotides ligated on RNA amplified for multiplexed and parallel insitu analyses (BOLORAMIS), a reverse transcription-free method for spatially-resolved, targeted, in situ RNA identification of single or multiple targets. BOLORAMIS was demonstrated on a range of cell types and human cerebral organoids. Singleplex experiments to detect coding and non-coding RNAs in human iPSCs showed a stem-cell signature pattern. Specificity of BOLORAMIS was found to be 92% as illustrated by a clear distinction between human and mouse housekeeping genes in a co-culture system, as well as by recapitulation of subcellular localization of lncRNA MALAT1. Sensitivity of BOLORAMIS was quantified by comparing with single molecule FISH experiments and found to be 11%, 12% and 35% for GAPDH, TFRC and POLR2A, respectively. To demonstrate BOLORAMIS for multiplexed gene …

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Jun 2021 • Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

A comprehensive study on the combustion kinetic modeling of typical electronic plastic waste—Television set (TV) plastic shell

Qiyu Luo, Zhitong Yao, Wei Qi, Jianyuan Sun, Aharon Gedanken, Xinyang Chen, Yuhang Sun, Jie Liu, Shaodan Xu, Weihong Wu

Electronic waste is the fastest growing waste stream and one of the most significant constituents is electronic plastics. In this study, the combustion kinetic of typical electronic plastic waste—television set (TV) plastic shell—was investigated using two basic kinetic methods. The reaction mechanism and kinetic compensation effect were probed as well. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that its degradation process can be divided into four stages, namely, reaction initiation stage (20–300 °C), major reaction stage (300–450 °C), minor reaction stage (450–600 °C), and reaction cessation stage (600–1,000 °C). The activation energy (E) were calculated and indicated that, the kinetic parameters from six model-free methods gradually decreased with α increasing from 0.1 to 0.35, and then slightly increased. The Flynn--Wall--Ozawa (FWO) method was more reliable and E values decreased from 155.0 to 147 …

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