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Feb 2020 • Advanced Optical Techniques for Quantum Information, Sensing, and Metrology …, 2020

Cyclic quantum walks: photonic realization and decoherence analysis

F Nejadsattari, Y Zhang, MN Jayakody, F Bouchard, H Larocque, A Sit, R Fickler, E Cohen, E Karimi

Quantum walks serve as novel tools for performing efficient quantum computation and simulation. In a recent experimental demonstration [1] we have realized photonic quantum walks for simulating cyclic quantum systems, such as hexagonal lattices or aromatic molecules like benzene. In that experiment we explored the wave function dynamics and the probability distribution of a quantum particle located on a six-site system (with periodic boundary conditions), alongside with simpler demonstration of three- and four-site systems, under various initial conditions. Localization and revival of the wave function were demonstrated. After revisiting that experiment we will theoretically analyze the case of noisy quantum walks by implementing the bit-phase flip channel. This will allow us to draw conclusions regarding the performance of our photonic quantum simulation in noisy environments. Finally, we will briefly outline …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Remote optical sensing of neuronal tissue vibrations during regeneration

Ariel Halevi, Sharon Cohen, Nairous Farah, Asaf Shoval, Orit Shefi, Yossi Mandel, Zeev Zalevsky, Nisan Ozana

In this paper we propose a novel approach for remote speckle-based sensing of mechanical vibrations in the Hirudo medicinalis leech central nervous system (CNS) connective tissue. Using this method, spontaneous vibrations generated at the connective tissue following partial cut injury are continuously and remotely monitored. A laser beam illuminates the connective tissue and back scattered defocused patterns at the far field are captured by the camera. The spatialtemporal spontaneous vibrations of the connective are monitored by tracking the speckle spatial-temporal trajectory. After applying correlation-based analysis we were able to detect these vibrations of the connective tissue during recovery with respect to control measurements. This approach is the first step towards understanding the possible involvement of the tissue movements for the recovering process via mechanical vibrations sensing of the …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Spectroscopy measurements of opaque material by nanophotonics iterative multi-plane technique

I Yariv, C Shapira, H Duadi, D Fixler

The interaction of light with different materials has been studied for hundreds of years in various research fields e.g., material analysis, quantum physics, biomedical optics, etc.. This interaction is determined by the material's optical properties which are spectrally dependent. Spectroscopic methods examine the spectral dependence of the interaction, which reveals the material fingerprint. However, in opaque materials, their characterization is more complex and challenging due to the scattering. We have previously presented the iterative multi-plane optical property extraction (IMOPE) technique for characterizing materials using the reflection from turbid media. The reflection-based IMOPE, which estimates medium scattering properties, combines a theoretical model with an experimental setup and the multiple measurement GS algorithm. This technique was initially aimed for biomedical applications, where the red …

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Feb 2020 • Optical, Opto-Atomic, and Entanglement-Enhanced Precision Metrology II 11296 …, 2020

Experimental realization of robust weak measurements

Enrico Rebufello, Fabrizio Piacentini, Alessio Avella, MA de Souza, Marco Gramegna, Jan Dziewior, Eliahu Cohen, Lev Vaidman, Ivo P Degiovanni, Marco Genovese

Despite being very influential on both foundations and applications of quantum mechanics, weak values are still somewhat controversial. Although there are some indications that weak values are physical properties of a single quantum system, the common way weak values are presented is statistical: it is commonly believed that for measuring weak values one has to perform many weak measurements over a large ensemble of pre- and postselected particles. Other debates surround the anomalous nature of weak value and even their quantumness. To address these issues, we present some preliminary data showing that anomalous weak values can be measured using just a single detection, i.e. with no statistics. In our experiment, a single click of a detector indicates the weak value as a single photon property, which moreover lies well beyond the range of eigenvelues of the measured operator. Importantly, the …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Enhanced non-contact and continuous sensing of periodic bio-signs: extending sensor’s temporal bandwidth

Zeev Zalevsky

Laser based photonic non-contact sensor can be used for continuous sensing of periodic vital bio signs by analyzing the temporal changes of the spatial back scattered secondary speckle patterns. This analysis allows extraction of nanovibrations of the inspected tissue (surface and in-depth) and associate it with various vital bio-signs. One of limitations for this type of sensing is the temporal bandwidth of the analyzing camera. It’s number of frames per second limits the maximal temporal bandwidth of the biological signals that can be sensed. I will show how to increase the temporal bandwidth in two ways. First by encoding the illuminating laser with orthogonal convolution codes-based patterns and using the fact that the to be sensed biological signals are periodic, in order to allow a significant enhancement of the bandwidth of the camera aiming to overcome the limiting factor induced by its low sampling rate …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Multimodal high-resolution imaging of photoreceptor precursor cells using gold nanoparticles

Oshra Betzer, Yoav Chemla, Amos Markus, Menachem Motiei, Tamar Sadan, Zhuang Liu, Yossi Mandel, Rachela Popovtzer, Dror Fixler

Cell replacement therapy is a feasible approach for vision restoration in several degenerative diseases of the outer retina in order to halt disease progression and recover lost vision. In this treatment photoreceptor precursors are transplanted in the subretinal space and later integrate within the retina. In order to evaluate the efficiency of cell transplantation for vision restoration, it is crucial to monitor cell survival and integration in the host retina over extended periods, therefore, longitudinal tracking of the transplanted cells in clinical and experimental setups is crucial. Here we present a technique for labeling photoreceptor precursors with gold nanoparticles prior to vitreous and subretinal space transplantation treatment. This labeling allow multimodal imaging using both computed tomography (CT), optical coherence tomography(OCT) and fluorescence fundus imaging. Our multimodal imaging technique enabled …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Tracking bacteria clearance using gold nanoparticles for wound therapy applications

Menachem Motiei, Oshra Betzer, Tamar Sadan, Neta Zilony, Guy Topaz, Rachela Popovtzer, Moris Topaz, Dror Fixler

Bacterial infection and biofilm buildup is a major challenge for wound healing. In the present work we developed a method to track bacteria in vivo in order to analyze the progress of the healing. Regulated irrigation combined with negative pressure (RI-NPT) is a nonpharmaceutical therapeutic strategy for reducing bacterial load in acute and chronically infected wounds. Here, we analyzed RI-NPT hydrokinetics and efficacy of bacterial load reduction in wounds. Escherichia coli were loaded with gold nanoparticles, in order to make them "visible" and trackable using computed tomography (CT). Bacteria were tracked using CT in a low-flow rat wound model over time. CT tracking revealed that while regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy reduced bacterial load to a limited extent (5%), RI-NPT significantly increased bacterial outflow and clearance (by 45%). This nanotechnology-based approach …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Near-infrared scattering measurements of the iso-path-length point for endoscopic applications

Hamootal Duadi, Daqing Piao, Dror Fixler

Near-infrared (NIR) diagnosis permits sensing changes in the optical properties on an air-tissue interface. While imaging is bound to the surface due to the high tissue scattering, many diagnosis methods, such as the photoplethysmograph (PPG) and pulse oximeter, focus on sensing instead of imaging. These methods are commonly used in cylindrical tissues, such as fingertips, or half infinite tissues, such as forehead. However, these methods are less common in endoscopic applications, where a cylinder of air is surrounded by tissue. Previously, we proposed measuring the full scattering profile (FSP), which is the angular intensity distribution, of cylindrical tissues. MC simulations revealed that the FSP has a fixed intensity point, named the iso-path-length (IPL) point, which does not depend on the reduced scattering coefficient. The location of this point depends solely on geometry. Using an analytics photon …

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Feb 2020 • Optical, Opto-Atomic, and Entanglement-Enhanced Precision Metrology II 11296 …, 2020

Imaging in time of non-classical ultrafast signals with high temporal resolution

Avi Klein, Inbar Sibony, Sara Meir, Ori Friedman, Shir Shahal, Hamootal Duadi, Eliahu Cohen, Moti Fridman

A time-lens can image signals in time and map ultrafast signals from frequency to time. The concept of time-lens is based on the duality between the diffraction of light in space and the dispersion of pulses in time, which arises from the similarity between the equations describing these two phenomena. In this paper we explain how to use time-lenses in order to perform high-resolution temporal imaging on non-classical ultrafast signals. Such a scheme can be used e.g. for diagnosing quantum cryptography schemes on optical fiber networks or assessing the performance of photonic quantum computers and simulators.

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Extraction of the absorption coefficient of cylindrical tissue from a single wavelength based on the full scattering profile

I Feder, H Duadi, D Fixler

Sensing physiological parameters by optical methods is very common because they are simple to use, they do not hurt the patient and they provide a real-time measurement. These parameters, such as oxygen saturation, are based on detection of light absorption through the tissue. The existing method uses multiple wavelengths to extract the absorption coefficient. However, the optical pathlength depends on the wavelength. Hence, the use of different light sources, which propagate through the tissue in different pathlengths, adds an inherent error to the calculation of the absorption coefficient. We suggest a new optical method for extracting the absorption coefficient of cylindrical tissues by a single wavelength. The method uses one wavelength only and therefore does not suffer from inherent errors. Our calculation is based on the iso-pathlength (IPL) point that we previously found. This phenomenon was …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Multimodal high-resolution imaging of photoreceptor precursor cells using gold nanoparticles

O Betzer, Y Chemla, A Markus, M Motiei, T Sadan, Z Liu, Y Mandel, ...

Cell replacement therapy is a feasible approach for vision restoration in several degenerative diseases of the outer retina in order to halt disease progression and recover lost vision. In this treatment photoreceptor precursors are transplanted in the subretinal space and later integrate within the retina. In order to evaluate the efficiency of cell transplantation for vision restoration, it is crucial to monitor cell survival and integration in the host retina over extended periods, therefore, longitudinal tracking of the transplanted cells in clinical and experimental setups is crucial. Here we present a technique for labeling photoreceptor precursors with gold nanoparticles prior to vitreous and subretinal space transplantation treatment. This labeling allow multimodal imaging using both computed tomography (CT), optical coherence tomography(OCT) and fluorescence fundus imaging. Our multimodal imaging technique enabled …

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Feb 2020 • Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems XII 11258 …, 2020

Fiber-integrated fabric for non-tight contact bio-sensing of vital signs

Aviya Bennet, Rotem Hendel, Barak Straussman, Yafim Beiderman, Sergey Agdarov, Zeev Zalevsky

In this research we present a novel configuration allowing to perform high precision sensing of various vital bio-signs obtained from a fiber-based sensor performing the measurements in a non-tight contact with the skin of the measured subject. We will discuss usage of various types of fibers: single as well as multi-mode. Laser beam is injected into the fiber. In the case of a single mode fiber along the fiber, special artifacts that are breaking the total internal reflection condition, are inserted. Those artifacts are causing to some portion of the injected light to escape the fiber and to interact with the nearby surrounding of the fiber, realizing a smart photonic drip. Changes in the resulted interferencebased intensity at the output of the fiber-sensor is analyzed and associated with various bio-medical signs. In the case of a multi-mode fiber, a detector analyzes the temporal-spatial changes of the 2-D speckle pattern imaged at …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Tracking bacteria clearance using gold nanoparticles for wound therapy applications

M Motiei, O Betzer, T Sadan, N Zilony, G Topaz, R Popovtzer, M Topaz, ...

Bacterial infection and biofilm buildup is a major challenge for wound healing. In the present work we developed a method to track bacteria in vivo in order to analyze the progress of the healing. Regulated irrigation combined with negative pressure (RI-NPT) is a nonpharmaceutical therapeutic strategy for reducing bacterial load in acute and chronically infected wounds. Here, we analyzed RI-NPT hydrokinetics and efficacy of bacterial load reduction in wounds. Escherichia coli were loaded with gold nanoparticles, in order to make them "visible" and trackable using computed tomography (CT). Bacteria were tracked using CT in a low-flow rat wound model over time. CT tracking revealed that while regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy reduced bacterial load to a limited extent (5%), RI-NPT significantly increased bacterial outflow and clearance (by 45%). This nanotechnology-based approach …

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Feb 2020 • Physical Review B

Origin of the anomalous Pb-Br bond dynamics in formamidinium lead bromide perovskites

Harishchandra Singh, Ruixiang Fei, Yevgeny Rakita, Michael Kulbak, David Cahen, Andrew M Rappe, Anatoly I Frenkel

Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the light-harvesting formamidinium lead bromide (FAPbBr 3) perovskite, a system with attractive optoelectronic performance, shows anomalously large variance in Pb-Br bond length, some 50% larger than in its inorganic CsPbBr 3 counterpart. Using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, we find a significant contribution to this variance coming from the FA cation, and show that the FA does not just tumble in its cuboctahedral Br 12 cage, but instead stochastically sticks to, and detaches from one of the 12 nearest Br atoms after another, leading to the large variance in Pb-Br bond length. Our results demonstrate dynamic coupling between the FA-Br moiety and perovskite cage vibrations, and that tunability in dynamics can be achieved by changing the cation type and perovskite lattice parameter. Thus, our results provide information that needs to be …

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Feb 2020 • Journal of Applied Polymer Science

P‐LME polymer nanocapsules stimulate naïve macrophages and protect them from oxidative damage during controlled drug release

Anil K Yamala, Vinod Nadella, Yitzhak Mastai, Hridayesh Prakash, Pradip Paik

Using polymer‐based nanocapsules as novel drug delivery systems have gained significant importance. In this work, we present poly‐(N‐Acryloyl L‐Leucine methyl ester [pLME]) nanocapsules with hollow core (pLME) of size approximately ~160 nm (dia.) synthesized for the first time through the miniemulsion approach. Our study reveals that pLME are biocompatible and immune stimulatory in nature on macrophages, which are decisive for host immunity. These nanocapsules are effective for encapsulating and sustainable release of drug (SNP; nitric oxide donor) at a high extent ~1.04 μM mg‐. pLME also demonstrated their potential of stimulating naïve macrophages toward the M1 phenotype for extended period of time indicating their adjuvant activity on immune system. Our data also demonstrated their antioxidant potential toward H2O2‐induced oxidative stress in macrophages. These results suggest pLME …

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Feb 2020 • Journal of biophotonics

Remote photonic sensing of cerebral hemodynamic changes via temporal spatial analysis of acoustic vibrations

Nisan Ozana, Jack Adam Noah, Xian Zhang, Yumie Ono, Joy Hirsch, Zeev Zalevsky

A novel photonic method for remote monitoring of task‐related hemodynamic changes in human brain activation is presented. Physiological processes associated with neural activity, such as nano‐vibrations due to blood flow and tissue oxygenation in the brain, are detected by remote sensing of nano‐acoustic vibrations using temporal spatial analysis of defocused self‐interference random patterns. Temporal nanometric changes of the speckle pattern due to visual task‐induced hemodynamic responses were tracked by this method. Reversing visual checkerboard stimulation alternated with rest epochs, and responsive signals were identified in occipital lobe using near‐infrared spectroscopy. Temporal vibrations associated with these hemodynamic response functions were observed using three different approaches: (a) single spot illumination at active and control areas simultaneously, (b) subspots cross …

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Feb 2020 • Methods and applications in fluorescence

Wide-field time-gated SPAD imager for phasor-based FLIM applications

Arin Ulku, Andrei Ardelean, Michel Antolovic, Shimon Weiss, Edoardo Charbon, Claudio Bruschini, Xavier Michalet

We describe the performance of a new wide area time-gated single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array for phasor-FLIM, exploring the effect of gate length, gate number and signal intensity on the measured lifetime accuracy and precision. We conclude that the detector functions essentially as an ideal shot noise limited sensor and is capable of video rate FLIM measurement. The phasor approach used in this work appears ideally suited to handle the large amount of data generated by this type of very large sensor (512× 512 pixels), even in the case of small number of gates and limited photon budget.

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Remote optical sensing of neuronal tissue vibrations during regeneration

Ariel Halevi, Sharon Cohen, Nairous Farah, Asaf Shoval, Orit Shefi, Yossi Mandel, Zeev Zalevsky, Nisan Ozana


Feb 2020 • International Journal of Quantum Information

Analysis of single-particle nonlocality through the prism of weak measurements

Danko Georgiev, Eliahu Cohen

Although regarded today as an important resource in quantum information, nonlocality has yielded over the years many conceptual conundrums. Among the latter are nonlocal aspects of single particles which have been of major interest. In this paper, the nonlocality of single quanta is studied in a square nested Mach–Zehnder interferometer with spatially separated detectors using a delayed choice modification of quantum measurement outcomes that depend on the complex-valued weak values. We show that if spacelike separated Bob and Alice are allowed to freely control their quantum devices, the geometry of the setup constrains the local hidden variable models. In particular, hidden signaling and a list of contextual instructions are required to split a quantum state characterized by a positive Wigner function into two quantum states with nonpositive Wigner functions. This implies that local hidden variable …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Differential uptake of gold-nanorods promotes identification of M1/M2 subtype of macrophage by flow cytometry

R Chakraborty, D Leshem-Lev, D Fixler

Macrophages are one of the most important candidates of innate immune response with pronounced phagocytic activity. As a part of the defense mechanism of our system, an increased level of particular chemokines initiate the activation and further differentiation of the macrophages into two major phenotypes, M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). M1 macrophages promote ‘pro-inflammatory’ activities, whereas, M2 macrophages show ‘anti-inflammatory’ activities. Now, normally a certain ratio of M1/M2 macrophages is maintained in healthy individuals. However, at certain disease conditions, a shift in the M1 to M2 or M2 to M1 macrophage population is observed. An assessment of the M1/M2 ratio would readily predict the health condition of the individual. Here, we propose a novel approach to identify M1 and M2 populations using simple flow cytometry and Gold nanorods (GNRs). According …

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Feb 2020 • Electrochimica Acta

How solution chemistry affects the electrochemical behavior of cathodes for Mg batteries, a classical electroanalytical study

Ran Attias, Shaul Bublil, Michael Salama, Yosef Goffer, Doron Aurbach

Mo6S8 Chevrel phase (CP) is still the most effective magnesium ions insertion material that was examined in cathodes for rechargeable Mg battery model systems. Its synthesis includes CuMo6S8 as an intermediate which undergoes Cu ions leaching. Thereby, CP materials may contain small amounts of copper. CuxMo6S8 undergoes complex magnesium insertion processes that include reversible displacement of copper. We report herein on a study of Cu0.09Mo6S8 electrodes in two electrolyte solutions which are important for secondary Mg batteries: C6H6MgCl/AlCl3/THF (all phenyl complex solutions, APC) and MgTFSI2/MgCl2/DME (Mg imide/chloride/DME solutions, ICD). There systems are ideal playgrounds for studying the nature of complex magnesium insertion processes into inorganic hosts. The analysis reported herein shows how the electroanalytical behavior of CP electrodes is affected by the …

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