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Apr 2022 • Nature Communications

Author Correction: Identification of ADAR1 adenosine deaminase dependency in a subset of cancer cells

Hugh S Gannon, Tao Zou, Michael K Kiessling, Galen F Gao, Diana Cai, Peter S Choi, Alexandru P Ivan, Ilana Buchumenski, Ashton C Berger, Jonathan T Goldstein, Andrew D Cherniack, Francisca Vazquez, Aviad Tsherniak, Erez Y Levanon, William C Hahn, Matthew Meyerson

The original version of the Supplementary Information associated with this Article contained an error in Supplementary Fig. 4a. In Supplementary Fig. 4a the labels “ADAR KO sensitive” and “ADAR KO insensitive” at the top of the immunoblots were mistakenly swapped. The HTML version of the Article has been updated to include a corrected version of the Supplementary Information.

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Apr 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2204.04177

Non-inertial quantum clock frames lead to non-Hermitian dynamics

Ismael L Paiva, Amit Te'eni, Bar Peled, Eliahu Cohen, Yakir Aharonov

Recently, there have been many attempts to extend the notion of proper time to quantum mechanics with the use of quantum clocks. Using a similar idea combined with the relativistic mass-energy equivalence, we consider an accelerating massive quantum particle with an internal clock system. We show that the ensuing evolution from the perspective of the particle's internal clock is non-Hermitian. This result does not rely on specific implementations of the clock. As a particular consequence, we prove that the effective Hamiltonian of two gravitationally interacting particles is non-Hermitian from the perspective of the clock of either particle.

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Apr 2022 • Nanoscale and Quantum Materials: From Synthesis and Laser Processing to …, 2022

Laser induced transfer of 2D materials

Adamantia Logotheti, Symeon Papazoglou, Dimitris Kaltsas, Amaia Zurutuza, Amaia Pesquera, Doron Naveh, Leonidas Tsetseris, Ioanna Zergioti

Ιn the current work we will present the transfer hBN, MoS2 and Bi2Se3-xSx by using the Laser Induced Transfer technique on rigid and flexible substrates. We will exhibit the advantages of the certain technique, the resolution of the transferred pixels and the characterization methods such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Furthermore, we will refer to the possible applications concerning the Bi2Se3-xSx and the hBN. Finally, we will support the experimental results with the corresponding theoretical results of ab initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) with main purpose to explain the detachment and the attachment of the 2D materials from the donor to the receiver substrate.

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Apr 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2204.04657

Tunable magnetic scattering and ferroelectric switching at the interface

Gal Tuvia, Sapir Weitz Sobelman, Shay Sandik, Beena Kalisky, Yoram Dagan

Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic orders rarely coexist, and magnetoelectric coupling is even more scarce. A possible avenue for combining these orders is by interface design, where orders formed at the constituent materials can overlap and interact. Using a combination of magneto-transport and scanning SQUID measurements, we explore the interactions between ferroelectricity, magnetism, and the 2D electron system (2DES) formed at the novel LaAlO/EuTiO/SrCaTiO heterostructure. We find that the electrons at the interface experience magnetic scattering appearing along with a diverging Curie-Weiss-type behaviour in the EuTiO layer. The 2DES is also affected by the switchable ferroelectric polarization at the SrCaTiO bulk. While the 2DES interacts with both magnetism and ferroelectricity, we show that the presence of the conducting electrons has no effect on magnetization in the EuTiO layer. Our results provide a first step towards realizing a new multiferroic system where magnetism and ferroelectricity can interact via an intermediate conducting layer.

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Apr 2022 • Scientific Reports

Optical reciprocity induced wavefront shaping for axial and lateral shifting of focus through a scattering medium

Abhijit Sanjeev, Vismay Trivedi, Zeev Zalevsky

Light propagating along a reversed path experiences the same transmission coefficient as in the forward direction, independent of the path complexity. This is called the optical reciprocity of light, which is valid for not too intense scattering media as well. Hence, by utilizing the reciprocity principle, the proposed novel technique can achieve axially and laterally tunable focus, non-invasively, through a scattering media without a priori knowledge or modeling of its scattering properties. Moreover, the uniqueness of the proposed technique lies in the fact that the illumination and detection are on the same side of the scattering media.

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Apr 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2204.03369

Fault-Tolerant Directional Couplers for State Manipulation in Silicon Photonic-Integrated Circuits

Moshe Katzman, Yonatan Piasetzky, Evyatar Rubin, Ben Birenboim, Maayan Priel, Avi Zadok, Haim Suchowski

Photonic integrated circuits play a central role in current and future applications such as communications, sensing, ranging, and information processing. Photonic quantum computing will also likely require an integrated optics architecture for improved stability, scalability, and performance. Fault-tolerant quantum computing mandates very accurate and robust quantum gates. In this work, we demonstrate high-fidelity directional couplers for single-qubit gates in photonic integrated waveguides, utilizing a novel scheme of detuning-modulated composite segments. Specific designs for reduced sensitivity to wavelength variations and real-world geometrical fabrication errors in waveguides width and depth are presented. Enhanced wavelength tolerance is demonstrated experimentally. The concept shows great promise for scaling high fidelity gates as part of integrated quantum optics architectures.

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Apr 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2204.05342

Phonon-induced modification of quantum criticality

Abhisek Samanta, Efrat Shimshoni, Daniel Podolsky

We study the effect of acoustic phonons on the quantum phase transition in the O() model. We develop a renormalization group analysis near (3+1) space-time dimensions and derive the RG equations using an -expansion. Our results indicate that when the number of flavors of the underlying O() model exceeds a critical number , the quantum transition remains second-order of the Wilson-Fisher type while, for , it is a weakly first-order transition. We characterize this weakly first-order transition by a length-scale , below which the behavior appears to be critical. At finite temperatures for , a tricritical point separates the weakly first-order and second-order transitions.

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Apr 2022 • Physical Review A

Dynamical nonlocality in quantum time via modular operators

IL Paiva, M Nowakowski, E Cohen

We formalize the concept of the modular energy operator within the Page and Wootters timeless framework. As a result, this operator is elevated to the same status as the more studied modular operators of position and momentum. In analogy with dynamical nonlocality in space associated with the modular momentum, we introduce and analyze the nonlocality in time associated with the modular energy operator. Some applications of our formalization are provided through illustrative examples.

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Apr 2022 • Sensors

All Optical Speckle Contrast-Based Vibration Sensor for Photoacoustic Signal Detection

Matan Benyamin, Zeev Zalevsky

Remote detection of photoacoustic signals is a well desired ability, enabling to perform advanced imaging in scenarios where contact is not possible. Various unique solutions have been suggested, including a camera-based speckle contrast photoacoustic detection. In this manuscript, a significant upgrade to the camera-based speckle contrast approach is presented and experimentally demonstrated. This solution is based on all-optical vibration sensing setup. The technique is based on spectral estimation of speckle pattern contrast and relies on several pre-developed works. First, it relies on the suggested application of speckle contrast to vibration sensing, and then on the realization of intensity pattern spectral manipulation, using a shearing interferometer. The method is evaluated and compared to traditional contrast estimation, and demonstrated in several applications in various vibration frequency band such as photoacoustic signal analysis and phonocardiographic heart sounds. The method is also applicable to measuring contrast changes due to a general speckle changing behavior, rather than surface vibration alone.

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Apr 2022 • ACS Agricultural Science & Technology

Preparation and Characterization of a Novel PVA/PVP Hydrogel Containing Entrapped Hydrogen Peroxide for Agricultural Applications

Eyal Malka, Aviv Dombrovsky, Shlomo Margel

Damage and loss of crops and plants caused by pathogens are global problems that have major effects on the food supply of many countries. Environmentally friendly viricide approaches are gaining in popularity to combat these problems. This study proposes the use of environmentally friendly hydrogen peroxide (HP) as a pesticide entrapped in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hydrogel for controlled release in agricultural applications. The hydrogel was prepared as a matrix of PVA and PVP containing HP. Freeze–thaw cycles of the PVA/PVP/HP hydrogel improve the mechanical properties and thereby decrease the HP release rate. The hydrogel chemical composition, morphology, and HP release rate through direct and indirect (gas phase) contact were investigated. Viricide capabilities were tested, indicating a high efficiency against ToBRFV on tobacco and tomato plants. Additionally, low …

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Apr 2022 • Preprints, 2022

The Gut-Ex-vivo System (GEVS) Is a Dynamic and Versatile Tool for the Study of Dnbs-Induced IBDin BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice

Romina Monzani, Mara Gagliardi, Nausicaa Clemente, Valentina Saverio, Elżbieta Pańczyszyn, Nissan Yissachar, Marco Corazzari

Background: IBD is a spectrum of pathologies characterized by dysregulated immune activation leading to uncontrolled response against intestinal, thus resulting in chronic gut inflammation and tissue damage. Due to its complexity, the molecular mechanisms responsible for disease onset and progression are still elusive, thus requiring intense research effort. In this context, the development of models recapitulating the etiopathology of IBD is critical. Methods: Colon from C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice were cultivated in a gut-ex-vivo system (GEVS), exposed 5h to DNBS 1, 5 or 2, 5 mg/ml, and the main hallmarkers of IBD were evaluated. Results: Gene expression analysis revealed a DNBS-induced: i) compromised Tight junction organization, responsible for tissue permeability dysregulation; induction of ER stress, and iii) tissue inflammation in colon of C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, the concomitant DNBS-induced apoptosis and ferroptosis pathways was evident in colon from both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions: Overall, we have provided results demonstrating that GEVS is a consistent, reliable, and cost-effective system for modeling DNBS-induced IBD, useful for studying the onset and progression of human disease at the molecular level, while also reducing animal suffering.

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Apr 2022 • ACS Applied Energy Materials

Al-Doped Co-Free Layered-Spinel Mn/Ni Oxides as High-Capacity Cathode Materials for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries

Prasant Kumar Nayak, Dhatshanamoorthy Boopathi, Elena Levi, Judith Grinblat, Yuval Elias, Boris Markovsky, Doron Aurbach

Li- and Mn-rich layered-spinel integrated cathodes exhibit a high specific capacity, ≥200 mAh g–1, in a wide potential range; however, the low initial capacity of Li[Ni1/3Mn2/3]O2 is a drawback for their application in Li-ion batteries. Two Al-doped layered-spinel Li[Ni0.33Mn0.63Al0.03]O2 and Li[Ni0.33Mn0.60Al0.06]O2 cathode materials which were synthesized by self-combustion reaction, having less monoclinic and more active spinel phases, could show a much higher initial capacity compared to the undoped reference material. These cathode materials exhibit an initial specific capacity of 188 mAh g–1 vs ∼110 mAh g–1 when cycled at 20 mA g–1 between 2.3 and 4.9 V vs Li. Their capacity gradually increases to 210 mAh g–1 during initial cycling in standard electrolyte solutions and stabilizes thereafter. The average discharge voltage decreases from around 3.6 to 3.2 V after 200 cycles. Electrochemical …

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Apr 2022 • Journal of Biophotonics

Diffused reflectance measurements to detect tattoo ink location in skin using the crossover point

Pavitra Sokke Rudraiah, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Tattoos are highly trendy in western culture, but many people regret their tattoos for many reasons. It is essential to be aware of the ink location in advance to reduce the long and short‐term side effects. In this study, diffuse reflectance (DR) experiments were conducted on two‐layer (2L) tissue‐mimicking phantoms, where ink was sandwiched between the layers. An appreciable difference in the DR profile was found between the 2L phantom with and without the tattoo ink using the crossover point (Cp) method. Our technique was applied to ex vivo porcine skin. A point of intersection was found, between the skin and the tattooed skin. In the shorter wavelengths (500‐600 nm), a distinguishable 2L behavior was found, and in longer wavelengths (600‐850 nm), a single layer behavior was found between the tattooed skin before and after the intersection. In biological tissue, this Cp indeed finds the tattoo ink without …

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Apr 2022 • Materials 15 (7), 2601, 2022

Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Applications in Optics and Nanophotonics

Nataliia Dudchenko, Shweta Pawar, Ilana Perelshtein, Dror Fixler

Magnetite nanoparticles with different surface coverages are of great interest for many applications due to their intrinsic magnetic properties, nanometer size, and definite surface morphology. Magnetite nanoparticles are widely used for different medical-biological applications while their usage in optics is not as widespread. In recent years, nanomagnetite suspensions, so-called magnetic ferrofluids, are applied in optics due to their magneto-optical properties. This review gives an overview of nanomagnetite synthesis and its properties. In addition, the preparation and application of magnetic nanofluids in optics, nanophotonics, and magnetic imaging are described.

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Apr 2022 • Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical

Nitrogen-doped carbon dots as a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for sensing Mg2+ ions in aqueous solution, and their application in the detection and imaging …

Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Saurav Aryal, Kusha Sharma, Ziv Orpaz, Shulamit Michaeli, Aharon Gedanken

The magnesium (Mg2+) ion is the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium, and it is involved in a variety of biological processes and physiological functions. Because of the different effects which are dependent on Mg2+ ion concentration, it is critical to monitor Mg2+ ion levels in biological systems. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of photoluminescent N-doped carbon dots (NCDs) using 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde and 1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetramine tetrahydrochloride as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The as-synthesized NCDs demonstrated excitation dependent photoluminescence (PL) with a quantum yield of 16.2%. Because of water dispersibility and chelating functional groups, NCDs were used for highly selective detection of Mg2+ ions using ratiometric PL enhancement with a detection limit of 60 μM. Following that, based on highly biocompatibility and sensing of Mg2+ ions …

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Apr 2022 • Optics Express

Remote photonic sensing of action potential in mammalian nerve cells via histogram-based analysis of temporal spatial acoustic vibrations

Ariel Halevi, Nairouz Farah, Nisan Ozana, Sharon Cohen, Assaf Shoval, Orit Shefi, Yossi Mandel, Zeev Zalevsky

Label free and remote action potential detection in neurons can be of great importance in the neuroscience research field. This paper presents a novel label free imaging modality based on the detection of temporal vibrations of speckle patterns illuminating the sample. We demonstrated the feasibility of detecting action potentials originating from spontaneous and stimulated activity in cortical cell culture. The spatiotemporal vibrations of isolated cortical cells were extracted by illuminating the culture with a laser beam while the vibrations of the random back scattered secondary speckle patterns are captured by a camera. The postulated action potentials were estimated following correlation-based analysis on the captured vibrations, where the variance deviation of the signal from a Gaussian distribution is directly associated with the action potential events. The technique was validated in a series of experiments in which the optical signals were acquired concurrently with microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. Our results demonstrate the ability of detecting action potential events in mammalian cells remotely via extraction of acoustic vibrations.

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Apr 2022 • Scientific Reports

Dynamics of laser-induced tunable focusing in silicon

Nadav Shabairou, Maor Tiferet, Zeev Zalevsky, Moshe Sinvani

We report here on focusing of a probe IR (λ= 1.55 μm) laser beam in silicon. The focusing is done by a second pump laser beam, at λ= 0.775 μm and 30 ps pulse width, with a donut shape that is launched collinearly and simultaneously (with some delay time) with the IR beam pulse. The pump beam pulse is absorbed in the silicon and creates, temporally, a free charge carriers (FCCs) donut pattern in the silicon. Following the plasma dispersion effect, the donut FCCs shapes a complex index of refraction pattern in the silicon that serves as a sort of dynamic GRIN lens for the probe beam due to the diffusion of the FCCs towards the donut center. This lens can be tuned to its focal point by the pump-probe delay time to reduce the point spread function (PSF) of the IR probe beam. We start seeing the focusing of the probe beam at pump-probe delay time of. The best focusing (results in PSF) was observed at …

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Apr 2022 • Journal of Colloid and Interface Science

Salt-induced stability and modified interfacial energetics in self-faceting emulsion droplets

Pilkhaz M Nanikashvili, Alexander V Butenko, Moshe Deutsch, Daeyeon Lee, Eli Sloutskin

Apr 2022 • Clinical and Translational Biophotonics, TW4B. 5, 2022

Characterization of a large Gated SPAD camera for in vivo Macroscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

Jason T Smith, Juhi M Gupta, Alena Rudkouskaya, Shan Gao, Arin Ulku, Claudio Bruschini, Edoardo Charbon, Shimon Weiss, Margarida Barroso, Xavier Intes, Xavier Michalet

Herein, we report on the utility of a large gated SPAD camera, SwissSPAD2, for preclinical imaging. We demonstrate the ability of SwissSPAD2 to quantify FLI-FRET in tumor xenografts in vivo, in full agreement with gated-ICCD measurements.

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Apr 2022 • Science

Stepwise-edited, human melanoma models reveal mutations’ effect on tumor and microenvironment

Eran Hodis, Elena Torlai Triglia, John YH Kwon, Tommaso Biancalani, Labib R Zakka, Saurabh Parkar, Jan-Christian Hütter, Lorenzo Buffoni, Toni M Delorey, Devan Phillips, Danielle Dionne, Lan T Nguyen, Denis Schapiro, Zoltan Maliga, Connor A Jacobson, Ayal Hendel, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Martin C Mihm Jr, Levi A Garraway, Aviv Regev

Establishing causal relationships between genetic alterations of human cancers and specific phenotypes of malignancy remains a challenge. We sequentially introduced mutations into healthy human melanocytes in up to five genes spanning six commonly disrupted melanoma pathways, forming nine genetically distinct cellular models of melanoma. We connected mutant melanocyte genotypes to malignant cell expression programs in vitro and in vivo, replicative immortality, malignancy, rapid tumor growth, pigmentation, metastasis, and histopathology. Mutations in malignant cells also affected tumor microenvironment composition and cell states. Our melanoma models shared genotype-associated expression programs with patient melanomas, and a deep learning model showed that these models partially recapitulated genotype-associated histopathological features as well. Thus, a progressive series of genome …

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Apr 2022 • ACS Agricultural Science & Technology

Preparation and characterization of a novel PVA/PVP hydrogel containing entrapped hydrogen peroxide for agricultural applications

Eyal Malka, Aviv Dombrovsky, Shlomo Margel

Damage and loss of crops and plants caused by pathogens are global problems that have major effects on the food supply of many countries. Environmentally friendly viricide approaches are gaining in popularity to combat these problems. This study proposes the use of environmentally friendly hydrogen peroxide (HP) as a pesticide entrapped in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hydrogel for controlled release in agricultural applications. The hydrogel was prepared as a matrix of PVA and PVP containing HP. Freeze–thaw cycles of the PVA/PVP/HP hydrogel improve the mechanical properties and thereby decrease the HP release rate. The hydrogel chemical composition, morphology, and HP release rate through direct and indirect (gas phase) contact were investigated. Viricide capabilities were tested, indicating a high efficiency against ToBRFV on tobacco and tomato plants. Additionally, low …

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