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Mar 2020 • Entropy 22 (3), 266, 2020

Some Notes on Counterfactuals in Quantum Mechanics

Avshalom C Elitzur, Eliahu Cohen

Counterfactuals, ie, events that could have occurred but eventually did not, play a unique role in quantum mechanics in that they exert causal effects despite their non-occurrence. They are therefore vital for a better understanding of quantum mechanics (QM) and possibly the universe as a whole. In earlier works, we have studied counterfactuals both conceptually and experimentally. A fruitful framework termed quantum oblivion has emerged, referring to situations where one particle seems to" forget" its interaction with other particles despite the latter being visibly affected. This framework proved to have significant explanatory power, which we now extend to tackle additional riddles. The time-symmetric causality employed by the Two State-Vector Formalism (TSVF) reveals a subtle realm ruled by “weak values,” already demonstrated by numerous experiments. They offer a realistic, simple and intuitively appealing explanation to the unique role of quantum non-events, as well as to the foundations of QM. In this spirit, we performed a weak value analysis of quantum oblivion and suggest some new avenues for further research. View Full-Text

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Mar 2020 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.01756

Electrostatic modulation of the lateral carrier density profile in field effect devices with non-linear dielectrics

Eylon Persky, Hyeok Yoon, Yanwu Xie, Harold Y Hwang, Jonathan Ruhman, Beena Kalisky

We study the effects of electrostatic gating on the lateral distribution of charge carriers in two dimensional devices, in a non-linear dielectric environment. We compute the charge distribution using the Thomas-Fermi approximation to model the electrostatics of the system. The electric field lines generated by the gate are focused at the edges of the device, causing an increased depletion near the edges, compared to the center of the device. This effect strongly depends on the dimensions of the device, and the non-linear dielectric constant of the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this effect using scanning superconducting interference device (SQUID) microscopy images of current distributions in gated LaAlO/SrTiO heterostructures.

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Mar 2020 • Chemical Reviews 120 (14), 6626-6683, 2020

Lithium–oxygen batteries and related systems: potential, status, and future

Won-Jin Kwak, Rosy, Daniel Sharon, Chun Xia, Hun Kim, Lee R Johnson, Peter G Bruce, Linda F Nazar, Yang-Kook Sun, Aryeh A Frimer, Malachi Noked, Stefan A Freunberger, Doron Aurbach

The goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C requires a drastic reduction in CO2 emissions across many sectors of the world economy. Batteries are vital to this endeavor, whether used in electric vehicles, to store renewable electricity, or in aviation. Present lithium-ion technologies are preparing the public for this inevitable change, but their maximum theoretical specific capacity presents a limitation. Their high cost is another concern for commercial viability. Metal–air batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of all possible secondary battery technologies and could yield step changes in energy storage, if their practical difficulties could be overcome. The scope of this review is to provide an objective, comprehensive, and authoritative assessment of the intensive work invested in nonaqueous rechargeable metal–air batteries over the past few years, which identified the key problems and guides directions to …

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Mar 2020 • Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology 12 (2 …, 2020

Advances in imaging strategies for in vivo tracking of exosomes

Oshra Betzer, Eran Barnoy, Tamar Sadan, Idan Elbaz, Cara Braverman, Zhuang Liu, Rachela Popovtzer

Exosomes have many biological functions as short‐ and long distance nanocarriers for cell‐to‐cell communication. They allow the exchange of complex information between cells, and thereby modulate various processes such as homeostasis, immune response and angiogenesis, in both physiological and pathological conditions. In addition, due to their unique abilities of migration, targeting, and selective internalization into specific cells, they are promising delivery vectors. As such, they provide a potentially new field in diagnostics and treatment, and may serve as an alternative to cell‐based therapeutic approaches. However, a major drawback for translating exosome treatment to the clinic is that current understanding of these endogenous vesicles is insufficient, especially in regards to their in vivo behavior. Tracking exosomes in vivo can provide important knowledge regarding their biodistribution, migration …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Remote optical sensing of neuronal tissue vibrations during regeneration

Ariel Halevi, Sharon Cohen, Nairous Farah, Asaf Shoval, Orit Shefi, Yossi Mandel, Zeev Zalevsky, Nisan Ozana

In this paper we propose a novel approach for remote speckle-based sensing of mechanical vibrations in the Hirudo medicinalis leech central nervous system (CNS) connective tissue. Using this method, spontaneous vibrations generated at the connective tissue following partial cut injury are continuously and remotely monitored. A laser beam illuminates the connective tissue and back scattered defocused patterns at the far field are captured by the camera. The spatialtemporal spontaneous vibrations of the connective are monitored by tracking the speckle spatial-temporal trajectory. After applying correlation-based analysis we were able to detect these vibrations of the connective tissue during recovery with respect to control measurements. This approach is the first step towards understanding the possible involvement of the tissue movements for the recovering process via mechanical vibrations sensing of the …

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Feb 2020 • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C

Nitrogen-enriched porous benzimidazole-linked polymeric network for the adsorption of La (III), Ce (III), and Nd (III)

Moorthy Maruthapandi, John HT Luong, Aharon Gedanken

A porous benzimidazole-linked polymer, synthesized by a microwave-assisted procedure, exhibits an adsorption capacity of 760 mg/g, 700 mg/g, and 840 mg/g, respectively, for three rare earth ions, La (III), Ce (III), and Nd (III). The synthesized BINP polymer has an average pore size of 90 Å, a total pore volume of 0.03 cm3/g and a surface area of 21 m2/g. The electrostatic interaction between the positively charged polymer and the negatively charged rare-earth ions is responsible for the adsorption process, which is governed by the Langmuir or Freundlich isotherm. Adsorbed metal ions can be easily dissociated from the polymer, enabling polymer reusability with high recovery and efficiency.

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Interaction-free quantum imaging

Yingwen Zhang, Lu Gao, Alicia Sit, Gal Amit, Hugo Larocque, Florence Grenapin, James L Harden, Robert W Boyd, Avshalom C Elitzur, Eliahu Cohen, Ebrahim Karimi

Quantum imaging attempts to exploit the quantum features of light in order to enhance one or more aspects of classical imaging. Here we focus on two quantum imaging schemes – ghost imaging and interaction-free imaging – and moreover, on their combination. After a brief overview of the subject we report the main result: a laboratory demonstration of a new imaging scheme termed Interaction-Free Ghost Imaging. We then explain its merits for the task of imaging various structured objects. Next, we discuss an outgrowth of this scheme used for the purpose of nonlocal quantum erasure. We conclude by mentioning some related, low-dose schemes (both quantum and quantum-inspired) for X-ray and gammaray sources.

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Feb 2020 • Journal of Molecular Liquids

Temperature evolution of the bulk nano-structure in a homologous series of room temperature ionic liquids

Diego Pontoni, Marco DiMichiel, Moshe Deutsch

We present x-ray scattering measurements on a homologous series of a model room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), [CnC1mim][NTf2]. The measurements span a broad range of cation alkyl chain lengths, n = 4 − 22, and temperatures, T = 293 − 393 K, not hitherto available for any RTIL. Thus, they support significantly deeper insights into the RTILs' structure. Resolution of the scattering curves into individual lines yields an accurate description of the RTILs' nanoscale-segregated structure, and its n and T evolution. The results strongly support a lateral packing of partly-overlapping, interdigitated, flexible alkyl chains within the segregated apolar domains. The domain thickness, and effective chain and overlap lengths, are determined for all n and T. These reveal that the n- and T-increasing overlap drives the observed counterintuitive layer-spacing contraction upon increasing T, while the effective chain lengths hardly …

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Feb 2020 • Cell reports

B cell diversification is uncoupled from SAP-mediated selection forces in chronic germinal centers within Peyer’s patches

Adi Biram, Eitan Winter, Alice E Denton, Irina Zaretsky, Bareket Dassa, Mats Bemark, Michelle A Linterman, Gur Yaari, Ziv Shulman

Antibodies secreted within the intestinal tract provide protection from the invasion of microbes into the host tissues. Germinal center (GC) formation in lymph nodes and spleen strictly requires SLAM-associated protein (SAP)-mediated T cell functions; however, it is not known whether this mechanism plays a similar role in mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues. Here, we find that in Peyer’s patches (PPs), SAP-mediated T cell help is required for promoting B cell selection in GCs, but not for clonal diversification. PPs of SAP-deficient mice host chronic GCs that are absent in T cell-deficient mice. GC B cells in SAP-deficient mice express AID and Bcl6 and generate plasma cells in proportion to the GC size. Single-cell IgA sequencing analysis reveals that these mice host few diversified clones that were subjected to mild selection forces. These findings demonstrate that T cell-derived help to B cells in PPs includes SAP …

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Feb 2020 • ACS applied materials & interfaces

Impact of SnF2 Addition on the Chemical and Electronic Surface Structure of CsSnBr3

Claudia Hartmann, Satyajit Gupta, Tatyana Bendikov, Xeniya Kozina, Thomas Kunze, Roberto Félix, Gary Hodes, Regan G Wilks, David Cahen, Marcus Bar

We report on the chemical and electronic structure of cesium tin bromide (CsSnBr3) and how it is impacted by the addition of 20 mol % tin fluoride (SnF2) to the precursor solution, using both surface-sensitive lab-based soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-surface bulk-sensitive synchrotron-based hard XPS (HAXPES). To determine the reproducibility and reliability of conclusions, several (nominally identically prepared) sample sets were investigated. The effects of deposition reproducibility, handling, and transport are found to cause significant changes in the measured properties of the films. Variations in the HAXPES-derived compositions between individual sample sets were observed, but in general, they confirm that the addition of 20 mol % SnF2 improves coverage of the titanium dioxide substrate by CsSnBr3 and decreases the oxidation of SnII to SnIV while also suppressing formation of …

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Feb 2020 • ACS omega

Synthesis and Characterization of Free and Grafted N-Halamine Nanoparticles for Decomposition of Organic Dyes in an Aqueous Continuous Phase

Chen Gelber, Shlomo Margel

Synthetic organic dyes constitute a major pollutant in wastewater. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of N-halamine nanoparticles (NPs) for decomposition of organic dyes from contaminated wastewater. Cross-linked poly(methacrylamide) (PMAA) NPs of hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 11 ± 1 to 161 ± 31 nm were synthesized at room temperature by redox surfactant-free dispersion copolymerization of methacrylamide and the cross-linking monomer N,N′-methylenebis(acrylamide) in an aqueous continuous phase. The effect of various polymerization parameters on the diameter and size distribution of the formed NPs was studied. Additionally, thin coatings composed of cross-linked PMAA NPs were grafted onto oxidized corona-treated polypropylene (PP) films by redox graft polymerization of the monomers in the presence of oxidized PP films. The free and grafted NPs were converted to N …

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Feb 2020 • ACS omega

Synthesis and Characterization of Free and Grafted N-Halamine Nanoparticles for Decomposition of Organic Dyes in an Aqueous Continuous Phase

Chen Gelber, Shlomo Margel

Synthetic organic dyes constitute a major pollutant in wastewater. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of N-halamine nanoparticles (NPs) for decomposition of organic dyes from contaminated wastewater. Cross-linked poly(methacrylamide) (PMAA) NPs of hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 11 ± 1 to 161 ± 31 nm were synthesized at room temperature by redox surfactant-free dispersion copolymerization of methacrylamide and the cross-linking monomer N,N′-methylenebis(acrylamide) in an aqueous continuous phase. The effect of various polymerization parameters on the diameter and size distribution of the formed NPs was studied. Additionally, thin coatings composed of cross-linked PMAA NPs were grafted onto oxidized corona-treated polypropylene (PP) films by redox graft polymerization of the monomers in the presence of oxidized PP films. The free and grafted NPs were converted to N …

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Feb 2020 • Chemosphere 241, 125003, 2020

Capacitive deionization for wastewater treatment: Opportunities and challenges

Ayelet Kalfa, Barak Shapira, Alexey Shopin, Izaak Cohen, Eran Avraham, Doron Aurbach

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging method for removal of charged ionic species from aqueous solutions, based on electrostatic interactions between (mostly) inorganic ions and porous carbon electrodes.Inspection of recent publications related to CDI processes, revealed that the majority of the publications are related to the removal of salt (NaCl) from the water (desalination) or electrosorption processes. However, such a water desalination is only one process in the improvement of the quality water, it is interesting to review the literature in the context of CDI processes for other water treatment processes. Herein wastewater treatments are discussed.In this paper, we critically review the last publications that relate to capacitive deionization with wastewater treatments. Since wastewater treatments may involve broad aspects, we address in this review four specific water treatment processes that are thought to …

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Feb 2020 • Advanced Optical Techniques for Quantum Information, Sensing, and Metrology …, 2020

Cyclic quantum walks: photonic realization and decoherence analysis

F Nejadsattari, Y Zhang, MN Jayakody, F Bouchard, H Larocque, A Sit, R Fickler, E Cohen, E Karimi

Quantum walks serve as novel tools for performing efficient quantum computation and simulation. In a recent experimental demonstration [1] we have realized photonic quantum walks for simulating cyclic quantum systems, such as hexagonal lattices or aromatic molecules like benzene. In that experiment we explored the wave function dynamics and the probability distribution of a quantum particle located on a six-site system (with periodic boundary conditions), alongside with simpler demonstration of three- and four-site systems, under various initial conditions. Localization and revival of the wave function were demonstrated. After revisiting that experiment we will theoretically analyze the case of noisy quantum walks by implementing the bit-phase flip channel. This will allow us to draw conclusions regarding the performance of our photonic quantum simulation in noisy environments. Finally, we will briefly outline …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Remote optical sensing of neuronal tissue vibrations during regeneration

Ariel Halevi, Sharon Cohen, Nairous Farah, Asaf Shoval, Orit Shefi, Yossi Mandel, Zeev Zalevsky, Nisan Ozana

In this paper we propose a novel approach for remote speckle-based sensing of mechanical vibrations in the Hirudo medicinalis leech central nervous system (CNS) connective tissue. Using this method, spontaneous vibrations generated at the connective tissue following partial cut injury are continuously and remotely monitored. A laser beam illuminates the connective tissue and back scattered defocused patterns at the far field are captured by the camera. The spatialtemporal spontaneous vibrations of the connective are monitored by tracking the speckle spatial-temporal trajectory. After applying correlation-based analysis we were able to detect these vibrations of the connective tissue during recovery with respect to control measurements. This approach is the first step towards understanding the possible involvement of the tissue movements for the recovering process via mechanical vibrations sensing of the …

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Feb 2020 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XVII …, 2020

Multimodal high-resolution imaging of photoreceptor precursor cells using gold nanoparticles

Oshra Betzer, Yoav Chemla, Amos Markus, Menachem Motiei, Tamar Sadan, Zhuang Liu, Yossi Mandel, Rachela Popovtzer, Dror Fixler

Cell replacement therapy is a feasible approach for vision restoration in several degenerative diseases of the outer retina in order to halt disease progression and recover lost vision. In this treatment photoreceptor precursors are transplanted in the subretinal space and later integrate within the retina. In order to evaluate the efficiency of cell transplantation for vision restoration, it is crucial to monitor cell survival and integration in the host retina over extended periods, therefore, longitudinal tracking of the transplanted cells in clinical and experimental setups is crucial. Here we present a technique for labeling photoreceptor precursors with gold nanoparticles prior to vitreous and subretinal space transplantation treatment. This labeling allow multimodal imaging using both computed tomography (CT), optical coherence tomography(OCT) and fluorescence fundus imaging. Our multimodal imaging technique enabled …

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Feb 2020 • Physical Review Letters

Packets of spreading particles exhibit universal exponential tails

Stas Burov Eli Barkai


Feb 2020 • High Contrast Metastructures IX 11290, 112901B, 2020

Tunable and reconfigurable high-index semiconductor meta-optics

Tomer Lewi, Nikita A Butakov, Prasad P Iyer, Hayden A Evans, Hamid Chorsi, Juan Trastoy, Javier Del Valle Granda, Ilya Valmianski, Christian Urban, Yoav Kalcheim, Ivan K Schuller, Jon A Schuller

Metasurfaces manipulate light through engineering the amplitude, phase and polarization across arrays of meta-atom antenna resonators. Adding tunability and active functionality to metasurface components would boost their potential and unlock a vast array of new application possibilities such as dynamic beam steering, LIDAR, tunable metalenses, reconfigurable meta-holograms and many more. We present here high-index reconfigurable meta-atoms, resonators and metasurfaces that can dynamically and continuously tune their frequency, amplitude and phase, across the infrared spectral ranges. We utilize narrow linewidth resonances along with peak performance of tunable mechanisms for efficient and practical reconfigurable devices.

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Feb 2020 • 64th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, 2020

Wide-field time-gated phasor analysis of visible fluorescence through highly scattering medium

Rinat Ankri, Arkaprabha Basu, Arin Can Ülkü, Claudio Bruschini, Edoardo Charbon, Shimon Weiss, Xavier Michalet

Fluorescence sensing is an invaluable research tool in life science and biomedical imaging. Despite its major use and advantages, it mainly remains a tool for in vitro studies since exist fluorophores mainly absorb and emit light in the visible region, in which light penetration through the tissue is very low. Here, we use fluorescence lifetime as an intrinsic characteristic of any fluorescent dye, which to some extent, does not depend on excitation intensity and signal level. We use a large time-gated single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array detector, SwissSPAD2, for wide-field fluorescence acquisition. We use the phasor approach [1, 2], which provides a simple and fast visual method for lifetime imaging, to convert each pixel’s data into a quantity which can be mapped to the local lifetime. We show, for single dyes, that the phasor dispersion increases with decay broadening due to scattering and decreasing fluorescence intensity (shot noise effect). Yet, as long as the fluorescence intensity is higher than the tissue-like phantom autofluorescence, a distinct lifetime can still be clearly identified with the appropriate background correction.

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Feb 2020 • BRAIN

DMXL2 mutations impair autophagy and cause Ohtahara syndrome with progressive course (vol 142, pg 3876, 2019)

Alessandro Esposito, Antonio Falace, Matias Wagner, Moran Gal, Davide Mei, Valerio Conti, Tiziana Pisano, Davide Aprile, Maria Sabina Cerullo, Antonio De Fusco, Silvia Giovedi, Annette Seibt, Daniella Magen, Tilman Polster, Ayelet Eran, Sarah L Stenton, Chiara Fiorillo, Sarit Ravid, Ertan Mayatepek, Hava Hafner, Saskia Wortmann, Erez Y Levanon, Carla Marini, Hanna Mandel, Fabio Benfenati, Felix Distelmaier, Anna Fassio, Renzo Guerrini


Feb 2020 • Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems XII 11258 …, 2020

Fiber-integrated fabric for non-tight contact bio-sensing of vital signs

Aviya Bennet, Rotem Hendel, Barak Straussman, Yafim Beiderman, Sergey Agdarov, Zeev Zalevsky

In this research we present a novel configuration allowing to perform high precision sensing of various vital bio-signs obtained from a fiber-based sensor performing the measurements in a non-tight contact with the skin of the measured subject. We will discuss usage of various types of fibers: single as well as multi-mode. Laser beam is injected into the fiber. In the case of a single mode fiber along the fiber, special artifacts that are breaking the total internal reflection condition, are inserted. Those artifacts are causing to some portion of the injected light to escape the fiber and to interact with the nearby surrounding of the fiber, realizing a smart photonic drip. Changes in the resulted interferencebased intensity at the output of the fiber-sensor is analyzed and associated with various bio-medical signs. In the case of a multi-mode fiber, a detector analyzes the temporal-spatial changes of the 2-D speckle pattern imaged at …

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