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Jul 2022 • Optics Express

Large-field lattice structured illumination microscopy

JuanJuan Zheng, Xiang Fang, Kai Wen, Jiaoyue Li, Ying Ma, Min Liu, Sha An, Jianlang Li, Zeev Zalevsky, Peng Gao

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Jul 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2207.01460

Tunable superconducting flux qubits with long coherence times

T Chang, T Cohen, I Holzman, G Catelani, M Stern


Jul 2022 • ACS APPLIED NANO MATERIALS

Co3O4 vertical bar CoP Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Performance

Bibhudatta Malik, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Rong Sun, Francis Leonard Deepak, Aharon Gedanken, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Developing high performance, cost-effective, and durable electrocatalysts that must be derived from non-noble metals is crucial for alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER). OER, which takes place at the anode, is accepted as a major obstacle for commercialization due to its sluggish kinetics. In this study, a two-step synthesis method, such as a hydrothermal process followed by the annealing of the reactants in an Ar-filled Swagelok cell, is briefly described to obtain a cubic type of Co3O4 core and CoP shell. As a result of synergy, Co3O4 vertical bar CoP demonstrates an onset overpotential of 280 mV and reaches a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 320 mV in an alkaline medium (pH = 13.5). The electronic property of the heterojunction is verified by the Tauc plot and valence band XPS. The band structure indicates that Co3O4 vertical bar CoP exhibits a more metallic character than pristine …

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Jul 2022 • Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 1-12, 2022

Assessing and measuring the active site density of PGM-free ORR catalysts

Rifael Z Snitkoff-Sol, Lior Elbaz

Fuel cells are already employed in commercial transportation even though their price is still too high to enable widespread production. A viable and promising pathway taken to lower this price is the replacement of expensive constitutes, namely the platinum-based catalysts at the cathode, by platinum group metal-free catalysts based on abundant materials, such as iron. This led to the development of iron-based catalysts that show high activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction. The extraction of the intrinsic catalytic activity of any catalyst is important both for finding relations between the chemical properties of the active sites and their activity, as well as a comparison measure between catalysts. An important parameter that has been elusive for many years is the turnover frequency, which is derived form the number of electrochemical active sites’ density (EASD). The ability to measure the EASD was very limited …

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Jul 2022 • ECS Meeting Abstracts

(Invited) Elucidating the Electrochemically Active Site Density of PGM-Free ORR Catalysts in Situ Fuel Cells Using Fourier Transform Alternating Current Voltammetry

Lior Elbaz, Rifael Z Snitkoff-Sol

The rising interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) technology, part of the global shift in energy production to clean sources, is accompanied by efforts to drive down the cost of this technology, which focus primarily on the cathode catalyst, the most expensive PEFC component. While platinum-group metals (PGMs) continues to be the materials of choice for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, use of these materials in PEFCs must be significantly reduced or eliminated without a penalty in the overall cell performance for PEFC technology to become fully viable.The most promising class ORR catalysts that do not utilize PGMs (i.e., PGM-free catalysts), involve first-row transition metals, such as iron and cobalt incorporated in a nitrogen-doped carbon (M-N-C catalysts). While advancements in M-N-C activity have been impressive, the much sought-after improvement in durability has been impeded by limited …

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Jul 2022 • ACS Applied Energy Materials

Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction Reaction in a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell with a Covalent Framework of Iron Phthalocyanine Aerogel

Noam Zion, Leigh Peles-Strahl, Ariel Friedman, David A Cullen, Lior Elbaz

Carbon aerogels have been studied in the context of fuel cell electrodes mainly as catalyst support materials due to their high surface area, porosity, and electrical conductivity. Recently, aerogels composed solely of inorganic molecular complexes have shown to be promising materials for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). These aerogels consist of atomically dispersed catalytic sites. Herein, we report on the synthesis and characterization of an aerogel-based catalyst: iron phthalocyanine aerogel. It was synthesized by coupling of ethynyl-terminated phthalocyanine monomers and then heat-treated at 800 °C to increase its electrical conductivity and catalytic activity. The aerogels reported here were tested as catalysts for ORR in acidic conditions for the first time and found to have a ultra-high number of atomically dispersed catalytic sites (7.11 × 1020 sites g–1) and very good catalytic activity (E …

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Jul 2022 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Co3O4|CoP Core–Shell Nanoparticles with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Performance

Bibhudatta Malik, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Rong Sun, Francis Leonard Deepak, Aharon Gedanken, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Developing high performance, cost-effective, and durable electrocatalysts that must be derived from non-noble metals is crucial for alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER). OER, which takes place at the anode, is accepted as a major obstacle for commercialization due to its sluggish kinetics. In this study, a two-step synthesis method, such as a hydrothermal process followed by the annealing of the reactants in an Ar-filled Swagelok cell, is briefly described to obtain a cubic type of Co3O4 core and CoP shell. As a result of synergy, Co3O4|CoP demonstrates an onset overpotential of 280 mV and reaches a current density of 10 mA cm–2 at an overpotential of 320 mV in an alkaline medium (pH = 13.5). The electronic property of the heterojunction is verified by the Tauc plot and valence band XPS. The band structure indicates that Co3O4|CoP exhibits a more metallic character than pristine Co3O4 due to the fact that …

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Jul 2022 • International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Th3A. 3, 2022

Ultrafast Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy reveals Phonon-driven Exciton Rabi oscillations in Halide Perovskites

Xuan Trung Nguyen, Katrin Winte, Daniel Timmer, Yevgeny Rakita, David Cahen, Michael Lorke, Frank Jahnke, Christoph Lienau, Antonietta De Sio

We report persistent 100-fs period Rabi oscillations between 1s and 2p excitons in halide perovskite single crystals driven by off-resonant low-frequency phonon modes. This contrasts with prevailing models for the electron-phonon coupling in these materials.

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Jul 2022 • Photonics Research

Surface acoustic wave photonic filters with a single narrow radio-frequency passband in standard silicon on insulator

Moshe Katzman, Maayan Priel, Inbar Shafir, Saawan Kumar Bag, Dvir Munk, Naor Inbar, Moshe Feldberg, Tali Sharabani, Leroy Dokhanian, Matan Slook, Avi Zadok

Integrated microwave photonic filters are becoming increasingly important for signal processing within advanced wireless and cellular networks. Filters with narrow transmission passbands mandate long time delays, which are difficult to accommodate within photonic circuits. Long delays may be obtained through slow moving acoustic waves instead. Input radio-frequency information can be converted from one optical carrier to another via surface acoustic waves and filtered in the process. However, the transfer functions of previously reported devices consisted of multiple periodic passbands, and the selection of a single transmission band was not possible. In this work, we demonstrate surface acoustic wave, silicon-photonic filters of microwave frequency with a single transmission passband. The filter response consists of up to 32 tap coefficients, and the transmission bandwidth is only 7 MHz. The results extend the capabilities of integrated microwave photonics in the standard silicon-on-insulator platform.

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Jul 2022 • Forensic Sciences

Decomposition of individual SNP patterns from mixed DNA samples

Gabriel Azhari, Shamam Waldman, Netanel Ofer, Yosi Keller, Shai Carmi, Gur Yaari

Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have great potential to identify individuals, family relations, biogeographical ancestry, and phenotypic traits. In many forensic situations, DNA mixtures of a victim and an unknown suspect exist. Extracting SNP profiles from suspect’s samples can be used to assist investigation or gather intelligence. Computational tools to determine inclusion/exclusion of a known individual from a mixture exist, but no algorithm for extraction of an unknown SNP profile without a list of suspects is available. Here, we present an advanced haplotype-based HMM algorithm (AH-HA), a novel computational approach for extracting an unknown SNP profile from whole genome sequencing (WGS) of a two-person mixture. AH-HA utilizes techniques similar to the ones used in haplotype phasing. It constructs the inferred genotype as an imperfect mosaic of haplotypes from a reference panel of the target population. It outperforms more simplistic approaches, maintaining high performance through a wide range of sequencing depths (500×–5×). AH-HA can be applied in cases of victim–suspect mixtures and improves the capabilities of the investigating forces. This approach can be extended to more complex mixtures with more donors and less prior information, further motivating the development of SNP-based forensics technologies.

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Jul 2022 • Journal of Biological Chemistry

Identification and functional implications of pseudouridine RNA modification on small noncoding RNAs in the mammalian pathogen Trypanosoma brucei

K Shanmugha Rajan, Katerina Adler, Tirza Doniger, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Noa Aharon-Hefetz, Saurav Aryal, Yitzhak Pilpel, Christian Tschudi, Ron Unger, Shulamit Michaeli

Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite that causes sleeping sickness, cycles between an insect and a mammalian host. However, the effect of RNA modifications such as pseudouridinylation on its ability to survive in these two different host environments is unclear. Here, two genome-wide approaches were applied for mapping pseudouridinylation sites (Ψs) on small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), 7SL RNA, vault RNA, and tRNAs from T. brucei. We show using HydraPsiSeq and RiboMeth-seq that the Ψ on C/D snoRNA guiding 2′-O-methylation increased the efficiency of the guided modification on its target, rRNA. We found differential levels of Ψs on these noncoding RNAs in the two life stages (insect host and mammalian host) of the parasite. Furthermore, tRNA isoform abundance and Ψ modifications were characterized in these two life stages demonstrating stage-specific regulation. We conclude that the differential Ψ …

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Jul 2022 • Developmental Biology

The Fer tyrosine kinase protects sperm from spontaneous acrosome reaction

Elina Grinshtain, Sally Shpungin, Micha Baum, Uri Nir, Haim Breitbart

The physiological acrosome reaction occurs after mammalian spermatozoa undergo a process called capacitation in the female reproductive tract. Only acrosome reacted spermatozoon can penetrate the egg zona-pellucida and fertilize the egg. Sperm also contain several mechanisms that protect it from undergoing spontaneous acrosome reaction (sAR), a process that can occur in sperm before reaching proximity to the egg and that abrogates fertilization. We previously showed that calmodulin-kinase II (CaMKII) and phospholipase D (PLD) are involved in preventing sAR through two distinct pathways that enhance F-actin formation during capacitation. Here, we describe a novel additional pathway involving the tyrosine kinase Fer in a mechanism that also prevents sAR by enhancing actin polymerization during sperm capacitation. We further show that protein-kinase A (PKA) and the tyrosine-kinase Src, as well as …

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Jul 2022 • New Journal of Physics

Local equilibrium properties of ultraslow diffusion in the Sinai model

Amin Padash, Erez Aghion, Alexander Schulz, Eli Barkai, Aleksei V Chechkin, Ralf Metzler, Holger Kantz

We perform numerical studies of a thermally driven, overdamped particle in a random quenched force field, known as the Sinai model. We compare the unbounded motion on an infinite 1-dimensional domain to the motion in bounded domains with reflecting boundaries and show that the unbounded motion is at every time close to the equilibrium state of a finite system of growing size. This is due to time scale separation: inside wells of the random potential, there is relatively fast equilibration, while the motion across major potential barriers is ultraslow. Quantities studied by us are the time dependent mean squared displacement, the time dependent mean energy of an ensemble of particles, and the time dependent entropy of the probability distribution. Using a very fast numerical algorithm, we can explore times up top 10 17 steps and thereby also study finite-time crossover phenomena.

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Jul 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2207.12960

Projective measurements can probe non-classical work extraction and time-correlations

Santiago Hernández-Gómez, Stefano Gherardini, Alessio Belenchia, Matteo Lostaglio, Amikam Levy, Nicole Fabbri

We demonstrate an experimental technique to characterize genuinely nonclassical multi-time correlations using projective measurements with no ancillae. We implement the scheme in a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond undergoing a unitary quantum work protocol. We reconstruct quantum-mechanical time correlations encoded in the Margenau-Hills quasiprobabilities. We observe work extraction peaks five times those of sequential projective energy measurement schemes and in violation of newly-derived stochastic bounds. We interpret the phenomenon via anomalous energy exchanges due to the underlying negativity of the quasiprobability distribution.

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Jul 2022 • International journal of molecular sciences

Antibacterial, Antibiofilm, and Antiviral Farnesol-Containing Nanoparticles Prevent Staphylococcus aureus from Drug Resistance Development

Aleksandra Ivanova, Kristina Ivanova, Luisa Fiandra, Paride Mantecca, Tiziano Catelani, Michal Natan, Ehud Banin, Gila Jacobi, Tzanko Tzanov


Jul 2022 • Forensic Sciences

Decomposition of individual SNP patterns from mixed DNA samples

Gabriel Azhari, Shamam Waldman, Netanel Ofer, Yosi Keller, Shai Carmi, Gur Yaari

Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have great potential to identify individuals, family relations, biogeographical ancestry, and phenotypic traits. In many forensic situations, DNA mixtures of a victim and an unknown suspect exist. Extracting SNP profiles from suspect’s samples can be used to assist investigation or gather intelligence. Computational tools to determine inclusion/exclusion of a known individual from a mixture exist, but no algorithm for extraction of an unknown SNP profile without a list of suspects is available. Here, we present an advanced haplotype-based HMM algorithm (AH-HA), a novel computational approach for extracting an unknown SNP profile from whole genome sequencing (WGS) of a two-person mixture. AH-HA utilizes techniques similar to the ones used in haplotype phasing. It constructs the inferred genotype as an imperfect mosaic of haplotypes from a reference panel of the target population. It outperforms more simplistic approaches, maintaining high performance through a wide range of sequencing depths (500×–5×). AH-HA can be applied in cases of victim–suspect mixtures and improves the capabilities of the investigating forces. This approach can be extended to more complex mixtures with more donors and less prior information, further motivating the development of SNP-based forensics technologies.

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Jul 2022 • Progress in retinal and eye research 89, 101029, 2022

Inherited retinal diseases: linking genes, disease-causing variants, and relevant therapeutic modalities

Nina Schneider, Yogapriya Sundaresan, Prakadeeswari Gopalakrishnan, Avigail Beryozkin, Mor Hanany, Erez Y Levanon, Eyal Banin, Shay Ben-Aroya, Dror Sharon

Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a clinically complex and heterogenous group of visual impairment phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in at least 277 nuclear and mitochondrial genes, affecting different retinal regions, and depleting the vision of affected individuals. Genes that cause IRDs when mutated are unique by possessing differing genotype-phenotype correlations, varying inheritance patterns, hypomorphic alleles, and modifier genes thus complicating genetic interpretation. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced the identification of novel IRD-related genes and pathogenic variants in the last decade. For this review, we performed an in-depth literature search which allowed for compilation of the Global Retinal Inherited Disease (GRID) dataset containing 4,798 discrete variants and 17,299 alleles published in 31 papers, showing a wide range of frequencies and complexities among …

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Jul 2022 • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C

Thermodynamics of the adsorption of cadmium oleate to cadmium sulfide quantum dots and implications of a dynamic ligand shell

Jason J Calvin, Assaf Ben-Moshe, Ethan B Curling, Amanda S Brewer, Adam B Sedlak, Tierni M Kaufman, A Paul Alivisatos

Adsorbed surface ligands play an important role in determining the chemical and physical properties of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. Most particularly, these ligands influence the optical properties of these nanocrystals. For instance, the luminescence of type II–VI quantum dots has been shown to decrease as metal carboxylates are stripped from the surface. To gain a better understanding of the thermodynamics and equilibria that influence the optical properties of colloidal quantum dots, we studied the adsorption energies of aliphatic cadmium carboxylates to the surfaces of cadmium sulfide quantum dots. Direct calorimetric measurements of the adsorption energies of such ligands have previously proven to be challenging because they are tightly adsorbed to the quantum dot surface. Here, we show that tetrahydrofuran can be used as a coordinating solvent, allowing cadmium oleates to more easily be …

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Jul 2022 • Photonics Research

Surface acoustic wave photonic filters with a single narrow radio-frequency passband in standard silicon on insulator

Moshe Katzman, Maayan Priel, Inbar Shafir, Saawan Kumar Bag, Dvir Munk, Naor Inbar, Moshe Feldberg, Tali Sharabani, Leroy Dokhanian, Matan Slook, Avi Zadok

Integrated microwave photonic filters are becoming increasingly important for signal processing within advanced wireless and cellular networks. Filters with narrow transmission passbands mandate long time delays, which are difficult to accommodate within photonic circuits. Long delays may be obtained through slow moving acoustic waves instead. Input radio-frequency information can be converted from one optical carrier to another via surface acoustic waves and filtered in the process. However, the transfer functions of previously reported devices consisted of multiple periodic passbands, and the selection of a single transmission band was not possible. In this work, we demonstrate surface acoustic wave, silicon-photonic filters of microwave frequency with a single transmission passband. The filter response consists of up to 32 tap coefficients, and the transmission bandwidth is only 7 MHz. The results extend the capabilities of integrated microwave photonics in the standard silicon-on-insulator platform.

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Jul 2022 • Polymers

Chiral porous carbon surfaces for enantiospecific synthesis

Sapir Shekef Aloni, Molhm Nassir, Yitzhak Mastai

Chiral surfaces, developed in the last decade, serve as media for enantioselective chemical reactions. Until today, they have been based mostly on developments in silica templating, and are made mainly from imprints of silicate materials developed a long time ago. Here, a chiral porous activated carbon surface was developed based on a chiral ionic liquid, and the surface chemistry and pore structure were studied to lay a new course of action in the field. The enantioselectivities of surfaces are examined by using variety of methods such as circular dichroism, linear sweep voltammetry and catalysis. These techniques revealed a 28.1% preference for the D enantiomer of the amino acid proline, and linear sweep voltammetry confirmed chirality recognition by another probe. An aldol surface chiral catalytic reaction was devised and allowed to determine the root of the enantiomeric excess. These results affirm the path toward a new type of chiral surface.

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Jul 2022 • npj Computational Materials

Classifying handedness in chiral nanomaterials using label error robust deep learning

CK Groschner, Alexander J Pattison, Assaf Ben-Moshe, A Paul Alivisatos, Wolfgang Theis, MC Scott

High-throughput scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with classification using neural networks is an ideal method to determine the morphological handedness of large populations of chiral nanoparticles. Automated labeling removes the time-consuming manual labeling of training data, but introduces label error, and subsequently classification error in the trained neural network. Here, we evaluate methods to minimize classification error when training from automated labels of SEM datasets of chiral Tellurium nanoparticles. Using the mirror relationship between images of opposite handed particles, we artificially create populations of varying label error. We analyze the impact of label error rate and training method on the classification error of neural networks on an ideal dataset and on a practical dataset. Of the three training methods considered, we find that a pretraining approach yields the most accurate …

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