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Mar 2022 • Langmuir

Mussel-Inspired Polynorepinephrine/MXene-Based Magnetic Nanohybrid for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding in X-Band and Strain-Sensing Performance

Sayan Ganguly, Poushali Das, Arka Saha, Malachi Noked, Aharon Gedanken, Shlomo Margel

The current work delivers preparation of MXene-based magnetic nanohybrid coating for flexible electronic applications. Herein, we report carbon dot-triggered photopolymerized polynorepinepherene (PNE)-coated MXene and iron oxide hybrid deposited on the cellulose microporous membrane via a vacuum-assisted filtration strategy. The surface morphologies have been monitored by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and the coating thickness was evaluated by the gallium-ion-based focused ion beam method. Coated membranes have been tested against uniaxial tensile stretching and assessed by their fracture edges in order to assure flexibility and mechanical strength. Strain sensors and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding have both been tested on the material because of its electrical conductivity. The bending strain sensitivity has been stringent because of their fast ‘rupture and reform …

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Mar 2022 • arXiv e-prints

Enhancement of Superconductivity upon reduction of carrier density in proximitized graphene

Gopi Nath Daptary, Udit Khanna, Eyal Walach, Arnab Roy, Efrat Shimshoni, Aviad Frydman

The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of a single layer graphene coupled to an Indium oxide (InO) film, a low carrier-density superconductor, is found to increase with decreasing carrier density and is largest close to the average charge neutrality point in graphene. Such an effect is very surprising in conventional BCS superconductors. We study this phenomenon both experimentally and theoretically. Our analysis suggests that the InO film induces random electron and hole-doped puddles in the graphene. The Josephson effect across these regions of opposite polarity enhances the Josephson coupling between the superconducting clusters in InO, along with the overall Tc of the bilayer heterostructure. This enhancement is most effective when the chemical potential of the system is tuned between the charge neutrality points of the electron and hole-doped regions.

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Mar 2022 • Materials

Effects of a ZnCuO-Nanocoated Ti-6Al-4V Surface on Bacterial and Host Cells

Kamal Dabbah, Ilana Perelshtein, Aharon Gedanken, Yael Houri-Haddad, Osnat Feuerstein

This study aims to investigate the effects of a novel ZnCuO nanoparticle coating for dental implants—versus those of conventional titanium surfaces—on bacteria and host cells. A multispecies biofilm composed of Streptococcus sanguinis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown for 14 days on various titanium discs: machined, sandblasted, sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA), ZnCuO-coated, and hydroxyapatite discs. Bacterial species were quantified with qPCR, and their viability was examined via confocal microscopy. Osteoblast-like and macrophage-like cells grown on the various discs for 48 h were examined for proliferation using an XTT assay, and for activity using ALP and TNF-α assays. The CSLM revealed more dead bacteria in biofilms grown on titanium than on hydroxyapatite, and less on sandblasted than on machined and ZnCuO-coated surfaces, with the latter showing a significant decrease in all four biofilm species. The osteoblast-like cells showed increased proliferation on all of the titanium surfaces, with higher activity on the ZnCuO-coated and sandblasted discs. The macrophage-like cells showed higher proliferation on the hydroxyapatite and sandblasted discs, and lower activity on the SLA and ZnCuO-coated discs. The ZnCuO-coated titanium has anti-biofilm characteristics with desired effects on host cells, thus representing a promising candidate in the complex battle against peri-implantitis.

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Mar 2022 • Macromol 2 (1), 78-99, 2022

Antimicrobial Activities of Conducting Polymers and Their Composites

Moorthy Maruthapandi, Arumugam Saravanan, Akanksha Gupta, John HT Luong, Aharon Gedanken

Conducting polymers, mainly polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY) with positive charges bind to the negatively charged bacterial membrane to interfere with bacterial activities. After this initial electrostatic adherence, the conducting polymers might partially penetrate the bacterial membrane and interact with other intracellular biomolecules. Conducting polymers can form polymer composites with metal, metal oxides, and nanoscale carbon materials as a new class of antimicrobial agents with enhanced antimicrobial properties. The accumulation of elevated oxygen reactive species (ROS) from composites of polymers-metal nanoparticles has harmful effects and induces cell death. Among such ROS, the hydroxyl radical with one unpaired electron in the structure is most effective as it can oxidize any bacterial biomolecules, leading to cell death. Future endeavors should focus on the combination of conducting polymers and their composites with antibiotics, small peptides, and natural molecules with antimicrobial properties. Such arsenals with low cytotoxicity are expected to eradicate the ESKAPE pathogens: Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.

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Mar 2022 • Cell

Tumor-reactive antibodies evolve from non-binding and autoreactive precursors

Roei D Mazor, Nachum Nathan, Amit Gilboa, Liat Stoler-Barak, Lihee Moss, Inna Solomonov, Assaf Hanuna, Yalin Divinsky, Merav D Shmueli, Hadas Hezroni, Irina Zaretsky, Michael Mor, Ofra Golani, Gad Sabah, Ariella Jakobson-Setton, Natalia Yanichkin, Meora Feinmesser, Daliah Tsoref, Lina Salman, Effi Yeoshoua, Eyal Peretz, Inna Erlich, Netta Mendelson Cohen, Jonathan M Gershoni, Natalia Freund, Yifat Merbl, Gur Yaari, Ram Eitan, Irit Sagi, Ziv Shulman

The tumor microenvironment hosts antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) associated with a favorable prognosis in several types of cancer. Patient-derived antibodies have diagnostic and therapeutic potential; yet, it remains unclear how antibodies gain autoreactivity and target tumors. Here, we found that somatic hypermutations (SHMs) promote antibody antitumor reactivity against surface autoantigens in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). Patient-derived tumor cells were frequently coated with IgGs. Intratumoral ASCs in HGSOC were both mutated and clonally expanded and produced tumor-reactive antibodies that targeted MMP14, which is abundantly expressed on the tumor cell surface. The reversion of monoclonal antibodies to their germline configuration revealed two types of classes: one dependent on SHMs for tumor binding and a second with germline-encoded autoreactivity. Thus, tumor-reactive …

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Mar 2022 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

MoS2 Hybrids with Intercalated Zerovalent Metals for Optoelectronics

Ashwin Ramasubramaniam, Chen Stern, Avraham Twitto, Rafi Snitkoff, Yafit Fleger, Sabyasachi Saha, Loukya Bodipatti, Akash Jain, Mengjing Wang, Kristie Koski, Francis Deepak, Doron Naveh

The intercalation of layered compounds is a promising route for scalable synthesis of 2D heterostructures with novel emergent optoelectronic properties. Here, we investigate, via first principles calculations, the intercalation of zerovalent metals within the van der Waals gap of bulk MoS 2. Specifically, we focus on a novel Cu-MoS 2 hybrid that accommodates uniform, continuous 2D layers of metallic Cu within the vdW gap of MoS 2. We study the evolution of the Cu-MoS 2 hybrid with increasing Cu content and examine the consequences for intercalation energetics and optoelectronic properties as the intercalated Cu evolves from disordered clusters to contiguous layers. We identify an emergent plasmon resonance (~ 1eV) that is unique to the Cu-MoS 2 hybrid, arising from resonant 2D Cu states within the MoS 2 band gap. Our calculations are shown to be in good agreement with experiments and help explain the …

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Mar 2022 • Proc. of SPIE Vol

A magnetic modulation biosensing-based molecular assay for rapid and highly sensitive clinical diagnosis of COVID-19

Michael Margulis, Oran Erster, Shira Roth, Michal Mandelboim, Amos Danielli

The COVID-19 pandemic demands fast, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tools for virus surveillance and containment. Current methods for diagnosing the COVID-19 are based on direct detection of either viral antigens or viral ribonucleic acids (RNA) in swab samples. Antigen-targeting tests are simple, have fast turnaround times, and allow rapid testing. Unfortunately, compared with viral RNA-targeting tests, their sensitivity is low, especially during the initial stages of the disease, which limits their adoption and implementation. Direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reversetranscription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is sensitive and specific, making it a golden standard in SARS-CoV-2 detection. However, it had not seen a significant update since its introduction three decades ago. It has a long turnaround time, requires a high number of amplification cycles, and a complicated and …

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Mar 2022 • Proc. of SPIE Vol

Identification of inhibitors for the S1-ACE2 interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 using magnetically modulated biosensors

Shira Roth, Amos Danielli, Michael Margulis

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease emphasized the need for fast and sensitive inhibitor screening tools for the identification of new drug candidates. In SARS-CoV-2, one of the initial steps in the infection cycle is the adherence of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein 1 (S1) to the host cell by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Therefore, inhibition of S1-ACE2 interaction may block the entry of the virus to the host cell, and thus may limit the spread of the virus in the body. We demonstrate a rapid and quantitative method for the detection and classification of different types of molecules as inhibitors or non-inhibitors of the S1-ACE2 interaction using magnetically modulated biosensors (MMB). In the MMB-based assay, magnetic beads are attached to the S1 protein and the ACE2 receptor is fluorescently labeled. Thus, only when the proteins interact, the fluorescent …

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Mar 2022 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Hidden magnetic memory and spontaneous superconducting vortices in alternating stacking compound 4Hb-TaS2

Eylon Persky, Anders Bjørlig, Irena Feldman, Avior Almoalem, Ehud Altman, Erez Berg, Itamar Kimchi, Jonathan Ruhman, Beena Kalisky

W61. 00009: Hidden magnetic memory and spontaneous superconducting vortices in alternating stacking compound 4Hb-TaS 2

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Mar 2022 • Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems XIV, PC1197902, 2022

Optical modulation biosensing platform for high sensitivity and high throughput detection of antigens and specific RNA sequences

Shmuel Burg, Shira Roth, Meir Cohen, Shira Avivi-Mintz, Michael Margulis, Amos Danielli

Detection of biomarkers at low concentrations is essential for early diagnosis of numerous diseases. In many sensitive assays, the target molecules are tagged using fluorescently labeled probes and captured using magnetic beads. Current devices rely on quantifying the target molecules by detecting the fluorescent signal from individual beads. Here, we demonstrate a high-throughput optical modulation biosensing (ht-OMB) system Using the ht-OMB system to detect human Interleukin-8, we demonstrated a limit of detection of 0.14 ng/L and a 4-log dynamic range, values which are on par with the most sensitive devices, but are achieved without their bulk and laborious protocols.

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Mar 2022 • PLoS pathogens

Experimental evolution links post-transcriptional regulation to Leishmania fitness gain

Laura Piel, K Shanmugha Rajan, Giovanni Bussotti, Hugo Varet, Rachel Legendre, Caroline Proux, Thibaut Douché, Quentin Giai-Gianetto, Thibault Chaze, Thomas Cokelaer, Barbora Vojtkova, Nadav Gordon-Bar, Tirza Doniger, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Praveenkumar Rengaraj, Céline Besse, Anne Boland, Jovana Sadlova, Jean-François Deleuze, Mariette Matondo, Ron Unger, Petr Volf, Shulamit Michaeli, Pascale Pescher, Gerald F Späth

The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani causes fatal human visceral leishmaniasis in absence of treatment. Genome instability has been recognized as a driver in Leishmania fitness gain in response to environmental change or chemotherapy. How genome instability generates beneficial phenotypes despite potential deleterious gene dosage effects is unknown. Here we address this important open question applying experimental evolution and integrative systems approaches on parasites adapting to in vitro culture. Phenotypic analyses of parasites from early and late stages of culture adaptation revealed an important fitness tradeoff, with selection for accelerated growth in promastigote culture (fitness gain) impairing infectivity (fitness costs). Comparative genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics analyses revealed a complex regulatory network associated with parasite fitness gain, with genome instability causing highly reproducible, gene dosage-independent and -dependent changes. Reduction of flagellar transcripts and increase in coding and non-coding RNAs implicated in ribosomal biogenesis and protein translation were not correlated to dosage changes of the corresponding genes, revealing a gene dosage-independent, post-transcriptional mechanism of regulation. In contrast, abundance of gene products implicated in post-transcriptional regulation itself correlated to corresponding gene dosage changes. Thus, RNA abundance during parasite adaptation is controled by direct and indirect gene dosage changes. We correlated differential expression of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) with changes in rRNA modification …

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Mar 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2203.04669

Enhancement of superconductivity upon reduction of carrier density in proximitized graphene

Gopi Nath Daptary, Udit Khanna, Eyal Walach, Arnab Roy, Efrat Shimshoni, Aviad Frydman

The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of a single layer graphene coupled to an Indium oxide (InO) film, a low carrier-density superconductor, is found to increase with decreasing carrier density and is largest close to the average charge neutrality point in graphene. Such an effect is very surprising in conventional BCS superconductors. We study this phenomenon both experimentally and theoretically. Our analysis suggests that the InO film induces random electron and hole-doped puddles in the graphene. The Josephson effect across these regions of opposite polarity enhances the Josephson coupling between the superconducting clusters in InO, along with the overall Tc of the bilayer heterostructure. This enhancement is most effective when the chemical potential of the system is tuned between the charge neutrality points of the electron and hole-doped regions.

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Mar 2022 • High Contrast Metastructures XI, PC120110U, 2022

Chalcogenides for static and active meta-optics

Tomer Lewi, Danveer Singh, Sukanta Nandi, Shany Cohen, Pilkhaz Nanikashvili, Michal Poplinger, Doron Naveh

We present a study of various compositions of the chalcogenide family used for static and active metasurfaces. We start with large area CVD grown amorphous spherical Selenium nanoparticles on various substrates and show that their Mie-resonant response spans the entire mid-infrared (MIR) range. By coupling Se Mie-resonators to ENZ substrates we demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in quality factor. Next, we investigate topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 metasurfaces. We study the optical constants of single crystal Bi2Te3 in the NIR to the MIR range, followed by fabrication and characterization of metasurface disk arrays. We show that these high permittivity metasurfaces can yield very large absorption resonances using deep subwavelength structures. Finally, we demonstrate ultra-wide dynamic tuning of PbTe meta-atoms and metasurfaces, utilizing the anomalously large thermo-optic …

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Mar 2022 • Acta Biomaterialia

Molecular differences in collagen organization and in organic-inorganic interfacial structure of bones with and without osteocytes

Raju Nanda, Shani Hazan, Katrein Sauer, Victoria Aladin, Keren Keinan-Adamsky, Björn Corzilius, Ron Shahar, Paul Zaslansky, Gil Goobes

Bone is a fascinating biomaterial comprised mostly of type-I collagen fibers as an organic phase, apatite as an inorganic phase, with water molecules residing at the interfaces between these phases. They are hierarchically organized with minor constituents such as non-collagenous proteins, citrate ions and glycosaminoglycans into a composite structure that is mechanically durable yet contains enough porosity to accommodate cells and blood vessels. The nanometer scale organization of the collagen fibrous structure and the mineral constituents in bone were recently extensively scrutinized. However, molecular details at the lowest hierarchical level still need to be unraveled to better understand the exact atomic-level arrangement of all these important components in the context of the integral structure of the bone. In this report, we unfold some of the molecular characteristics differentiating between two load …

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Mar 2022 • High Contrast Metastructures XI, PC120110S, 2022

CVD grown selenium spherical resonators for mid-infrared meta-optics

Danveer Singh, Tomer Lewi, Doron Naveh, Michal Poplinger

Efficient light manipulation at subwavelength scales in the mid-infrared (MIR) region is essential for various applications and can be harnessed from intrinsic low-loss dielectric resonators. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of truncated spherical selenium (Se) resonators with tunable high-quality (Q) factor Mie resonances. Large area amorphous Se subwavelength resonators of varying sizes were grown on different substrates, using a novel CVD process. We demonstrate size-tunable Mie resonances spanning the 2-16 µm range, for single isolated resonators and large area ensembles, respectively. We show strong tunable absorption resonances (90%) in ensembles of resonators in a significantly broad MIR range. Moreover, by coupling resonators to epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) substrates, we engineer high-Q resonances as high as Q=40. We also show the resonance pinning effect near the substrate ENZ value …

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Mar 2022 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Synergy between Cobalt–Chromium-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets and Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution

Bibhudatta Malik, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, SK Tarik Aziz, Sumit Majumder, Rajashree Konar, Aharon Gedanken, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Enormous potential loss and sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) limit the practical implementation of water electrolyser systems. We attempt to address these technical challenges through the synthesis of cobalt–chromium-layered double hydroxide nanosheets (CoCr LDH) on oxidized-carbon nanotube (O-CNT) backbones as efficient OER electrocatalysts. Microscopic and elemental distribution analysis suggests that interconnected sheets of CoCr LDH masks over O-CNTs. We tested various compositions of the CoCr LDH_O-CNT hybrid (by varying the molar ratios of Co and Cr) along with the weight adjustment between CoCr LDH and O-CNTs to obtain an optimal OER activity. Due to the synergistic effect, the CoCr-LDH(3:1)_O-CNT (2:1) exhibits the lowest overpotential of 290 mV at 10 mA cm–2 with a corresponding smaller Tafel slope of 42 mV dec–1, which outperforms the other tested …

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Mar 2022 • Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems XIV, PC1197906, 2022

Highly sensitive and specific SARS-CoV-2 serological assay using a magnetic modulation biosensing system

Shira Avivi Mintz, Yaniv Lustig, Victoria Indenbaum, Eli Schwartz, Amos Danielli

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to pose a global public health threat. Effective and rapid serological assays are needed to provide valuable information about acute and past viral infections. Using the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein 1 antigen and a highly sensitive detection technology, termed magnetic modulation biosensing (MMB), we demonstrate a quantitative and rapid SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody test with high sensitivity and specificity compared with the gold standard ELISA test. The improved analytical and clinical sensitivity of the MMB-based assay can help clinical laboratories provide critical information in a timely manner and monitor the spread of the disease.

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Mar 2022 • European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry

Formation of Iron (III) Trimesate Xerogel by Ultrasonic Irradiation

Guido Ennas, Aharon Gedanken, Giada Mannias, Vijay B Kumar, Alessandra Scano, Ze'ev Porat, Martina Pilloni

Fe−BTC materials have attracted vast attention owing to their high chemical stability, adaptable synthesis, and potential applications. Herein, we describe, for the first time, the preparation of iron trimesate gels by ultrasonic (US) irradiation of an aqueous solution of Iron (III) nitrate and trimesic acid. Two different procedures were used: (1) sonication for 10 or 20 minutes, (2) 3 minutes sonication under controlled pH (pH 3–5). After drying, stable Fe−BTC xerogels were obtained from both procedures. The xerogels consisted of interconnected spherical nanoparticles with similar microstructure when analyzed by FT‐IR and PXRD and similar thermal behavior under oxygen in the range of 25–900 °C. When analyzed by Nitrogen adsorption‐desorption at 77 K, all samples showed a permanent porosity with a narrow micropore distribution below 10 Å. Different textural properties were found among samples obtained …

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Mar 2022 • Real-time Measurements, Rogue Phenomena, and Single-Shot Applications VII …, 2022

Simulating the polarization dynamics of ultrafast solitons

Avi Klein, Moti Fridman

We study the polarization dynamics of ultrafast solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers. We found that when a stable soliton is generated, its state-of-polarization shifts toward a stable state, and when the soliton is generated with excess power levels it experiences relaxation oscillations in its intensity and timing. On the other hand, when a soliton is generated in an unstable state-of-polarization, it either decays in intensity until it disappears, or its temporal width decreases until it explodes into several solitons, and then it disappears. All our results are supported by both experimental measurements and calculated results. For numerically modeling the dynamics of ultrafast solitons we resort to a non-Lagrangian approach for simulating coupled complex Ginzburg-Landau equations for the two components of the electric wave vector. Here we present the numerical code and results and explain in details how we obtained them.

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Mar 2022 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Intercalation-Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions in MoS2: Comparing Copper to Tin

Doron Naveh, Chen Stern, Saha Sabyasachi, Leonard Francis, Akash Jain, Kristie Koski, Avraham Twitto, Ashwin Ramasubramaniam

M71. 00013: Intercalation-Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions in MoS 2: Comparing Copper to Tin*

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Mar 2022 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XIX …, 2022

Scattering detection in multi-layer tissue: phantom experiments and in vivo applications

Inbar Yariv, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Deep tissue imaging using visible light is challenging due to its turbid nature. Nevertheless, clinical information can be detected by sensing changes in the tissue’s optical properties with low spatial resolution. The most challenging aspect is the spectral dependent scattering, which varies with physiological state and tissue layer. In this paper, we present the multi-layer study of the reflection-based iterative multiplane optical property extraction (IMOPE) technique. The IMOPE is a noninvasive nanophotonics technique that detects medium scattering properties based on the reemitted light phase. The extracted scattering properties are used as indicators of the internal tissue information and the presence of additional nanoparticles (NPs) in it. The technique is a combination of a theoretical model, an experimental setup, and the phase retrieval Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. The IMOPE experimental setup records light …

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