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Aug 2022 • Micromachines

Acoustic Manipulation of Intraocular Particles

Ari Leshno, Avraham Kenigsberg, Heli Peleg-Levy, Silvia Piperno, Alon Skaat, Hagay Shpaisman

Various conditions cause dispersions of particulate matter to circulate inside the anterior chamber of a human eye. These dispersed particles might reduce visual acuity or promote elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), causing secondary complications such as particle related glaucoma, which is a major cause of blindness. Medical and surgical treatment options are available to manage these complications, yet preventive measures are not currently available. Conceptually, manipulating these dispersed particles in a way that reduces their negative impact could prevent these complications. However, as the eye is a closed system, manipulating dispersed particles in it is challenging. Standing acoustic waves have been previously shown to be a versatile tool for manipulation of bioparticles from nano-sized extracellular vesicles up to millimeter-sized organisms. Here we introduce for the first time a novel method utilizing standing acoustic waves to noninvasively manipulate intraocular particles inside the anterior chamber. Using a cylindrical acoustic resonator, we show ex vivo manipulation of pigmentary particles inside porcine eyes. We study the effect of wave intensity over time and rule out temperature changes that could damage tissues. Optical coherence tomography and histologic evaluations show no signs of damage or any other side effect that could be attributed to acoustic manipulation. Finally, we lay out a clear pathway to how this technique can be used as a non-invasive tool for preventing secondary glaucoma. This concept has the potential to control and arrange intraocular particles in specific locations without causing any damage to …

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Jul 2022 • Optics Express

Large-field lattice structured illumination microscopy

JuanJuan Zheng, Xiang Fang, Kai Wen, Jiaoyue Li, Ying Ma, Min Liu, Sha An, Jianlang Li, Zeev Zalevsky, Peng Gao

In this paper, we present large-field, five-step lattice structured illumination microscopy (Lattice SIM). This method utilizes a 2D grating for lattice projection and a spatial light modulator (SLM) for phase shifting. Five phase-shifted intensity images are recorded to reconstruct a super-resolution image, enhancing the imaging speed and reducing the photo-bleaching both by 17%, compared to conventional two-direction and three-shift SIM. Furthermore, lattice SIM has a three-fold spatial bandwidth product (SBP) enhancement compared to SLM/DMD-based SIM, of which the fringe number is limited by the SLM/DMD pixel number. We believe that the proposed technique will be further developed and widely applied in many fields.

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Jul 2022 • Journal of Power Sources

Influence of loading, metallic surface state and surface protection in precious group metal hydrogen electrocatalyst for H2/Br2 redox-flow batteries

Kobby Saadi, Samuel S Hardisty, Zhanna Tatus-Portnoy, David Zitoun

Performance, durability, and abundance/cost of electrocatalytic materials are fundamental parameters in for large electrochemical storage solutions like redox-flow batteries (RFB). The acidic environment in Hydrogen–Bromine RFB (HBRFB), which targets tens of thousands of hours in durability, makes the challenge even more acute. Continuous effort to find the most effective and stable catalyst can promote HBRFB goal to become sustainable for high power storage systems. Herein, we explore the lower limits in catalyst loading for the two most active precious group metals (PGMs) – platinum and iridium (individually and in a bimetallic catalyst). The catalyst has been structurally characterized and lab-scale redox-flow cells have been cycled with a decreasing loading of PGM. Carbon support and polymeric coating on Pt catalyst shows a significant increase in the utilization of the catalyst. It enables low platinum …

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Jul 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2207.01669

Interdependent Superconducting Networks

I Bonamassa, B Gross, M Laav, I Volotsenko, A Frydman, S Havlin

Cascades are self-amplifying processes triggered by feedback mechanisms that may cause a substantial part of a macroscopic system to change its phase in response of a relatively small local event. The theoretical background for these phenomena is rich and interdisciplinary with interdependent networks providing a versatile "two-interactions" framework to study their multiscale evolution. Yet, physics experiments aimed at validating this ever-growing volume of predictions have remained elusive, hitherto hindered by the problem of identifying possible physical mechanisms realizing interdependent couplings. Here we develop and study the first experimental realization of an interdependent system as a multilayer network of two disordered superconductors separated by an insulating film. We show that Joule heating effects emerging at sufficiently large driving currents act as dependency links between the superconducting layers, igniting overheating cascades via adaptive back and forth electro-thermal feedbacks. Through theory and experiments, we unveil a rich phase diagram of mutual resistive transitions and cascading processes that physically realize and generalize interdependent percolation. The present work establishes the first physics laboratory bench for the manifestation of the theory of interdependent systems, enabling experimental studies to control and to further develop the multilayer phenomena of complex interdependent materials.

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Jul 2022 • Imaging Systems and Applications, IW1C. 4, 2022

Laser-Induced Tunable Focusing in Semiconductors

Nadav Shabairou, Zeev Zalevsky, Moshe Sinvani

We demonstrate a novel method for focusing a probe IR pulse laser beam in semiconductors. The shaping was done by a temporaly modifying the material complex refractive index by a second pulse pump laser beam absorbed in the sample, using pump-prob experiment.

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Jul 2022 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Influence of Salt Anions on the Reactivity of Polymer Electrolytes in All-Solid-State Sodium Batteries

Shaul Bublil, Penki Tirupathi Rao, Yuval Elias, Miryam Fayena-Greenstein, Doron Aurbach

Solid-state batteries have received renewed attention in recent years. The present study compares all-solid-state sodium batteries containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymer electrolyte (PE) with two salts, NaPF6 and NaClO4. Electrochemical properties were determined by means of both AC and DC measurements. Battery prototypes with PEO:NaClO4 have a better specific capacity; however, a composite electrolyte system containing TiO2 nanoparticles shows greater influence in PEO:NaPF6. This is probably due to the titania particles acting as a scavenger of HF, an inevitable contaminant in electrolyte systems containing PF6- anions.

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Jul 2022 • New Journal of Physics

Local equilibrium properties of ultraslow diffusion in the Sinai model

Amin Padash, Erez Aghion, Alexander Schulz, Eli Barkai, Aleksei V Chechkin, Ralf Metzler, Holger Kantz

We perform numerical studies of a thermally driven, overdamped particle in a random quenched force field, known as the Sinai model. We compare the unbounded motion on an infinite 1-dimensional domain to the motion in bounded domains with reflecting boundaries and show that the unbounded motion is at every time close to the equilibrium state of a finite system of growing size. This is due to time scale separation: Inside wells of the random potential, there is relatively fast equilibration, while the motion across major potential barriers is ultraslow. Quantities studied by us are the time dependent mean squared displacement, the time dependent mean energy of an ensemble of particles, and the time dependent entropy of the probability distribution. Using a very fast numerical algorithm, we can explore times up top steps and thereby also study finite-time crossover phenomena.

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Jul 2022 • International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics

Deep subwavelength resonant meta-optics enabled by high-index topological insulators

Danveer Singh, Sukanta Nandi, Shany Cohen, Pilkhaz Nanikashvili, Doron Naveh, Tomer Lewi


Jul 2022 • Pharmaceutics

Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal-like Adherent Stromal Cells as an Effective Cell Therapy for Cocaine Addiction in a Rat Model

Hilla Pe’er-Nissan, Hadas Ahdoot-Levi, Oshra Betzer, Pnina Shirel Itzhak, Niva Shraga-Heled, Iris Gispan, Menachem Motiei, Arthur Doroshev, Yaakov Anker, Rachela Popovtzer, Racheli Ofir, Gal Yadid

Recent research points to mesenchymal stem cells’ potential for treating neurological disorders, especially drug addiction. We examined the longitudinal effect of placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal-like cells (PLX-PAD) in a rat model for cocaine addiction. Sprague–Dawley male rats were trained to self-administer cocaine or saline daily until stable maintenance. Before the extinction phase, PLX-PAD cells were administered by intracerebroventricular or intranasal routes. Neurogenesis was evaluated, as was behavioral monitoring for craving. We labeled the PLX-PAD cells with gold nanoparticles and followed their longitudinal migration in the brain parallel to their infiltration of essential peripheral organs both by micro-CT and by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Cell locations in the brain were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We found that PLX-PAD cells attenuated cocaine-seeking behavior through their capacity to migrate to specific mesolimbic regions, homed on the parenchyma in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and restored neurogenesis. We believe that intranasal cell therapy is a safe and effective approach to treating addiction and may offer a novel and efficient approach to rehabilitation.

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Jul 2022 • Nature

Magnetic memory and spontaneous vortices in a van der Waals superconductor

Eylon Persky, Anders V Bjørlig, Irena Feldman, Avior Almoalem, Ehud Altman, Erez Berg, Itamar Kimchi, Jonathan Ruhman, Amit Kanigel, Beena Kalisky

Doped Mott insulators exhibit some of the most intriguing quantum phases of matter, including quantum spin liquids, unconventional superconductors and non-Fermi liquid metals–. Such phases often arise when itinerant electrons are close to a Mott insulating state, and thus experience strong spatial correlations. Proximity between different layers of van der Waals heterostructures naturally realizes a platform for experimentally studying the relationship between localized, correlated electrons and itinerant electrons. Here we explore this relationship by studying the magnetic landscape of tantalum disulfide 4Hb-TaS2, which realizes an alternating stacking of a candidate spin liquid and a superconductor. We report on a spontaneous vortex phase whose vortex density can be trained in the normal state. We show that time-reversal symmetry is broken in the normal state, indicating the presence of a magnetic phase …

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Jul 2022 • Journal of Cell Science

Glucocorticoids enhance chemotherapy-driven stress granule assembly and impair granule dynamics, leading to cell death

Avital Schwed-Gross, Hila Hamiel, Gabriel P Faber, Mor Angel, Rakefet Ben-Yishay, Jennifer IC Benichou, Dana Ishay-Ronen, Yaron Shav-Tal

Stress granules (SGs) can assemble in cancer cells upon chemotoxic stress. Glucocorticoids function during stress responses and are administered with chemotherapies. The roles of glucocorticoids in SG assembly and disassembly pathways are unknown. We examined whether combining glucocorticoids such as cortisone with chemotherapies from the vinca alkaloid family, which dismantle the microtubule network, affects SG assembly and disassembly pathways and influences cell viability in cancer cells and human-derived organoids. Cortisone augmented SG formation when combined with vinorelbine (VRB). Live-cell imaging showed that cortisone increased SG assembly rates but reduced SG clearance rates after stress, by increasing protein residence times within the SGs. Mechanistically, VRB and cortisone signaled through the integrated stress response mediated by eIF2α (also known as EIF2S1 …

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Jul 2022 • ACS APPLIED NANO MATERIALS

Co3O4 vertical bar CoP Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Performance

Bibhudatta Malik, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Rong Sun, Francis Leonard Deepak, Aharon Gedanken, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Developing high performance, cost-effective, and durable electrocatalysts that must be derived from non-noble metals is crucial for alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER). OER, which takes place at the anode, is accepted as a major obstacle for commercialization due to its sluggish kinetics. In this study, a two-step synthesis method, such as a hydrothermal process followed by the annealing of the reactants in an Ar-filled Swagelok cell, is briefly described to obtain a cubic type of Co3O4 core and CoP shell. As a result of synergy, Co3O4 vertical bar CoP demonstrates an onset overpotential of 280 mV and reaches a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 320 mV in an alkaline medium (pH = 13.5). The electronic property of the heterojunction is verified by the Tauc plot and valence band XPS. The band structure indicates that Co3O4 vertical bar CoP exhibits a more metallic character than pristine …

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Jul 2022 • Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry 26 (9), 1839-1850, 2022

Assessing and measuring the active site density of PGM-free ORR catalysts

Rifael Z Snitkoff-Sol, Lior Elbaz

Fuel cells are already employed in commercial transportation even though their price is still too high to enable widespread production. A viable and promising pathway taken to lower this price is the replacement of expensive constitutes, namely the platinum-based catalysts at the cathode, by platinum group metal-free catalysts based on abundant materials, such as iron. This led to the development of iron-based catalysts that show high activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction. The extraction of the intrinsic catalytic activity of any catalyst is important both for finding relations between the chemical properties of the active sites and their activity, as well as a comparison measure between catalysts. An important parameter that has been elusive for many years is the turnover frequency, which is derived form the number of electrochemical active sites’ density (EASD). The ability to measure the EASD was very limited …

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Jul 2022 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Co3O4|CoP Core–Shell Nanoparticles with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Performance

Bibhudatta Malik, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Rong Sun, Francis Leonard Deepak, Aharon Gedanken, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Developing high performance, cost-effective, and durable electrocatalysts that must be derived from non-noble metals is crucial for alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER). OER, which takes place at the anode, is accepted as a major obstacle for commercialization due to its sluggish kinetics. In this study, a two-step synthesis method, such as a hydrothermal process followed by the annealing of the reactants in an Ar-filled Swagelok cell, is briefly described to obtain a cubic type of Co3O4 core and CoP shell. As a result of synergy, Co3O4|CoP demonstrates an onset overpotential of 280 mV and reaches a current density of 10 mA cm–2 at an overpotential of 320 mV in an alkaline medium (pH = 13.5). The electronic property of the heterojunction is verified by the Tauc plot and valence band XPS. The band structure indicates that Co3O4|CoP exhibits a more metallic character than pristine Co3O4 due to the fact that …

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Jul 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2207.01427

Reproducibility and control of superconducting flux qubits

T Chang, I Holzman, T Cohen, BC Johnson, DN Jamieson, M Stern

Superconducting flux qubits are promising candidates for the physical realization of a scalable quantum processor. Indeed, these circuits may have both a small decoherence rate and a large anharmonicity. These properties enable the application of fast quantum gates with high fidelity and reduce scaling limitations due to frequency crowding. The major difficulty of flux qubits' design consists of controlling precisely their transition energy - the so-called qubit gap - while keeping long and reproducible relaxation times. Solving this problem is challenging and requires extremely good control of e-beam lithography, oxidation parameters of the junctions and sample surface. Here we present measurements of a large batch of flux qubits and demonstrate a high level of reproducibility and control of qubit gaps, relaxation times and pure echo dephasing times. These results open the way for potential applications in the fields of quantum hybrid circuits and quantum computation.

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Jul 2022 • Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids

Evolution of surface relief gratings in As20Se80 amorphous chalcogenide films under laser illumination

Yu Kaganovskii, V Freilikher, M Rosenbluh

Variation of grating amplitudes on a surface of amorphous chalcogenide films (ACF) As20Se80 has been studied under illumination by a band-gap light with the purpose to understand mechanism of photo-induced (PI) mass transfer. After holographic recording of surface relief gratings (SRGs) of various periods Λ (from 3 to 15 µm) they were illuminated by a diode laser (λ = 660 nm) and their profile variation was analyzed using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, light scattering, and optical profilometry. The SRGs with Λ < 8 µm exponentially flattened with time of illumination, whereas amplitudes of the SRGs with Λ > 8 µm exponentially grew. Theoretical analysis of the kinetics of PI mass transfer shows that the SRG profile variation occurs by bulk diffusion of As and Se atoms as a result of competition between capillary forces and electrostatic forces created by redistribution of electrons and holes generated …

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Jul 2022 • Journal of cell science 135 (13), jcs259594, 2022

Nuclear speckles–a driving force in gene expression

Gabriel P Faber, Shani Nadav-Eliyahu, Yaron Shav-Tal

Nuclear speckles are dynamic membraneless bodies located in the cell nucleus. They harbor RNAs and proteins, many of which are splicing factors, that together display complex biophysical properties dictating nuclear speckle formation and maintenance. Although these nuclear bodies were discovered decades ago, only recently has in-depth genomic analysis begun to unravel their essential functions in modulation of gene activity. Major advancements in genomic mapping techniques combined with microscopy approaches have enabled insights into the roles nuclear speckles may play in enhancing gene expression, and how gene positioning to specific nuclear landmarks can regulate gene expression and RNA processing. Some studies have drawn a link between nuclear speckles and disease. Certain maladies either involve nuclear speckles directly or dictate the localization and reorganization of many nuclear speckle factors. This is most striking during viral infection, as viruses alter the entire nuclear architecture and highjack host machinery. As discussed in this Review, nuclear speckles represent a fascinating target of study not only to reveal the links between gene positioning, genome subcompartments and gene activity, but also as a potential target for therapeutics.

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Jul 2022 • ACS Applied Electronic Materials

Current Mapping of Amorphous LaAlO3/SrTiO3 near the Metal–Insulator Transition

Anders V Bjørlig, Dennis V Christensen, Ricci Erlandsen, Nini Pryds, Beena Kalisky

The two-dimensional electron system found between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 hosts a variety of physical phenomena that can be tuned through external stimuli. This allows for electronic devices controlling magnetism, spin–orbit coupling, and superconductivity. Controlling the electron density by varying donor concentrations and using electrostatic gating are convenient handles to modify the electronic properties, but the impact on the microscopic scale, particularly of the former, remains underexplored. Here, we image the current distribution at 4.2 K in amorphous-LaAlO3/SrTiO3 using scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy while changing the carrier density in situ using electrostatic gating and oxygen annealing. We show how potential disorder affects the current and how homogeneous 2D flow evolves into several parallel conducting channels when approaching the metal-to-insulator …

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Jul 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2207.01669

Interdependent superconducting networks

I Bonamassa, B Gross, M Laav, I Volotsenko, A Frydman, S Havlin

Cascades are self-amplifying processes triggered by feedback mechanisms that may cause a substantial part of a macroscopic system to change its phase in response of a relatively small local event. The theoretical background for these phenomena is rich and interdisciplinary with interdependent networks providing a versatile "two-interactions" framework to study their multiscale evolution. Yet, physics experiments aimed at validating this ever-growing volume of predictions have remained elusive, hitherto hindered by the problem of identifying possible physical mechanisms realizing interdependent couplings. Here we develop and study the first experimental realization of an interdependent system as a multilayer network of two disordered superconductors separated by an insulating film. We show that Joule heating effects emerging at sufficiently large driving currents act as dependency links between the superconducting layers, igniting overheating cascades via adaptive back and forth electro-thermal feedbacks. Through theory and experiments, we unveil a rich phase diagram of mutual resistive transitions and cascading processes that physically realize and generalize interdependent percolation. The present work establishes the first physics laboratory bench for the manifestation of the theory of interdependent systems, enabling experimental studies to control and to further develop the multilayer phenomena of complex interdependent materials.

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Jul 2022 • Physical Review Applied

Tunable superconducting flux qubits with long coherence times

T Chang, T Cohen, I Holzman, G Catelani, M Stern

In this work, we study a series of tunable flux qubits inductively coupled to a coplanar waveguide resonator fabricated on a sapphire substrate. Each qubit includes an asymmetric superconducting quantum interference device, which is controlled by the application of an external magnetic field and acts as a tunable Josephson junction. The tunability of the qubits is typically±3.5 GHz around their central gap frequency. The measured relaxation times are limited by dielectric losses in the substrate and can attain T 1∼ 8 μ s. The echo dephasing times are limited by flux noise even at optimal points and reach T 2 E∼ 4 μ s, almost an order of magnitude longer than state of the art.

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Jul 2022 • Optics Express

Large-field lattice structured illumination microscopy

JuanJuan Zheng, Xiang Fang, Kai Wen, Jiaoyue Li, Ying Ma, Min Liu, Sha An, Jianlang Li, Zeev Zalevsky, Peng Gao


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