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Mar 2020 • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics

Roadmap on quantum light spectroscopy

Shaul Mukamel, Matthias Freyberger, Wolfgang Schleich, Marco Bellini, Alessandro Zavatta, Gerd Leuchs, Christine Silberhorn, Robert W Boyd, Luis Lorenzo Sánchez-Soto, André Stefanov, Marco Barbieri, Anna Paterova, Leonid Krivitsky, Sharon Shwartz, Kenji Tamasaku, Konstantin Dorfman, Frank Schlawin, Vahid Sandoghdar, Michael Raymer, Andrew Marcus, Oleg Varnavski, Theodore Goodson III, Zhi-Yuan Zhou, Bao-Sen Shi, Shahaf Asban, Marlan Scully, Girish Agarwal, Tao Peng, Alexei V Sokolov, Zhe-Dong Zhang, M Suhail Zubairy, Ivan A Vartanyants, Elena del Valle, Fabrice Laussy

Conventional spectroscopy uses classical light to detect matter properties through the variation of its response with frequencies or time delays. Quantum light opens up new avenues for spectroscopy by utilizing parameters of the quantum state of light as novel control knobs and through the variation of photon statistics by coupling to matter. This Roadmap article focuses on using quantum light as a powerful sensing and spectroscopic tool to reveal novel information about complex molecules that is not accessible by classical light. It aims at bridging the quantum optics and spectroscopy communities which normally have opposite goals: manipulating complex light states with simple matter eg qubits versus studying complex molecules with simple classical light, respectively. Articles cover advances in the generation and manipulation of state-of-the-art quantum light sources along with applications to sensing …

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Mar 2020 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.11599

On-chip self-referencing using integrated lithium niobate waveguides

Yoshitomo Okawachi, Mengjie Yu, Boris Desiatov, Bok Young Kim, Tobias Hansson, Marko Lončar, Alexander L Gaeta

The measurement and stabilization of the carrier-envelope offset frequency via self-referencing is paramount for optical frequency comb generation which has revolutionized precision frequency metrology, spectroscopy, and optical clocks. Over the past decade, the development of chip-scale platforms has enabled compact integrated waveguides for supercontinuum generation. However, there is a critical need for an on-chip self-referencing system that is adaptive to different pump wavelengths, requires low pulse energy, and does not require complicated processing. Here, we demonstrate efficient carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization of a modelocked laser with only 107 pJ of pulse energy via self-referencing in an integrated lithium niobate waveguide. We realize an - interferometer through second-harmonic generation and subsequent supercontinuum generation in a single dispersion-engineered waveguide with a stabilization performance equivalent to a conventional off-chip module. The beatnote is measured over a pump wavelength range of 70 nm. We theoretically investigate our system using a single nonlinear envelope equation with contributions from both second- and third-order nonlinearities. Our modeling reveals rich ultrabroadband nonlinear dynamics and confirms that the initial second harmonic generation followed by supercontinuum generation with the remaining pump is responsible for the generation of a strong signal as compared to a traditional - interferometer. Our technology provides a highly-simplified system that is robust, low cost, and adaptable for precision metrology for use outside …

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Mar 2020 • Nature communications

Adar RNA editing-dependent and-independent effects are required for brain and innate immune functions in Drosophila

Patricia Deng, Anzer Khan, Dionna Jacobson, Nagraj Sambrani, Leeanne McGurk, Xianghua Li, Aswathy Jayasree, Jan Hejatko, Galit Shohat-Ophir, Mary A O’Connell, Jin Billy Li, Liam P Keegan

ADAR RNA editing enzymes are high-affinity dsRNA-binding proteins that deaminate adenosines to inosines in pre-mRNA hairpins and also exert editing-independent effects. We generated a Drosophila Adar E374A mutant strain encoding a catalytically inactive Adar with CRISPR/Cas9. We demonstrate that Adar adenosine deamination activity is necessary for normal locomotion and prevents age-dependent neurodegeneration. The catalytically inactive protein, when expressed at a higher than physiological level, can rescue neurodegeneration in Adar mutants, suggesting also editing-independent effects. Furthermore, loss of Adar RNA editing activity leads to innate immune induction, indicating that Drosophila Adar, despite being the homolog of mammalian ADAR2, also has functions similar to mammalian ADAR1. The innate immune induction in fly Adar mutants is suppressed by silencing of Dicer-2, which has …

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Mar 2020 • Biomacromolecules

Multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles for labeling and tracking T cells via dual-modal computed tomography and fluorescence imaging

Meixiu Chen, Oshra Betzer, Yu Fan, Yue Gao, Mingwu Shen, Tamar Sadan, Rachela Popovtzer, Xiangyang Shi

Nanosystems for monitoring and tracking T cells provide an important basis for evaluating the functionality and efficacy of T cell-based immunotherapy. To this end, we designed herein an efficient nanoprobe for T cell monitoring and tracking using poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) conjugated with Fluo-4 for dual-mode computed tomography (CT) and fluorescence imaging. In this study, PAMAM dendrimers of generation 5 (G5) were modified with hydroxyl-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG) and then used to entrap 2.0 nm Au NPs followed by acetylation of the excess amine groups on the dendrimer surface. Subsequently, the calcium ion probe was covalently attached to the dendrimer nanohybrids through the PEG hydroxyl end groups to gain the functional {(Au0)25-G5.NHAc-(PEG)14-(Fluo-4)2} nanoprobe. This nanoprobe had excellent water solubility, high X …

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Mar 2020 • Scientific reports

Large-scale acoustic-driven neuronal patterning and directed outgrowth

Sharon Cohen, Haim Sazan, Avraham Kenigsberg, Hadas Schori, Silvia Piperno, Hagay Shpaisman, Orit Shefi

Acoustic manipulation is an emerging non-invasive method enabling precise spatial control of cells in their native environment. Applying this method for organizing neurons is invaluable for neural tissue engineering applications. Here, we used surface and bulk standing acoustic waves for large-scale patterning of Dorsal Root Ganglia neurons and PC12 cells forming neuronal cluster networks, organized biomimetically. We showed that by changing parameters such as voltage intensity or cell concentration we were able to affect cluster properties. We examined the effects of acoustic arrangement on cells atop 3D hydrogels for up to 6 days and showed that assembled cells spontaneously grew branches in a directed manner towards adjacent clusters, infiltrating the matrix. These findings have great relevance for tissue engineering applications as well as for mimicking architectures and properties of native tissues.

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Mar 2020 • ChemistrySelect

Facile Molecular Catalysis for Isomerization of Glucose to Fructose Using KMnO4 in Water

Anat Zandany, Vijay B Kumar, Aharon Gedanken

This research demonstrates the eco‐friendly conversion of glucose to fructose in an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) via a hydrothermal method.  A series of reactions have been completed at different temperatures, times, and concentrations of the catalyst. The examination of the glucose to fructose transformation was determined by using quantitative HPLC, and 13C‐NMR analyses. 29% fructose yield was found with 68% fructose selectivity, at 90 °C for an 8 h reaction in aqueous solution. The catalytic activity of KMnO4 was correlated with its Lewis acidity. The outcomes of these experiments provided a better understanding of sugar transformations in the KMnO4 aqueous solution. The mechanism of glucose isomerization has been proposed based on supporting transformations utilizing Lewis acids for the isomerization of glucose.

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Mar 2020 • Dyes and Pigments

Applying styryl quinolinium fluorescent probes for imaging of ribosomal RNA in living cells

Abed Saady, Eli Varon, Avi Jacob, Yaron Shav-Tal, Bilha Fischer

The detection of subcellular domains in cells can be obtained by specific fluorescent markers. Here we report the use of styryl quinolinium dyes that selectively stain ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in nucleoli and in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. Specifically, we synthesized a series of 1-methyl-4-(substituted) styryl-quinolinium derivatives, 12a–l. We developed highly efficient microwave-assisted synthesis which prevents the formation of side-products, leading to the products in yields greater than 90%. Compounds 12c-f and 12i in various solvents exhibited maximum absorbance at 500–660 nm, molar extinction coefficient of 25400–49000 M−1cm−1, and emitted at 630–715 nm. Dyes 12a–l are highly photochemically stable. Dye 12e specifically stained nucleoli and the cytoplasm and is non-toxic. Various tests showed the markedly higher affinity of the dye for rRNA. We demonstrate that 12e is an attractive staining …

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Mar 2020 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Recent advences on non-normalizable Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics and infinite-ergodic theory

Erez Aghion, David Kessler, Eli Barkai

X25. 00012: Recent advences on non-normalizable Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics and infinite-ergodic theoryAbstractPresenter:Erez Aghion(Max Planck inst. for physics of complex systems)Authors:Erez Aghion(Max Planck inst. for physics of complex systems)David A Kessler(Bar Ilan Univ)Eli Barkai(Bar Ilan Univ)The equilibrium state of a thermal system, in the presence of a strongly confining potential, is given by the famous Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. This, along with the ergodic hypothesis, are hallmarks of statistical physics. If the potential is weakly confining, the Boltzmann factor is non-normalizable and the particle packet is constantly expanding. This gives rise to many questions. Among them: can we still infer the shape of the potential landscape, by observing the spatial distribution of the diffusing particles? How do we obtain ensemble and time-averaged observables in this case? And what is the entropy …

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Mar 2020 • Adv. Energy Mat.

High;# 8208; Temperature Treatment of Li;# 8208; Rich Cathode Materials with Ammonia: Improved Capacity and Mean Voltage Stability during Cycling

Evan M Erickson, Hadar Sclar, Florian Schipper, Jing Liu, Ruiyuan Tian, Chandan Ghanty, Larisa Burstein, Nicole Leifer, Judith Grinblat, Michael Talianker, Ji Shin, Jordan K Lampert, Boris Markovsky, Anatoly I Frenkel, Doron Aurbach

The US Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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Mar 2020 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Ferroelectric Control of Normal and Superconducting States in Oxide Interface by Intrinsic and Extrinsic Bias

Gal Tuvia, Yiftach Frenkel, Prasanna Rout, Itai Silber, Beena Kalisky, Yoram Dagan

F64. 00005: Ferroelectric Control of Normal and Superconducting States in Oxide Interface by Intrinsic and Extrinsic BiasAbstractPresenter:Gal Tuvia(Tel Aviv University)Authors:Gal Tuvia(Tel Aviv University)Yiftach Frenkel(physics, Bar Ilan University)Prasanna Kumar Rout(Delft University of Technology)Itai Silber(Tel Aviv University)Beena Kalisky(physics, Bar Ilan University)Yoram Dagan(Tel Aviv University)We deposit the polar oxide LaAlO 3 on Ca doped SrTiO 3 with various Ca concentrations. The latter becomes ferroelectric below 30K. The resulting interface is conducting with a critical thickness of 3 unit cells of LaAlO 3. A large increase in the interface resistance is observed as the temperature is decreased below the ferroelectric transition with a strong hysteretic behavior as a function of gate voltage. Below T c 300mK the sample becomes superconducting with a clear hysteresis in T c with respect to the …

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Mar 2020 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.01756

Electrostatic modulation of the lateral carrier density profile in field effect devices with non-linear dielectrics

Eylon Persky, Hyeok Yoon, Yanwu Xie, Harold Y Hwang, Jonathan Ruhman, Beena Kalisky

We study the effects of electrostatic gating on the lateral distribution of charge carriers in two dimensional devices, in a non-linear dielectric environment. We compute the charge distribution using the Thomas-Fermi approximation to model the electrostatics of the system. The electric field lines generated by the gate are focused at the edges of the device, causing an increased depletion near the edges, compared to the center of the device. This effect strongly depends on the dimensions of the device, and the non-linear dielectric constant of the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this effect using scanning superconducting interference device (SQUID) microscopy images of current distributions in gated LaAlO/SrTiO heterostructures.

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Mar 2020 • ACS Applied Energy Materials

Stabilized Behavior of LiNi0.85Co0.10Mn0.05O2 Cathode Materials Induced by Their Treatment with SO2

Francis Amalraj Susai, Hadar Sclar, Sandipan Maiti, Larisa Burstein, Ortal Perkal, Judith Grinblat, Michael Talianker, Sharon Ruthstein, Christoph Erk, Pascal Hartmann, Boris Markovsky, Doron Aurbach

We present in this paper a modification and stabilization approach for the surface of a high specific capacity Ni-rich cathode material LiNi0.85Co0.10Mn0.05O2 (NCM85) via SO2 gas treatment at 250–400 °C, in order to enhance its electrochemical performance in advanced lithium-ion batteries. It was established that SO2 interactions with NCM85 result in the formation of a nanometer-sized Li2SO4 surface layer on the oxide particles with no impact on the bulk structure of the material and its morphology. We consider the above interactions as oxidation–reduction processes resulting in direct oxidation of sulfur and partial reduction of Ni3+ as revealed by high-resolution XPS and electron paramagnetic resonance studies. The important impacts of the SO2 treatment are a remarkably stable cycling performance of cathodes comprising this material with ∼10% increase in capacity retention and lesser voltage hysteresis …

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Mar 2020 • Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems XII 11258 …, 2020

Magnetically aggregated biosensors for sensitive detection of biomarkers at low concentrations (Conference Presentation)

Shmuel Burg, Meir Cohen, Michael Margulis, Shira Roth, Amos Danielli

Detection of biomarkers at low concentrations is essential for early diagnosis of numerous diseases. In many sensitive assays, the target molecules are tagged using fluorescently labeled probes and captured using magnetic beads. Current devices rely on quantifying the target molecules by detecting the fluorescent signal from individual beads. Here, we propose a compact fluorescence-based magnetically aggregated biosensors (MAB) system. Using the device to detect human Interleukin-8, we demonstrated a 0.1 ng/L limit of detection and a 4-log dynamic range, performance which is on par with the most sensitive devices, but is achieved without their bulk and cost.

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Mar 2020 • Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry

Elucidation of Phase Equilibria in Quinary Na, K, Mg//SO 4, B 4 O 7–H 2 O System at 15° C

Sh Tursunbadalov

Abstract Results of investigation of phase equilibria in quinary Na,K,Mg//SO4,B4O7–H2O system at 15°C by means of translation method were discussed. Total phase equilibria diagram of the system was fragmented into divariant co-crystallization fields of two solid phases and trivariant crystallization volumes of individual solid phases. Crystallization volumes form the structures of dry-salt diagrams of the system saturated with relevant phases. The results obtained agree and involve the recent experimental results on MgB4O7 ⋅ 9H2O saturated part of the quinary Na,K,Mg//SO4,B4O7–H2O system at 15°C.

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Mar 2020 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.07702

A femto-Tesla DC SQUID design for quantum-ready readouts

Ilya Sochnikov, Donovan Davino, Beena Kalisky

Among some of the current uses of the DC Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are qubit-readouts and sensors for probing properties of quantum materials. We present a rather unique gradiometric niobium SQUID design with state-of-the-art sensitivity in the femto-Tesla range which can be easily tuned to specific readout requirements. The sensor is a next generation of the fractional SQUIDs with tightly optimized input coil and a combination of all measures known for restraining parasitic resonances and other detrimental effects. Our design combines the practical usefulness of well-defined pickup loops for superior imaging kernel and tunable-probing applications with the fractionalization approach to reduce undesired inductances. In addition, our modeling predicts small dimensions for these planar sensors. These features make them of high relevance for material studies and for detection of magnetic fields in small volumes, e.g. as part of a cryogenic scanning quantum imaging apparatus for efficient diagnostics and quantum device readouts. This manuscript will benefit scientists and engineers working on quantum computing technologies by clarifying potential general misconceptions about DC SQUID optimization alongside the introduction of the novel flexible compact DC SQUID design.

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Mar 2020 • ChemCatChem

3D‐Graphene Decorated with g‐C3N4/Cu3P Composite: A Noble Metal‐free Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Overall Water Splitting

Sk Riyajuddin, SK Tarik Aziz, Sushil Kumar, Gilbert D Nessim, Kaushik Ghosh

Electrochemical water splitting, which generates both hydrogen and oxygen, using highly efficient and low-cost noble metal-free (Pt, Ru, Ir etc.) electrocatalyst is an economical and green approach for the alternative energy source. Due to worthy conductivity, durability and long-term stability, carbonaceous containing hybrid materials used as promising electrodes for total water splitting. Herein, we report a design of metal-phosphide (Cu3P) with graphitic carbon-nitride (gC 3N4) nanocomposite on 3D-graphene, a new model electrocatalyst that in turn, render superior electrocatalytic performance with long-term stability. The excellent electrocatalytic performance is analyzed in terms of overpotentials of 67 mV and 255 mV@ current density of 10 mA/cm2 with a small Tafel slope of 45 and 40 mV/dec for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) respectively. The overall water splitting performance has been tested in 1M KOH electrolyte, and the catalyst exhibits a very low cell voltage of 1.54 V to achieve a current density of 10mA/cm2 with impressive stability of at least 35 hours with no loss of potential. This work sheds new insight into the design and synthesis of highly stable electrocatalyst that could be an apt choice for an attractive paradigm for commercial water electrolysis in renewable electrochemical energy conversion.

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Mar 2020 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Superconductivity and Antiferrodistortive Phase Transition in Sr1-xNdxTiO3 Films

Jin Yue, Yilikal Ayino, Maria Navarro Gastiasoro, Eylon Persky, Alex Hanukov, Tristan Truttmann, Beena Kalisky, Rafael Fernandes, Vlad Pribiag, Bharat Jalan

F64. 00004: Superconductivity and Antiferrodistortive Phase Transition in Sr 1-x Nd x TiO 3 FilmsAbstractPresenter:Jin Yue(Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota)Authors:Jin Yue(Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota)Yilikal Z Ayino(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota)Maria Navarro Gastiasoro(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota)Eylon Persky(Department of Physics and Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel)

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Mar 2020 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Surface States and Arcless Angles in Twisted Weyl Semimetals

Herbert Fertig, Ganpathy Murthy, Efrat Shimshoni

Fermi arc states are features of Weyl semimetal (WSM) surfaces which are robust due to the topological character of the bulk band structure. We demonstrate that Fermi arcs may undergo profound restructurings when surfaces of different systems with a well-defined twist angle are tunnel-coupled. The twisted WSM interface supports a moiré pattern which may be approximated as a periodic system with large real-space unit cell. States bound to the interface emerge, with interesting consequences for the magneto-oscillations expected when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the system surfaces. As the twist angle passes through special" arcless angles”, for which open Fermi arc states are absent at the interface, Fermi loops of states confined to the interface may break off, without connecting to bulk states of the WSM. We argue that such states have interesting resonance signatures in the optical conductivity …

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Mar 2020 • Optical, Opto-Atomic, and Entanglement-Enhanced Precision Metrology II 11296 …, 2020

Fundamentals of the quantum covariance matrix and its implications for entanglement detection and sensing (Conference Presentation)

Eliahu Cohen

Two seemingly different questions arise on the interface between quantum mechanics and gravity: How is a spin affected by a gravitational field? How is spacetime affected by a spin? With regards to the first, we propose opto-atomic interference experiments for testing the predictions of Dirac equation in curved spacetime. We then present a thought experiment [arXiv:1812.11450], which enables a quantum informational analysis of the second question. Within this framework, several known models are shown to contradict relativistic causality and hence they have to be modified or replaced. Our results suggest a general spin-spacetime censorship principle in nature.

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Mar 2020 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Aharonov-Casher effect with vortices in an amorphous superconductor

Arnab Roy, Aviad Frydman

A trajectory of a magnetic moment in an electric field results in the acquisition of a topological phase called the Aharonov-Casher (AC) phase, analogous to the AB phase acquired by a charged particle in a magnetic field. In condensed matter, experiments demonstrating the AC effect are relatively few, the earliest being for superconducting vortices traversing a fabricated Josephson-junction array. In that regular geometry, a periodic response to induced charge was observed. In an irregular geometry, in analogy with universal conductance fluctuations, a complex quasi-periodic respinse may be expected.An amorphous superconductor close to a superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) provides such a complex multiply connected region for superconducting vortices to interfere, as indicated by recent studies. In this study with amorphous indium oxide close to a disorder driven SIT, we introduce vortices in the system …

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Mar 2020 • Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials

Structural and magnetic investigations on Cu-doped MnV2O6 compound: Experiment and theory

N Khamaru, S De, A Das, Vijay Singh, Dan Thomas Major, P Dasgupta, D Das, S Chatterjee

Effects of Cu-doping on the structural and magnetic properties of spin chain compound MnV2O6 have been investigated through experimental and theoretical techniques. Significant change in magnetic properties with Cu-doping have been observed. Increasing defects and disorders with Cu-doping which often results in a breaking of infinite chains along b-axis into finite segments play pivotal role towards the decrease in the intrachain exchange interaction. Defects, disorders and hence the chain breaking also affects the magnetic susceptibility of the compound and an increasing Curie tail has been observed. In addition, increasing contribution of orbital moment has been observed with doping. Observation of metamagnetism in both pure and doped compounds is the another key feature observed. First-principles electronic structure calculations have been employed to understand the observed increase in the …

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