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Apr 2020 • ACS applied materials & interfaces

Assembly of conductive polyaniline microstructures by a laser-induced microbubble

Eitan Edri, Nina Armon, Ehud Greenberg, Elad Hadad, Michael R Bockstaller, Hagay Shpaisman

Micropatterns of conductive polymers are key for various applications in the fields of flexible electronics and sensing. A bottom-up method that allows high-resolution printing without additives is still lacking. Here, such a method is presented based on microprinting by the laser-induced microbubble technique (LIMBT). Continuous micropatterning of polyaniline (PANI) was achieved from a dispersion of the emeraldine base form of PANI (EB-PANI) in n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). A focused laser beam is absorbed by the EB-PANI nanoparticles and leads to formation of a microbubble, followed by convection currents, which rapidly pin EB-PANI nanoparticles to the bubble/substrate interface. Micro-Raman spectra confirmed that the printed patterns preserve the molecular structure of EB-PANI. A simple transformation of the printed lines to the conducting emeraldine salt form of PANI (ES-PANI) was achieved by doping …

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Apr 2020 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Preface—JES Focus Issue on Challenges in Novel Electrolytes, Organic Materials, and Innovative Chemistries for Batteries in Honor of Michel Armand

Dominique Guyomard, Vito Di Noto, Maria Forsyth, Philippe Poizot, Teofilo Rojo, Karim Zaghib, Brett Lucht, Doron Aurbach

This JES focus issue is devoted to a very broad range of topics related to battery research, including various families of novel electrolytes and innovative electrodes materials, the development of metal/electrolyte interfaces, and groundbreaking cell designs and chemistries. Following the AiMES 2018 Meeting (A02 symposium), this special issue is dedicated to the work of one of the world leaders of the battery community Dr. Michel Armand, Emeritus Researcher at French CNRS, and presently working at CIC-Energigune in Spain and at Deakin University in Australia. During his career Michel Armand has led the community with outstanding and inspiring contributions to the field of battery electrochemistry with major industrial applications. Dr. Armand has impressively pioneered numerous theoretical concepts and practical applications in the field of energy-related electrochemistry. He ushered the concept of …

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Apr 2020 • ACS Publications, 2020

Polyhedral Water Droplets: Shape Transitions and Mechanism

Eli Sloutskin

While classical liquid droplets are rounded, transitions have recently been discovered which render polyhedral water-suspended droplets of several oils. Yet, the mechanism of these transitions and the role of the droplets’ interfacial curvature in inducing these transitions remain controversial. In particular, one of the two mechanisms suggested mandates a convex interface, in a view from the oil side. Here we show that oil-suspended water droplets can spontaneously assume polyhedral shapes, in spite of their concave interface. These results strongly support the alternative mechanism, where the faceting in both oil and water droplets is driven by the elasticity of a crystalline monolayer, known to self-assemble at the oil–water interface, independent of its curvature. The faceting transitions in the water droplets allow the fundamental elastic properties of two-dimensional matter to be probed, enable new strategies in …

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Apr 2020 • Advanced Quantum Technologies

Entanglement between Distant Regions in Disordered Quantum Wires

Yishai Schreiber, Richard Berkovits

The entanglement negativity for spinless fermions in a strongly disordered 1D Anderson model is studied. For two close regions, the negativity is log‐normally distributed, and is suppressed by repulsive interactions. With increasing distance between the regions, the typical negativity decays, but there remains a peak in the distribution, also at high values, representing highly entangled distant regions. For intermediate distances, in the noninteracting case, two distinct peaks are observed. As a function of interaction strength, the two peaks merge into each other. The abundance and nature of these entangled regions is studied. The relation to resonances between single‐particle eigenstates is demonstrated. Thus, although the system is strongly disordered, it is nevertheless possible to encounter two far‐away regions which are entangled.

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Apr 2020 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Preface—JES Focus Issue on Heterogeneous Functional Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage

Doron Aurbach, Thomas F Fuller, David E Cliffel, Wilson KS Chiu, Vito Di Noto, Srikanth Gopalan, Nian Liu, Alice H Suroviec

It is our pleasure to present a focus issue on Heterogeneous Functional Materials (HeteroFoaMs), which are pervasive in electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage. These devices consist of multiple materials combined at multiple scales (from atomic to macro) that actively interact during their functional history in a manner that controls their collective performance as a system at the global level. The principal motivation for this special issue will be to provide a forum to discuss the science that controls emergent properties in heterogeneous functional materials as a foundation for design of functional material devices with performance not bounded by constituent properties. In response to this need, Symposium I05 Heterogeneous

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Apr 2020 • Advanced Quantum Technologies

Entanglement between Distant Regions in Disordered Quantum Wires

Yishai Schreiber, Richard Berkovits

The entanglement negativity for spinless fermions in a strongly disordered 1D Anderson model is studied. For two close regions, the negativity is log‐normally distributed, and is suppressed by repulsive interactions. With increasing distance between the regions, the typical negativity decays, but there remains a peak in the distribution, also at high values, representing highly entangled distant regions. For intermediate distances, in the noninteracting case, two distinct peaks are observed. As a function of interaction strength, the two peaks merge into each other. The abundance and nature of these entangled regions is studied. The relation to resonances between single‐particle eigenstates is demonstrated. Thus, although the system is strongly disordered, it is nevertheless possible to encounter two far‐away regions which are entangled.

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Apr 2020 • Diamond and Related Materials

Disaggregation, stabilization, and innovative functionalization/surface engineering of detonation nanodiamonds via ultrasonication-promoted ceric ammonium nitrate treatment

D Itshak-Levy, LL Israel, B Schmerling, S Kannan, H Sade, S Michaeli, ...

We present a novel method for aqueous effective disaggregation, dispersion, and stabilization of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) that also allows easy further second-step nanodiamond (ND) functionalization/surface engineering through lanthanide-based coordination chemistry. This method includes ultrasonic irradiation of NDs in the presence of a strong mono-electronic ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN, [Ce(IV)(NH4)2(NO3)6]) oxidant. The resulting CAN-treated NDs are positively charged with lanthanide [CeLn]3/4+ complexes/cations, enabling an anti-aggregation effect together with the ability to be further surface-modified through [CeLn]3/4+ ligand exchange (lanthanide coordinative chemistry). Therefore, this method produces ~10 nm-sized CAN-modified nanoparticles (NDs-CAN NPs) that are highly positively charged (ξ potential maximal value: +45.7 mV & average zeta potential: +34.6 mV). The obtained …

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Apr 2020 • Frontiers in Physics 8, 47, 2020

Correlated multimodal imaging in life sciences: expanding the biomedical horizon

A Walter, P Paul-Gilloteaux, B Plochberger, L Sefc, P Verkade, ...

The frontiers of bioimaging are currently being pushed towards the integration and correlation of several modalities to tackle biomedical research questions holistically and across multiple scales. Correlated Multimodal Imaging (CMI) gathers information about exactly the same specimen with two or more complementary modalities that – combined – create a composite and complementary view of the sample (including insights into structure, function, dynamics and molecular composition). CMI allows to describe biomedical processes within their overall spatio-temporal context and gain a mechanistic understanding of cells, tissues, diseases or organisms by untangling their molecular mechanisms within their native environment. The two best-established CMI implementations are hardware-fused platforms in (Pre)clinical Imaging (Hybrid Imaging) and Correlated Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM) in biological imaging. Although the merits of Hybrid Imaging and CLEM are well established, both approaches would benefit from standardization of protocols, ontologies and data handling, and the development of optimized and advanced implementations. Specifically, CMI pipelines that aim at bridging preclinical and biological imaging beyond CLEM and Hybrid Imaging are rare but bear great potential to substantially advance both bioimaging and biomedical research. CMI faces three main challenges for its routine use in biomedical research: (1) Sample handling and preparation procedures that are compatible across modalities without compromising data quality, (2) soft- and hardware solutions to relocate the same region of interest (ROI) after …

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Apr 2020 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2004.02723

Efimov energy level rebounding off the atom-dimer continuum

Yaakov Yudkin, Roy Elbaz, Lev Khaykovich

The Efimov effect, with its ladder of weakly bound three-atomic molecules, poses intriguing questions in the theoretically controversial and experimentally demanding regime of merging of the first excited Efimov energy level with the atom-dimer continuum. Using an original experimental technique, where a coherent superposition state of diatomic and triatomic molecules is utilized, we investigate this regime and reveal a striking behavior: Instead of merging with the atom-dimer continuum the trimer energy level rebounds from it and becomes a deeper bound state again. In addition, instead of a tangential approach between the two levels we observe a rather narrow resonance, providing a new challenge and guide for few-body theories to incorporate realistic interatomic potentials.

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Apr 2020 • ACS Photonics

Development of lipid-coated semiconductor nanosensors for recording of membrane potential in neurons

Anastasia Ludwig, Pablo Serna, Lion Morgenstein, Gaoling Yang, Omri Bar-Elli, Gloria Ortiz, Evan Miller, Dan Oron, Asaf Grupi, Shimon Weiss, Antoine Triller

In the past decade, optical imaging methods have significantly improved our understanding of the information processing principles in the brain. Although many promising tools have been designed, sensors of membrane potential are lagging behind the rest. Semiconductor nanoparticles are an attractive alternative to classical voltage indicators, such as voltage-sensitive dyes and proteins. Such nanoparticles exhibit high sensitivity to external electric fields via the quantum-confined Stark effect. Here we report the development of semiconductor voltage-sensitive nanorods (vsNRs) that self-insert into the neuronal membrane. To facilitate interaction of the nanorods with the membrane, we functionalized their surface with the lipid mixture derived from brain extract. We describe a workflow to detect and process the photoluminescent signal of vsNRs after wide-field time-lapse recordings. We also present data indicating …

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Apr 2020 • Langmuir

Silica-Supported Nitrogen-Enriched Porous Benzimidazole-Linked and Triazine-Based Polymers for the Adsorption of CO2

Moorthy Maruthapandi, Lakshmanan Eswaran, Reut Cohen, Nina Perkas, John HT Luong, Aharon Gedanken

Two crystalline and five amorphous benzimidazole polymers (BINP) were synthesized and conjugated to porous silica via amine and aldehyde-based materials by a simple reflux procedure. The resulting polymers were subject to thermal analysis for monitoring and quantification of the adsorption and desorption of CO2. All the polymers were capable of adsorbing CO2 from a flowing stream of only 80 mL/min at 25 °C. The adsorbed CO2 onto the polymers were effectively desorbed at room temperature, illustrating the potential application of such polymers for repeated adsorption/desorption of CO2. The CO2 adsorption capacities of these polymers were dependent upon their nitrogen content, specific surface area, and pore size. The available nitrogen atoms for binding to the carbon of CO2 via tetrel bonds also plays an important role in the capture of this gas. Minimal and much lower CO2 adsorption was also noted …

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Apr 2020 • Tissue Optics and Photonics 11363, 1136308, 2020

Remote photoacoustic tomography using diode-array and speckle-analysis

Benjamin Lengenfelder, Hassan Jarkas, Nadav Shabairou, Martin Hohmann, Michael Schmidt, Zeev Zalevsky, Florian Klämpfl

Photoacoustic imaging is a new, rising imaging technique which combines high penetration depth with a good image contrast. It is demonstrated for the first time that remote photoacoustic sensing by speckle-analysis can be performed in the MHz-sampling range using a low-resolution diode array by showing experimental results. Phantoms and ex-vivo samples are measured in transmission-mode. In addition, the detection sensitivity of the new system is estimated. The new technique might help in future to broaden the applications of photoacoustics in special applications like wound imaging, endoscopy or guiding laser surgeries.

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Apr 2020 • Applied Surface Science

Engineering of new durable cross-linked poly (styryl bisphosphonate) thin coatings onto polypropylene films for biomedical applications

Hanna P Steinmetz, Elisheva Sason, Tammy Lublin-Tennenbaum, Shlomo Margel

Bone tissue engineering uses biocompatible biomaterials to stimulate bone regeneration. Bone has two major components, organic collagen fibers and inorganic hydroxyapatite (HAP) which makes up about 60 percent of bone. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are compounds which are used clinically for bone disorders because of their high affinity for calcium ions. Previously, we reported on the synthesis of cross-linked poly(styryl bisphosphonate) nanoparticles (poly(StBP) NPs) which demonstrated a strong affinity for calcium ions. Here, we describe the use of these NPs for the synthesis of new durable cross-linked poly(StBP) thin coatings on corona-treated polypropylene films by means of a simple method of UV-curing. To produce the coatings, poly(StBP) NPs were mixed with the cross-linking monomer poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate and a photo-initiator, spread on the PP films using a Mayer rod, and then UV …

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Apr 2020 • Nonlinear Optics and its Applications 2020 11358, 113581O, 2020

Temporal imaging system based on four-wave mixing interaction which does not require synchronization to a pump wave

Avi Klein, Inbar Sibony, Sara Meir, Ori Freedman, Shir Shahal, Michelle Y Sander, Moti Fridman

Temporal imaging system have enabled imaging of ultrafast phenomena with high temporal resolution different ultrafast phenomena. Specifically, time-lenses which are based on nonlinear interaction of four-wave mixing have a wide field of view together with high F-number. These offers temporal imaging system with large magnifications in the time-domain. However, when considering a time-lens based on four-wave mixing interaction, the input signal must be synchronized to the pump wave which makes it challenging for measuring any ultrafast phenomena with unknown time-of-arrival. Therefore, we developed a temporal imaging system which does not require this synchronization between a signal and a pump wave. This is done by generating time-lenses with high repetition-rate. Therefore, any input signal will interact with one of the time-lenses and it will be imaged in time with high probability. In this …

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Apr 2020 • Nonlinear Optics and its Applications 2020 11358, 113581N, 2020

Time-lenses placed in an array with overlapping between adjecent time-lenses

Avi Klein, Inbar Sibony, Sara Meir, Ori Freedman, Shir Shahal, Hamootal Duadi, Moti Fridman

Time-lenses in general proved to be useful for many applications and specifically when utilizing them for temporal imaging schemes where they can image ultrafast signals that cannot be detected by any electronic based device. Over the last few years, we demonstrated that when joining together several time-lenses into a single time-lens array, it is possible to gain more information on the input signal. Such as measuring temporal depth imaging, the state of polarization of the input signal as a function of time, and retrieving the phase dynamics. However, when designing an array of time-lenses, there is a trade-off between joining large number of small time-lenses, so each signal will interact with many time-lenses but each one has low resolution, and joining small number of large time-lenses, so each has better temporal resolution but on the expanse of interacting with smaller number of time-lenses in the array. We …

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Apr 2020 • Review of Scientific Instruments

Harmonic height distribution in pickup spectroscopy within electrostatic ion beam traps

Michal Kahana, Lihi Musbat, Maria Nihamkin, Yael Diamant, Silvia Piperno, Shany Ytzhak, Yoni Toker

Pickup spectroscopy is a means of determining the abundance, mass, charge, and lifetime of ions oscillating in electrostatic ion beam traps. Here, we present a framework for describing the harmonic height distribution of the Fourier transform of the pickup signal and discuss the importance of the pickup positioning, bunch dynamics, and pickup width on the harmonic height distribution. We demonstrate the methodology using measurements from a newly constructed electrostatic ion beam trap.

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Apr 2020

Low-Frequency Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Tool for COVID-19 and other Coronaviruses

Vinayaka Harshothama Damle, Bharathi Rajeswaran, Yaakov R Tischler

Amidst the current worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, improved diagnostic tools are of vital importance. Low-Frequency Raman (LFR) Spectroscopy provides a robust theoretical scientific basis for eventual development of a non-invasive Diagnostic Tool for specimens or patients directly. This preliminary research will begin mapping the nanostructure of COVID-19 via LFR and regular Raman Spectroscopy, in comparison with different Coronaviruses and other viral materials, helping to lay a groundwork for future research. In addition to its distinct nanostructure, effects on it by thermal fluctuations or decomposition, decay under laser excitation, and interference from buffers will be examined.

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Apr 2020 • Scientific reports

Author Correction: Non-Invasive Imaging Through Scattering Medium by Using a Reverse Response Wavefront Shaping Technique

Abhijit Sanjeev, Yuval Kapellner, Nadav Shabairou, Eran Gur, Moshe Sinvani, Zeev Zalevsky

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author (s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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Apr 2020 • Mediators of Inflammation

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Hande Erman, Engin Beydogan, Seher Irem Cetin, Banu Boyuk

Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases, which has recently been mentioned as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Objectives. Endocan is a novel molecule of endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the associations of serum endocan levels with the hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and degrees of hepatosteatosis in patients with metabolic syndrome with NAFLD. Design and Setting. This cross-sectional prospective study was performed in the outpatient clinic of an internal medicine department. Methods. The study included 40 patients with metabolic syndrome with NAFLD as noted using hepatic ultrasound and 20 healthy controls. Secondary causes of fatty liver were excluded. FLI and HSI calculations were recorded. Serum endocan level values were obtained after overnight fasting. Results. Higher values of HSI and …

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Apr 2020 • Tissue Optics and Photonics 11363, 113631E, 2020

Remote thermal sensing of tissues based upon analysis of time-changing back-scattered speckle patterns

Matan Benyamin, Hadar Genish, Ran Califa, Nissan Ozana, Ariel Schwarz, Zeev Zalevsky

The ability to remotely extract temperature from a specific location using back scattered light analysis is very applicable. In this paper we present the first step towards remote sensing of temperature by using several approaches based upon conventional neural network analysis of the back scattered speckle patterns, analysis of the speckle patterns decorrelation time constant and Photoplethysmogram measurements.

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Apr 2020 • Clinical and Translational Biophotonics, TW4B. 5, 2020

Monitoring of vital bio-signs by multimode speckle based optical fiber sensor

Aviya Bennett, Yevgeny Beiderman, Sergey Agdarov, Yafim Beiderman, Rotem Hendel, Barak Straussman, Zeev Zalevsky

We present development and experimental validation of the multimode fiber sensor for monitoring of vital bio signs. The goal is to advance a simple, clothes embedded sensor to monitor the condition of the cardiovascular system.

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