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Aug 2022 • ACS nano

Noninvasive Nanodiamond Skin Permeation Profiling Using a Phase Analysis Method: Ex Vivo Experiments

Channa Shapira, Daniel Itshak, Hamootal Duadi, Yifat Harel, Ayelet Atkins, Anat Lipovsky, Ronit Lavi, Jean Paul Lellouche, Dror Fixler

Carbon-based nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in nanotechnology. Among them, nanodiamonds (NDs) are suitable for biotechnology and are especially interesting for skin delivery and topical treatments. However, noninvasive detection of NDs within the different skin layers or analyzing their penetration ability is complicated due to the turbid nature of the tissue. The iterative multiplane optical properties extraction (IMOPE) technique detects differences in the optical properties of the measured item by a phase-image analysis method. The phase image is reconstructed by the multiplane Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm. This technique, traditionally, detects differences in the reduced scattering coefficients. Here, however, due to the actual size of the NDs, the IMOPE technique’s detection relies on absorption analysis rather than relying on scattering events. In this paper, we use the IMOPE technique to detect the …

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Aug 2022 • 2022 47th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz …, 2022

The response of split-well direct-phonon THz quantum-cascade laser structures to changes in doping

N Lander Gower, S Piperno, A Albo

We have studied the effect of doping on the temperature performance of a split-well (SW) direct-phonon (DP) terahertz (THz) quantum-cascade laser (QCL) scheme supporting a clean three-level system. We expected to obtain a similar improvement in the temperature performance to that observed in resonant-phonon (RP) schemes after increasing the carrier concentration from To our surprise, in the devices we checked, the results show the contrary. However, we observed a significant increase in gain broadening and a reduction in the dephasing time as the doping and temperature increased. We attribute these effects to enhanced ionized-impurity scattering (IIS). The observation and study of effects related to dephasing included in our experimental work have previously only been possible via simulation.

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Aug 2022 • Optical Fiber Sensors, Tu1. 4, 2022

Brillouin optical time-domain distributed analysis of cladding modes in a coated fiber

Elad Zehavi, Alon Bernstein, Gil Bashan, Yosef London, Hilel Hagai Diamandi, Kavita Sharma, Mirit Hen, A Zadok

Brillouin optical time domain analysis of coupling to cladding modes of standard, coated fiber is demonstrated. Uncertainty in local changes of effective indices is below 10-6 RIU. Local effect of acetone on coating is identified.

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Aug 2022 • IEEE Photonics Journal

Measurement of the Second-Order Polarizability of Silver Nanoparticles With Reference-Free Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering for Entangled Photon Pair Interaction

Ariel Ashkenazy, Racheli Ron, Tchiya Zar, Hannah Aharon, Adi Salomon, Dror Fixler, Eliahu Cohen

Two-photon interactions of entangled-photon pairs with metallic nanoparticles (NPs) can be enhanced by localized surface-plasmon resonance. Recently, we have described how the properties of this quantum light-matter interaction can be deduced from classical second-harmonic generation measurements performed using a reference-free hyper-Rayleigh scattering method. Herein, we report the results of such classical-light characterization measurements. We obtain a large hyperpolarizability for the NPs, present the dependence of the hyperpolarizability on the NPs' spectral features, and show a dipolar emission pattern for the second-harmonic signal. Our results can be used to optimize entangled-photon pair interactions with metallic NPs to enable first ever detection of this process. Moreover, these results suggest that NPs may be used as source for ultra-broadband entangled-photon pairs through nonphase …

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Aug 2022 • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

The Role of Spin-Flip Collisions in a Dark-Exciton Condensate

Subhradeep Misra, Michael Stern, Vladimir Umansky, Israel Bar-Joseph

We show that a Bose–Einstein condensate consisting of dark excitons forms in GaAs coupled quantum wells at low temperatures. We find that the condensate extends over hundreds of micrometers, well beyond the optical excitation region, and is limited only by the boundaries of the mesa. We show that the condensate density is determined by spin-flipping collisions among the excitons, which convert dark excitons into bright ones. The suppression of this process at low temperature yields a density buildup, manifested as a temperature-dependent blueshift of the exciton emission line. Measurements under an in-plane magnetic field allow us to preferentially modify the bright exciton density and determine their role in the system dynamics. We find that their interaction with the condensate leads to its depletion. We present a simple rate-equations model, which well reproduces the observed temperature, power, and …

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Aug 2022 • Catalysts 12 (8), 909, 2022

Levulinic acid is a key strategic chemical from biomass

Amudhavalli Victor, Pankaj Sharma, Indra Neel Pulidindi, Aharon Gedanken

Levulinic acid (LA) is one of the top twelve chemicals listed by the US Department of Energy that can be derived from biomass. It serves as a building block and platform chemical for producing a variety of chemicals, fuels and materials which are currently produced in fossil based refineries. LA is a key strategic chemical, as fuel grade chemicals and plastic substitutes can be produced by its catalytic conversion. LA derivatisation to various product streams, such as alkyl levulinates via esterification, γ-valerolactone via hydrogenation and N-substituted pyrrolidones via reductive amination and many other transformations of commercial utility are possible owing to the two oxygen functionalities, namely, carbonyl and carboxyl groups, present within the same substrate. Various biomass feedstock, such as agricultural wastes, marine macroalgae, and fresh water microalgae were successfully converted to LA in high yields. Finding a substitute to mineral acid catalysts for the conversion of biomass to LA is a challenge. The use of an ultrasound technique facilitated the production of promising nano-solid acid catalysts including Ga salt of molybophosphoric acid and Ga deposited mordenite zeolite, with optimum amounts of Lewis and Bronsted acidities needed for the conversion of glucose to LA in high yields, being 56 and 59.9 wt.% respectively. Microwave irradiation technology was successfully utilized for the accelerated production of LA (53 wt.%) from glucose in a short duration of 6 min, making use of the unique synergistic catalytic activity of ZnBr2 and HCl.

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Aug 2022 • Current Opinion in Electrochemistry 36, 101107, 2022

Electrical double layer in nano-pores of carbon electrodes: Beyond CDI; sensing and maximizing energy extraction from salinity gradients

Eran Avraham, Barak Shapira, Izaak Cohen, Doron Aurbach

The important phenomenon of electrical double layer (EDL) is often described by mathematical relations between surface charges, variation of electrostatic potentials with distance and distribution of ions across the interface between charged surfaces (or particles) and electrolyte solutions. A major advance was made in the last decade in understanding complex EDL relationships with an emphasis on nano-porous carbonaceous materials. These understandings were usually exploited for the interpretation of electro-sorption phenomena connected to capacitive deionization (CDI) processes. The aim of this short paper is to demonstrate, based on previous studies, how models of EDL in nano-porous carbons can be the basis for modification of carbonaceous materials for other applications, like sensors and energy extraction from salinity gradients.

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Aug 2022 • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

The Role of Spin-Flip Collisions in a Dark-Exciton Condensate

Subhradeep Misra, Michael Stern, Vladimir Umansky, Israel Bar-Joseph

We show that a Bose–Einstein condensate consisting of dark excitons forms in GaAs coupled quantum wells at low temperatures. We find that the condensate extends over hundreds of micrometers, well beyond the optical excitation region, and is limited only by the boundaries of the mesa. We show that the condensate density is determined by spin-flipping collisions among the excitons, which convert dark excitons into bright ones. The suppression of this process at low temperature yields a density buildup, manifested as a temperature-dependent blueshift of the exciton emission line. Measurements under an in-plane magnetic field allow us to preferentially modify the bright exciton density and determine their role in the system dynamics. We find that their interaction with the condensate leads to its depletion. We present a simple rate-equations model, which well reproduces the observed temperature, power, and …

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Aug 2022 • ACS applied materials & interfaces

Antibacterial properties and mechanisms of action of sonoenzymatically synthesized lignin-based nanoparticles

Angela Gala Morena, Arnau Bassegoda, Michal Natan, Gila Jacobi, Ehud Banin, Tzanko Tzanov

In recent years, lignin has drawn increasing attention for different applications due to its intrinsic antibacterial and antioxidant properties, coupled with biodegradability and biocompatibility. However, chemical modification or combination with metals is usually required to increase its antimicrobial functionality and produce biobased added-value materials for applications wherein bacterial growth should be avoided, such as biomedical and food industries. In this work, a sonoenzymatic approach for the simultaneous functionalization and nanotransformation of lignin to prepare metal-free antibacterial phenolated lignin nanoparticles (PheLigNPs) is developed. The grafting of tannic acid, a natural phenolic compound, onto lignin was achieved by an environmentally friendly approach using laccase oxidation upon the application of high-intensity ultrasound to rearrange lignin into NPs. PheLigNPs presented higher …

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Aug 2022 • Micromachines

Acoustic Manipulation of Intraocular Particles

Ari Leshno, Avraham Kenigsberg, Heli Peleg-Levy, Silvia Piperno, Alon Skaat, Hagay Shpaisman

Various conditions cause dispersions of particulate matter to circulate inside the anterior chamber of a human eye. These dispersed particles might reduce visual acuity or promote elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), causing secondary complications such as particle related glaucoma, which is a major cause of blindness. Medical and surgical treatment options are available to manage these complications, yet preventive measures are not currently available. Conceptually, manipulating these dispersed particles in a way that reduces their negative impact could prevent these complications. However, as the eye is a closed system, manipulating dispersed particles in it is challenging. Standing acoustic waves have been previously shown to be a versatile tool for manipulation of bioparticles from nano-sized extracellular vesicles up to millimeter-sized organisms. Here we introduce for the first time a novel method utilizing standing acoustic waves to noninvasively manipulate intraocular particles inside the anterior chamber. Using a cylindrical acoustic resonator, we show ex vivo manipulation of pigmentary particles inside porcine eyes. We study the effect of wave intensity over time and rule out temperature changes that could damage tissues. Optical coherence tomography and histologic evaluations show no signs of damage or any other side effect that could be attributed to acoustic manipulation. Finally, we lay out a clear pathway to how this technique can be used as a non-invasive tool for preventing secondary glaucoma. This concept has the potential to control and arrange intraocular particles in specific locations without causing any damage to …

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Aug 2022 • Advanced Functional Materials

The Saga of Water and Halide Perovskites: Evidence of Water in Methylammonium Lead Tri‐Iodide

Naga Prathibha Jasti, Gennady E Shter, Yishay Feldman, Davide Raffaele Ceratti, Adi Kama, Isaac Buchine, Gideon S Grader, David Cahen

The environment humidity effects on performance of halide perovskites (HaPs), especially MAPbI3, are known. Nevertheless, it is hard to find direct experimental evidence of H2O in the bulk materials at the levels lower than that of Monohydrate (MAPbI3.H2O). Here, for the first time, direct experimental evidence of water being released from bulk (µm‐s deep) of MAPbI3 single crystal is reported. The thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA‐MS) of evolved gases is used to detect the MS signal of H2O from the penetrable depth and correlate it with the TGA mass loss due to H2O leaving the material. These measurements yield an estimate of the average H2O content of 1 H2O molecule per three MAPbI3 formula units (MAPbI3.0.33H2O). Under the relatively low temperature conditions no other evolved gases that can correspond to MAPbI3 decomposition products, are observed in the MS. In …

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Aug 2022 • Physical Review B

Nonadiabatically driven open quantum systems under out-of-equilibrium conditions: Effect of electron-phonon interaction

Jakob Bätge, Amikam Levy, Wenjie Dou, Michael Thoss

In this paper we explore the effects of nonadiabatic external driving on the dynamics of an electronic system coupled to two electronic leads and to a phonon mode, with and without damping. In the limit of slow driving, we establish nonadiabatic corrections to thermodynamic and transport quantities. In particular, we study the first-order correction to the work done by the driving, the charge current, and the vibrational excitation using a perturbative expansion. We then compare the results to the numerically exact hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach. Furthermore, the HEOM analysis spans both the weak and strong system-bath coupling regime and the slow-and fast-driving limits. We show that the electronic friction and the nonadiabatic corrections to the charge current provide a clear indicator for the Franck-Condon effect and for nonresonant tunneling processes. We also discuss the validity of the …

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Aug 2022 • Optical Fiber Sensors, Th4. 67, 2022

Forward Brillouin Point Sensor in a Multi-Core Fiber

Keren Shemer, Gil Bashan, Elad Zehavi, Hilel Hagai Diamandi, Alon Bernstein, Kavita Sharma, Yosef London, David Barrera, Salvador Sales, Avi Zadok

Forward Brillouin point sensing is demonstrated in a multi-core fiber. Acoustic waves are stimulated by light in one core and monitored using a grating in another. Measurements distinguish between ethanol and water outside the cladding.

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Aug 2022 • ACS Applied Energy Materials

High-Energy Ni-Rich LiNi0.85Co0.1Mn0.05O2 Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries Enhanced by Nd- and Y-Doping. A Structural, Electrochemical, and Thermal …

Yehonatan Levartovsky, Arup Chakraborty, Sooraj Kunnikuruvan, Sandipan Maiti, Judith Grinblat, Michael Talianker, Doron Aurbach, Dan Thomas Major

Ni-rich LiNi1–x–yCoxMnyO2 (1 – x – y > 0.5) (NCMs) cathode materials have shown great promise in energy-intensive applications, such as electric vehicles. However, as many layered cathodes do, they suffer from structural and electrochemical degradation during cycling. In this study, we show that Nd- and Y-doped materials, Li(Ni0.85Co0.1Mn0.05)0.995Nd0.005O2 and Li(Ni0.85Co0.1Mn0.05)0.995Y0.005O2, have significantly better structural, electrochemical, and thermal properties compared to the reference LiNi0.85Co0.1Mn0.05O2 (NCM85) due to enhanced structural stability. The doped electrodes were found to have significantly higher specific discharge capacities, better capacity retention, and lower voltage hysteresis compared to the reference (undoped) electrodes. SEM images of the focused-ion beam (FIB) cut of the particles of the doped material showed that they have less cracks when compared …

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Aug 2022 • Viruses

Lytic reactivation of the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is accompanied by major nucleolar alterations

Nofar Atari, K Shanmugha Rajan, Vaibhav Chikne, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Tirza Doniger, Odelia Orbaum, Avi Jacob, Inna Kalt, Shulamit Michaeli, Ronit Sarid

The nucleolus is a subnuclear compartment whose primary function is the biogenesis of ribosomal subunits. Certain viral infections affect the morphology and composition of the nucleolar compartment and influence ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription and maturation. However, no description of nucleolar morphology and function during infection with Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is available to date. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we documented extensive destruction of the nuclear and nucleolar architecture during the lytic reactivation of KSHV. This was manifested by the redistribution of key nucleolar proteins, including the rRNA transcription factor UBF. Distinct delocalization patterns were evident; certain nucleolar proteins remained together whereas others dissociated, implying that nucleolar proteins undergo nonrandom programmed dispersion. Significantly, the redistribution of UBF was dependent on viral DNA replication or late viral gene expression. No significant changes in pre-rRNA levels and no accumulation of pre-rRNA intermediates were found by RT-qPCR and Northern blot analysis. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), combined with immunofluorescence, revealed an overlap between Fibrillarin and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), which represents the primary product of the pre-rRNA, suggesting that the processing of rRNA proceeds during lytic reactivation. Finally, small changes in the levels of pseudouridylation (Ψ) and 2′-O-methylation (Nm) were documented across the rRNA; however, none were localized to the functional domain. Taken together, our results suggest that …

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Aug 2022 • IEEE Photonics Journal

Measurement of the Second-Order Polarizability of Silver Nanoparticles With Reference-Free Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering for Entangled Photon Pair Interaction

Ariel Ashkenazy, Racheli Ron, Tchiya Zar, Hannah Aharon, Adi Salomon, Dror Fixler, Eliahu Cohen

Two-photon interactions of entangled-photon pairs with metallic nanoparticles (NPs) can be enhanced by localized surface-plasmon resonance. Recently, we have described how the properties of this quantum light-matter interaction can be deduced from classical second-harmonic generation measurements performed using a reference-free hyper-Rayleigh scattering method. Herein, we report the results of such classical-light characterization measurements. We obtain a large hyperpolarizability for the NPs, present the dependence of the hyperpolarizability on the NPs' spectral features, and show a dipolar emission pattern for the second-harmonic signal. Our results can be used to optimize entangled-photon pair interactions with metallic NPs to enable first ever detection of this process. Moreover, these results suggest that NPs may be used as source for ultra-broadband entangled-photon pairs through nonphase …

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Aug 2022 • Micromachines

Acoustic Manipulation of Intraocular Particles

Ari Leshno, Avraham Kenigsberg, Heli Peleg-Levy, Silvia Piperno, Alon Skaat, Hagay Shpaisman

Various conditions cause dispersions of particulate matter to circulate inside the anterior chamber of a human eye. These dispersed particles might reduce visual acuity or promote elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), causing secondary complications such as particle related glaucoma, which is a major cause of blindness. Medical and surgical treatment options are available to manage these complications, yet preventive measures are not currently available. Conceptually, manipulating these dispersed particles in a way that reduces their negative impact could prevent these complications. However, as the eye is a closed system, manipulating dispersed particles in it is challenging. Standing acoustic waves have been previously shown to be a versatile tool for manipulation of bioparticles from nano-sized extracellular vesicles up to millimeter-sized organisms. Here we introduce for the first time a novel method utilizing standing acoustic waves to noninvasively manipulate intraocular particles inside the anterior chamber. Using a cylindrical acoustic resonator, we show ex vivo manipulation of pigmentary particles inside porcine eyes. We study the effect of wave intensity over time and rule out temperature changes that could damage tissues. Optical coherence tomography and histologic evaluations show no signs of damage or any other side effect that could be attributed to acoustic manipulation. Finally, we lay out a clear pathway to how this technique can be used as a non-invasive tool for preventing secondary glaucoma. This concept has the potential to control and arrange intraocular particles in specific locations without causing any damage to …

Show more

Aug 2022 • IEEE Photonics Journal

Measurement of the Second-Order Polarizability of Silver Nanoparticles With Reference-Free Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering for Entangled Photon Pair Interaction

Ariel Ashkenazy, Racheli Ron, Tchiya Zar, Hannah Aharon, Adi Salomon, Dror Fixler, Eliahu Cohen

Two-photon interactions of entangled-photon pairs with metallic nanoparticles (NPs) can be enhanced by localized surface-plasmon resonance. Recently, we have described how the properties of this quantum light-matter interaction can be deduced from classical second-harmonic generation measurements performed using a reference-free hyper-Rayleigh scattering method. Herein, we report the results of such classical-light characterization measurements. We obtain a large hyperpolarizability for the NPs, present the dependence of the hyperpolarizability on the NPs' spectral features, and show a dipolar emission pattern for the second-harmonic signal. Our results can be used to optimize entangled-photon pair interactions with metallic NPs to enable first ever detection of this process. Moreover, these results suggest that NPs may be used as source for ultra-broadband entangled-photon pairs through nonphase …

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Aug 2022 • ACS nano

Noninvasive Nanodiamond Skin Permeation Profiling Using a Phase Analysis Method: Ex Vivo Experiments

Channa Shapira, Daniel Itshak, Hamootal Duadi, Yifat Harel, Ayelet Atkins, Anat Lipovsky, Ronit Lavi, Jean Paul Lellouche, Dror Fixler

Carbon-based nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in nanotechnology. Among them, nanodiamonds (NDs) are suitable for biotechnology and are especially interesting for skin delivery and topical treatments. However, noninvasive detection of NDs within the different skin layers or analyzing their penetration ability is complicated due to the turbid nature of the tissue. The iterative multiplane optical properties extraction (IMOPE) technique detects differences in the optical properties of the measured item by a phase-image analysis method. The phase image is reconstructed by the multiplane Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm. This technique, traditionally, detects differences in the reduced scattering coefficients. Here, however, due to the actual size of the NDs, the IMOPE technique’s detection relies on absorption analysis rather than relying on scattering events. In this paper, we use the IMOPE technique to detect the …

Show more

Aug 2022 • IEEE Photonics Journal

Measurement of the Second-Order Polarizability of Silver Nanoparticles With Reference-Free Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering for Entangled Photon Pair Interaction

Ariel Ashkenazy, Racheli Ron, Tchiya Zar, Hannah Aharon, Adi Salomon, Dror Fixler, Eliahu Cohen

Two-photon interactions of entangled-photon pairs with metallic nanoparticles (NPs) can be enhanced by localized surface-plasmon resonance. Recently, we have described how the properties of this quantum light-matter interaction can be deduced from classical second-harmonic generation measurements performed using a reference-free hyper-Rayleigh scattering method. Herein, we report the results of such classical-light characterization measurements. We obtain a large hyperpolarizability for the NPs, present the dependence of the hyperpolarizability on the NPs' spectral features, and show a dipolar emission pattern for the second-harmonic signal. Our results can be used to optimize entangled-photon pair interactions with metallic NPs to enable first ever detection of this process. Moreover, these results suggest that NPs may be used as source for ultra-broadband entangled-photon pairs through nonphase …

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Aug 2022

Characterizing nanometric thin films with far-field light

Omer Shavit, Carine Julien, Ilya Olevsko, Mohamed Hamode, Yossi Abulafia, Hervé Suaudeau, Vincent Armand, Martin Oheim, Adi Salomon

Ultra-thin, transparent films are being used as protective layers on semiconductors, solar cells, as well as for nano-composite materials and optical coatings. Nano-sensors, photonic devices and calibration tools for axial super-resolution microscopies, all rely on the controlled fabrication and analysis of ultra-thin layers. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive, optical technique for simultaneously characterizing the refractive index, thickness, and homogeneity of nanometric transparent films. In our case, these layers are made of the biomimetic polymer, My-133-MC, having a refractive index of 1.33, so as to approach the cytosol for biological applications. Our technique is based on the detection in the far field and the analysis of supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF), i.e., near-field emission from molecular dipoles located very close to the dielectric interface. SAF emanates from a 5-nm J-aggregate emitter layer deposited on and in contact with the inspected polymer film. Our results compare favorably to that obtained through a combination of atomic force and electron microscopy, surface-plasmon resonance spectroscopy and ellipsometry. We illustrate the value of the approach in two applications, (i), the measurement of axial fluorophore distance in a total internal reflection fluorescence geometry; and, (ii), axial super-resolution imaging of organelle dynamics in a living biological sample, cortical astrocytes, an important type of brain cell. In the later case, our approach removes uncertainties in the interpretation of the nanometric axial dynamics of fluorescently labeled vesicles. Our technique is cheap, versatile and it has obvious applications in …

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