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Nov 2022 • Kate Atkinson, viii-viii, 2022

Acknowledgements

Armelle Parey

As Kate Atkinson has Effie say in Emotionally Weird, adapting John Donne,‘No woman is an island’(EW 219). Genuine thanks to Paul Clark at Manchester University Press and the anonymous experts and reader for supporting the project. Warm-hearted thanks are due to family, colleagues and friends for their support and notably to Josephine McNamara for her generous encouragement and faith, to Georges Letissier and Isabelle Roblin for their valuable advice, to Andrew Guy and Sandra Robinson for their helpful proof-reading, to James and Jacques McNamara for simply being there.

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Nov 2022 • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C

Photoactive Antimicrobial CuZnO Nanocrystals

Shira Gigi, Tom Naor, Nir Waiskopf, David Stone, Michal Natan, Gila Jacobi, Adar Levi, Sergei Remennik, Yael Levi-Kalisman, Ehud Banin, Uri Banin

Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are promising photocatalysts due to their high surface area to volume ratio and tunable physicochemical properties. Of particular interest are earth-abundant metal oxides, such as ZnO and CuO, which are stable under ambient conditions and in aqueous media and are environmentally and biologically compatible. While CuO NCs are efficient catalytic and antimicrobial materials featuring strong and broad absorption in the visible region, their challenging surface chemistry and low colloidal stability so far limited their wide implementation as photocatalysts. On the other hand, colloidal ZnO NCs function as excellent photocatalysts in various media, but their absorption is limited to the UV region. Herein, colloidal antimicrobial Cu1–xZnxO NCs are synthesized via a facile and cost-effective method, forming a unique spatial dependent structure and composition, with higher zinc …

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Nov 2022 • Materials

Phosphate-Trapping Liposomes for Long-Term Management of Hyperphosphatemia

Chen Tzror-Azankot, Adi Anaki, Tamar Sadan, Menachem Motiei, Rachela Popovtzer

Hyperphosphatemia is a typical complication of end-stage renal disease, characterized by elevated and life-threatening serum phosphate levels. Hemodialysis does not enable sufficient clearance of phosphate, due to slow cell-to-plasma kinetics of phosphate ions; moreover, dietary restrictions and conventional treatment with oral phosphate binders have low success rates, together with adverse effects. Here, we developed a new concept of phosphate-trapping liposomes, to improve and prolong the control over serum phosphate levels. We designed liposomes modified with polyethylene glycol and encapsulated with the phosphate binder ferric citrate (FC liposomes). These liposomes were found to trap phosphate ions in their inner core, and thereby lower free phosphate ion concentrations in solution and in serum. The FC liposomes showed higher phosphate binding ability as phosphate concentrations increased. Moreover, these liposomes showed a time-dependent increase in uptake of phosphate, up to 25 h in serum. Thus, our findings demonstrate effective long-term phosphate trapping by FC liposomes, indicating their potential to reduce serum phosphate toxicity and improve current management of hyperphosphatemia.

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Nov 2022 • arXiv e-prints

Temperature-dependence of the CISS effect from measurements in Chiral molecular intercalation super-lattices

Subhajit Sarkar, Seif Alwan, Amos Sharoni, Yonatan Dubi

We detail here some matters arising from the recent paper by Qin et al., Nature 606, pages902–908 (2022). We demonstrate, based on data supplied by Qian et al, and corroborated by theoretical modeling, that one of the central conclusions of the manuscript–namely the behavior of the chiralityinduced spin-selectivity (CISS) effect at low temperatures–can actually be consistently interpreted in a different way, which is in fact opposite to the interpretation proposed by Qian et al.In a recent paper Qian, et al.,[1] demonstrate chiral molecular intercalation superlattices (CMIS) as a new class of solid-state chiral material platform for exploring chirality induced spin selectivity effect (CISS). Notably, they demonstrate state-of-the-art technique for fabricating well-defined, stable and robust chiral devices with the potential to serve as spintronic devices. Specifically, Qian et al. show that CMIS can be used to accurately characterize the CISS effect and explore its dependence on temperature, and other material properties. They show a very high degree of polarization of the spincurrent P (T), that monotonically decreases with increasing temperature, and the average conductance GSI (T)

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Nov 2022 • Measurement

Diamond protection for reusable ZnO coated fiber-optic measurement head in optoelectrochemical investigation of bisphenol A

Małgorzata Szczerska, Monika Kosowska, Paulina Listewnik, Michał Rycewicz, Mikhael Bechelany, Yafit Fleger, Dror Fixler, Paweł Jakóbczyk

Due to the global problem with plastic contaminating the environment, with bisphenol A (BPA) being one of the highest demand, effective monitoring and purification of the pollutants are required. The electrochemical methods constitute a good solution but, due to polymerization of electrochemical oxidation bisphenol A products and their adsorption to the surfaces, measurement head elements are clogged by the formed film. In this research, we propose a nanocrystalline diamond sheet protection for securing elements in direct contact with bisphenol A during electrochemical processes. The solution was presented on the example of a zinc oxide (ZnO) coating deposited on a fiber-optic end-face by Atomic Layer Deposition. Series of optical and electrochemical measurements were performed in a dedicated hybrid setup. The results show that ZnO can be modified during the electrochemistry leading to the drastic …

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Nov 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2211.06278

Temperature-dependence of the CISS effect from measurements in Chiral molecular intercalation super-lattices

Subhajit Sarkar, Seif Alwan, Amos Sharoni, Yonatan Dubi

We detail here some matters arising from the recent paper by Qian et. al., Nature 606, pages 902-908 (2022). We demonstrate, based on data supplied by Qian et. al., and corroborated by theoretical modeling, that one of the central conclusions of the manuscript - namely the behavior of the chirality-induced spin-selectivity (CISS) effect at low temperatures - can actually be consistently interpreted in a different way, which is in fact opposite to the interpretation proposed by Qian et. al.

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Nov 2022 • Cell Reports

Diet-induced modifications to human microbiome reshape colonic homeostasis in irritable bowel syndrome

Hadar Bootz-Maoz, Ayelet Pearl, Ehud Melzer, Stephen Malnick, Efrat Sharon, Yifat Bennet, Rotem Tsentsarevsky, Shlomi Abuchatzera, Sivan Amidror, Elana Aretz, Shalhevet Azriel, Chen Gam Ze Letova, Maria Naama, Irit Shoval, Orly Yaron, Sarit Karako-Lampert, Shai Bel, Nissan Yissachar

Changes in microbiome composition are associated with a wide array of human diseases, turning the human microbiota into an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Yet, clinical translation of these findings requires the establishment of causative connections between specific microbial taxa and their functional impact on host tissues. Here, we infuse gut organ cultures with longitudinal microbiota samples collected from therapy-naive patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) under a low-fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet. We show that post-diet microbiota regulates intestinal expression of inflammatory and neuro-muscular gene sets. Specifically, we identify Bifidobacterium adolescentis as a diet-sensitive pathobiont that alters tight junction integrity and disrupts gut barrier functions. Collectively, we present a pathway discovery platform for mechanistic dissection and …

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Nov 2022 • Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 89, 101029, 2022

Inherited retinal diseases: linking genes, disease-causing variants, and relevant therapeutic modalities

Nina Schneider, Yogapriya Sundaresan, Prakadeeswari Gopalakrishnan, Avigail Beryozkin, Mor Hanany, Erez Y Levanon, Eyal Banin, Shay Ben-Aroya, Dror Sharon

Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a clinically complex and heterogenous group of visual impairment phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in at least 277 nuclear and mitochondrial genes, affecting different retinal regions, and depleting the vision of affected individuals. Genes that cause IRDs when mutated are unique by possessing differing genotype-phenotype correlations, varying inheritance patterns, hypomorphic alleles, and modifier genes thus complicating genetic interpretation. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced the identification of novel IRD-related genes and pathogenic variants in the last decade. For this review, we performed an in-depth literature search which allowed for compilation of the Global Retinal Inherited Disease (GRID) dataset containing 4,798 discrete variants and 17,299 alleles published in 31 papers, showing a wide range of frequencies and complexities among …

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Nov 2022 • Micromachines

High Sensitivity Planar Hall Effect Magnetic Field Gradiometer for Measurements in Millimeter Scale Environments

Hariharan Nhalil, Moty Schultz, Shai Amrusi, Asaf Grosz, Lior Klein

We report a specially designed magnetic field gradiometer based on a single elliptical planar Hall effect (PHE) sensor, which allows measuring magnetic field at nine different positions in a 4 mm length scale. The gradiometer detects magnetic field gradients with equivalent gradient magnetic noises of ∼958, ∼192, ∼51, and ∼26 nT/m√ Hz (pT/mm√Hz) at 0.1, 1, 10, and 50 Hz, respectively. The performance of the gradiometer is tested in ambient conditions by measuring the field gradient induced by electric currents driven in a long straight wire. This gradiometer is expected to be highly useful for the measurement of magnetic field gradients in confined areas for its small footprint, low noise, scalability, simple design, and low costs.

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Nov 2022 • Crystal Growth & Design

Localized Heating Tailors Nucleation for Reproducible Growth of Thin Halide Perovskite Single Crystals

Sujit Kumar, Alexandra Rukban, Julia Sinisi, Vinayaka H Damle, David Cahen

Halide perovskites (HaPs) are functional semiconductors that can be prepared in a simple, near-room-temperature process. With thin polycrystalline HaP films, excellent solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and (also as single crystals) high-energy radiation detectors have been demonstrated. The very low single-crystal defect densities make HaP thin single crystals (TSCs), instead of polycrystalline HaP films an attractive option, to boost device performances and for fundamental research. However, growing TSCs is challenging primarily because of random multiple nucleations, which, in the often-used space-confined geometry, is favored at the substrate boundaries, where loss of organo-amines and solvents occurs. We show that fewer and better-quality thin crystals nucleate and grow reproducibly away from the substrate edges in the substrate center, if we localize the heating (needed for inverse-temperature …

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Nov 2022 • The Journal of Chemical Physics

Accurate thermochemistry of covalent and ionic solids from spin-component-scaled MP2

Tamar Goldzak, Xiao Wang, Hong-Zhou Ye, Timothy C Berkelbach

We study the performance of spin-component-scaled second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory (SCS-MP2) for the prediction of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and cohesive energy of 12 simple, three-dimensional covalent and ionic semiconductors and insulators. We find that SCS-MP2 and the simpler scaled opposite-spin MP2 (SOS-MP2) yield predictions that are significantly improved over the already good performance of MP2. Specifically, when compared to experimental values with zero-point vibrational corrections, SCS-MP2 (SOS-MP2) yields mean absolute errors of 0.015 (0.017) Å for the lattice constant, 3.8 (3.7) GPa for the bulk modulus, and 0.06 (0.08) eV for the cohesive energy, which are smaller than those of leading density functionals by about a factor of two or more. We consider a reparameterization of the spin-scaling parameters and find that the optimal parameters for these solids are …

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Nov 2022 • Physical Review B

Universality and microstrain origin of the ramp reversal memory effect

Elihu Anouchi, Naor Vardi, Yoav Kalcheim, Ivan K Schuller, Amos Sharoni

The recently discovered ramp reversal memory (RRM) is a nonvolatile memory effect observed in correlated oxides with temperature-driven insulator–metal transitions (IMT). It appears as a resistance increase at predefined temperatures that are set or erased by simple heating–cooling (ie, ramp reversal) protocols. Until now RRM was measured for two materials: VO 2 and NdNiO 3. A heuristic model suggests that the RRM is caused by a local transition temperature increase at boundaries of spatially separated metallic and insulating domains during ramp reversal. However, there is no experimental measure of the magnitude of the effect, which is crucial for the development of a theoretical account of the RRM. Here we show that V 2 O 3 also shows RRM, including all related features, highlighting the generality of the effect. Moreover, an analysis of the RRM as an effective (average) increase of the critical …

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Nov 2022 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Improving Li Anode Reversibility in Li–S Batteries by ZnO Coated Separators Using Atomic Layer Deposition

Shalev Blanga, Reut Yemini, Eti Teblum, Merav Tsubery, Sarah Taragin, Malachi Noked

Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSB) are considered a very attractive alternative to lithium-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity and low cost of the active materials. However, the realization of LSB is hostage to many challenges associated with the cathode and anode response to the electrochemical conditions inside the battery cell. While working with LSB, elemental sulfur undergoes multielectron reduction reactions until it is reduced to Li 2 S. The intermediate long chain lithium-polysulfide (LiPS) species are soluble, hence diffuse through the electrolyte solution from the cathode side to the anode. This" shuttle" phenomenon considered to be one of the main issues of LSB. Most effort in investigating LSB focused on the cathode side while only few considered the importance of the lithium anode reversibility and the separator role in preventing the" shuttle" phenomenon. In the current work, we use Atomic Layer …

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Nov 2022 • Solid State Ionics

Multi-spray pyrolysis for combinatorial synthesis of materials libraries and their high-throughput screening: Application to Li-ion conducting electrolytes

Shay Tirosh, Niv Aloni, David Cahen, Diana Golodnitsky

We present a multi-head spray pyrolysis system and its application in high-throughput combinatorial synthesis for research of solid Li-ion conductors. Each spraying nozzle is fed with a separate precursor solution. The overlap of areas that are sprayed leads to unprecedented composition flexibility of the films obtained after pyrolysis. Thus, a library with a continuous composition spread of a Li-La-P-O model system is formed. The Li-ion conduction was determined on 169 cells of the library, using high throughput impedance measurements in a controlled environment. While the activation energies that were found were relatively small, Li-ion conduction was still low. This low mobility is hypothesized to originate from the sub-optimal occupation of Li sites in the non-stoichiometric materials' lattices, and/or porosity and tortuosity issues, which in turn, reduces their effective concentration and contribution to ion transport. In …

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Nov 2022 • Scientific Reports

Characterization of alternative mRNA splicing in cultured cell populations representing progressive stages of human fetal kidney development

Yishay Wineberg, Itamar Kanter, Nissim Ben-Haim, Naomi Pode-Shakked, Efrat Bucris, Tali Hana Bar-Lev, Sarit Oriel, Harel Reinus, Yishai Yehuda, Rotem Gershon, Rachel Shukrun, Dekel Dov Bar-Lev, Achia Urbach, Benjamin Dekel, Tomer Kalisky

Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney. During kidney development, cells from the cap mesenchyme—a transient kidney-specific progenitor state—undergo a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and subsequently differentiate into the various epithelial cell types that create the tubular structures of the nephron. Faults in this transition can lead to a pediatric malignancy of the kidney called Wilms’ tumor that mimics normal kidney development. While human kidney development has been characterized at the gene expression level, a comprehensive characterization of alternative splicing is lacking. Therefore, in this study, we performed RNA sequencing on cell populations representing early, intermediate, and late developmental stages of the human fetal kidney, as well as three blastemal-predominant Wilms’ tumor patient-derived xenografts. Using this newly generated RNAseq data, we identified a set …

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Nov 2022 • Solid State Ionics

Multi-spray pyrolysis for combinatorial synthesis of materials libraries and their high-throughput screening: Application to Li-ion conducting electrolytes

Shay Tirosh, Niv Aloni, David Cahen, Diana Golodnitsky

We present a multi-head spray pyrolysis system and its application in high-throughput combinatorial synthesis for research of solid Li-ion conductors. Each spraying nozzle is fed with a separate precursor solution. The overlap of areas that are sprayed leads to unprecedented composition flexibility of the films obtained after pyrolysis. Thus, a library with a continuous composition spread of a Li-La-P-O model system is formed. The Li-ion conduction was determined on 169 cells of the library, using high throughput impedance measurements in a controlled environment. While the activation energies that were found were relatively small, Li-ion conduction was still low. This low mobility is hypothesized to originate from the sub-optimal occupation of Li sites in the non-stoichiometric materials' lattices, and/or porosity and tortuosity issues, which in turn, reduces their effective concentration and contribution to ion transport. In …

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Oct 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2010.12220

Light chaotic dynamics in the transformation from curved to flat surfaces

Chenni Xu, Itzhack Dana, Li-Gang Wang, Patrick Sebbah

Light propagation on a two-dimensional curved surface embedded in a three-dimensional space has attracted increasing attention as an analog model of four-dimensional curved spacetime in laboratory. Despite recent developments in modern cosmology on the dynamics and evolution of the universe, investigation of nonlinear dynamics of light in non-Euclidean geometry is still scarce and remains challenging. Here, we study classical and wave chaotic dynamics on a family of surfaces of revolution by considering its equivalent conformally transformed flat billiard, with nonuniform distribution of refractive index. This equivalence is established by showing how these two systems have the same equations and the same dynamics. By exploring the Poincar\'{e} surface of section, the Lyapunov exponent and the statistics of eigenmodes and eigenfrequency spectrum in the transformed inhomogeneous table billiard, we find that the degree of chaos is fully controlled by a single geometric parameter of the curved surface. A simple interpretation of our findings in transformed billiards, the "fictitious force", allows to extend our prediction to other class of curved surfaces. This powerful analogy between two a prior unrelated systems not only brings forward a novel approach to control the degree of chaos, but also provides potentialities for further studies and applications in various fields, such as billiards design, optical fibers, or laser microcavities.

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Oct 2022 • Forward Brillouin Scattering in Standard Optical Fibers: Single-Mode …, 2022

Guided Acoustic Waves in Standard Single-Mode Fibers

Avi Zadok, Hilel Hagai Diamandi, Yosef London, Gil Bashan

This chapter provides the analysis of acoustic modes that are guided by the structure of standard single-mode optical fibers. The elastic wave equation is solved in cylindrical coordinates, and solutions are categorized according to their azimuthal symmetry. The boundary conditions of a bare fiber in air are formulated in terms of a matrice of coefficients, whose elements depend on the order of azimuthal symmetry. Discrete solutions of the boundary condition equations signify the cutoff frequencies of guided acoustic modes. Expressions are provided for the normalized transverse profiles of material displacement in modal solutions. Emphasis is given to radially symmetric modes and to torsional-radial modes with twofold azimuthal symmetry. The transverse profiles of these specific mode categories can match those of electrostrictive force terms that may be induced by guided light in the fiber.

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Oct 2022 • Biology

The Gut-Ex-Vivo System (GEVS) Is a Dynamic and Versatile Tool for the Study of DNBS-Induced IBD in BALB/C and C57BL/6 Mice, Highlighting the Protective Role of Probiotics

Romina Monzani, Mara Gagliardi, Nausicaa Clemente, Valentina Saverio, Elżbieta Pańczyszyn, Claudio Santoro, Nissan Yissachar, Annalisa Visciglia, Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Marco Corazzari

Simple Summary IBD is considered a modern and western diet-related disease characterized by uncontrolled immune activation, resulting in chronic bowel inflammation and tissue damage. Although the precise causes of the onset of the disease are still elusive, it seems that both the environment, genetic predisposition and the dysregulation of the intestinal microbiota are actively involved. The development of a model to study the etiopathology of this disease characterized by an increasing incidence in the population is urgently needed. We have recently developed an organ-on-chip system (Gut-Ex-Vivo System, GEVS) to model IBD induced by DNBS in the colon of mice of the BALB/c strain. Here, we provide data demonstrating that the process can also be efficiently induced in mice of another strain, C57BL/6, which is usually less sensitive to this treatment, using our GEVS. Furthermore, we have shown that the system also replicates other characteristics of human pathology, such as the induction of the two most represented cell death pathways responsible for the tissue damage characteristic of IBD. Finally, we demonstrate that our system can be used efficiently to test new therapeutic interventions, such as those based on the use of probiotics. Indeed, we demonstrated the positive impact of both Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Abstract Background: IBD is a spectrum of pathologies characterized by dysregulated immune activation leading to uncontrolled response against the intestine, thus resulting in chronic gut inflammation and tissue damage. Due to its complexity, the molecular mechanisms responsible for …

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Oct 2022 • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Sequestration of gut pathobionts in intraluminal casts, a mechanism to avoid dysregulated T cell activation by pathobionts

Martina Sassone-Corsi, Shalhevet Azriel, Ariel Simon, Deepshika Ramanan, Adriana Ortiz-Lopez, Felicia Chen, Nissan Yissachar, Diane Mathis, Christophe Benoist

T cells that express the transcription factor RORγ, regulatory (Treg), or conventional (Th17) are strongly influenced by intestinal symbionts. In a genetic approach to identify mechanisms underlying this influence, we performed a screen for microbial genes implicated, in germfree mice monocolonized with Escherichia coli Nissle. The loss of capsule-synthesis genes impaired clonal expansion and differentiation of intestinal RORγ+ T cells. Mechanistic exploration revealed that the capsule-less mutants remained able to induce species-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and were highly IgA-coated. They could still trigger myeloid cells, and more effectively damaged epithelial cells in vitro. Unlike wild-type microbes, capsule-less mutants were mostly engulfed in intraluminal casts, large agglomerates composed of myeloid cells extravasated into the gut lumen. We speculate that sequestration in luminal casts of potentially …

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Oct 2022 • The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice

Lessons learned from five years of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in Israel

Atar Lev, Idan Sharir, Amos J Simon, Shiran Levy, Yu Nee Lee, Shirly Frizinsky, Suha Daas, Talia Saraf-Levy, Arnon Broides, Amit Nahum, Suhair Hanna, Polina Stepensky, Ori Toker, Ilan Dalal, Amos Etzioni, Jerry Stein, Etai Adam, Ayal Hendel, Nufar Marcus, Shlomo Almashanu, Raz Somech

BackgroundImplementation of newborn screening (NBS) programs for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) have advanced the diagnosis and management of affected infants and undoubtedly improved their outcomes. Reporting long-term follow-up of such programs is of great importance.ObjectiveWe report a 5-year summary of the NBS program for SCID in Israel.MethodsImmunologic and genetic assessments, clinical analyses, and outcome data from all infants who screened positive were evaluated and summarized.ResultsA total of 937,953 Guthrie cards were screened for SCID. A second Guthrie card was requested on 1,169 occasions (0.12%), which resulted in 142 referrals (0.015%) for further validation tests. Flow cytometry immune-phenotyping, T cell receptor excision circle measurement in peripheral blood, and expression of TCRVβ repertoire for the validation of positive cases revealed a …

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