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Jul 2022 • Optics Express

Large-field lattice structured illumination microscopy

JuanJuan Zheng, Xiang Fang, Kai Wen, Jiaoyue Li, Ying Ma, Min Liu, Sha An, Jianlang Li, Zeev Zalevsky, Peng Gao

In this paper, we present large-field, five-step lattice structured illumination microscopy (Lattice SIM). This method utilizes a 2D grating for lattice projection and a spatial light modulator (SLM) for phase shifting. Five phase-shifted intensity images are recorded to reconstruct a super-resolution image, enhancing the imaging speed and reducing the photo-bleaching both by 17%, compared to conventional two-direction and three-shift SIM. Furthermore, lattice SIM has a three-fold spatial bandwidth product (SBP) enhancement compared to SLM/DMD-based SIM, of which the fringe number is limited by the SLM/DMD pixel number. We believe that the proposed technique will be further developed and widely applied in many fields.

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Jul 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2207.01669

Interdependent Superconducting Networks

I Bonamassa, B Gross, M Laav, I Volotsenko, A Frydman, S Havlin

Cascades are self-amplifying processes triggered by feedback mechanisms that may cause a substantial part of a macroscopic system to change its phase in response of a relatively small local event. The theoretical background for these phenomena is rich and interdisciplinary with interdependent networks providing a versatile "two-interactions" framework to study their multiscale evolution. Yet, physics experiments aimed at validating this ever-growing volume of predictions have remained elusive, hitherto hindered by the problem of identifying possible physical mechanisms realizing interdependent couplings. Here we develop and study the first experimental realization of an interdependent system as a multilayer network of two disordered superconductors separated by an insulating film. We show that Joule heating effects emerging at sufficiently large driving currents act as dependency links between the superconducting layers, igniting overheating cascades via adaptive back and forth electro-thermal feedbacks. Through theory and experiments, we unveil a rich phase diagram of mutual resistive transitions and cascading processes that physically realize and generalize interdependent percolation. The present work establishes the first physics laboratory bench for the manifestation of the theory of interdependent systems, enabling experimental studies to control and to further develop the multilayer phenomena of complex interdependent materials.

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Jul 2022 • Photonics Research

Surface acoustic wave photonic filters with a single narrow radio-frequency passband in standard silicon on insulator

Moshe Katzman, Maayan Priel, Inbar Shafir, Saawan Kumar Bag, Dvir Munk, Naor Inbar, Moshe Feldberg, Tali Sharabani, Leroy Dokhanian, Matan Slook, Avi Zadok

Integrated microwave photonic filters are becoming increasingly important for signal processing within advanced wireless and cellular networks. Filters with narrow transmission passbands mandate long time delays, which are difficult to accommodate within photonic circuits. Long delays may be obtained through slow moving acoustic waves instead. Input radio-frequency information can be converted from one optical carrier to another via surface acoustic waves and filtered in the process. However, the transfer functions of previously reported devices consisted of multiple periodic passbands, and the selection of a single transmission band was not possible. In this work, we demonstrate surface acoustic wave, silicon-photonic filters of microwave frequency with a single transmission passband. The filter response consists of up to 32 tap coefficients, and the transmission bandwidth is only 7 MHz. The results extend the capabilities of integrated microwave photonics in the standard silicon-on-insulator platform.

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Jul 2022 • ACS Applied Energy Materials

Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction Reaction in a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell with a Covalent Framework of Iron Phthalocyanine Aerogel

Noam Zion, Leigh Peles-Strahl, Ariel Friedman, David A Cullen, Lior Elbaz

Carbon aerogels have been studied in the context of fuel cell electrodes mainly as catalyst support materials due to their high surface area, porosity, and electrical conductivity. Recently, aerogels composed solely of inorganic molecular complexes have shown to be promising materials for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). These aerogels consist of atomically dispersed catalytic sites. Herein, we report on the synthesis and characterization of an aerogel-based catalyst: iron phthalocyanine aerogel. It was synthesized by coupling of ethynyl-terminated phthalocyanine monomers and then heat-treated at 800 °C to increase its electrical conductivity and catalytic activity. The aerogels reported here were tested as catalysts for ORR in acidic conditions for the first time and found to have a ultra-high number of atomically dispersed catalytic sites (7.11 × 1020 sites g–1) and very good catalytic activity (E …

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Jul 2022 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Influence of Salt Anions on the Reactivity of Polymer Electrolytes in All-Solid-State Sodium Batteries

Shaul Bublil, Penki Tirupathi Rao, Yuval Elias, Miryam Fayena-Greenstein, Doron Aurbach

Solid-state batteries have received renewed attention in recent years. The present study compares all-solid-state sodium batteries containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymer electrolyte (PE) with two salts, NaPF6 and NaClO4. Electrochemical properties were determined by means of both AC and DC measurements. Battery prototypes with PEO:NaClO4 have a better specific capacity; however, a composite electrolyte system containing TiO2 nanoparticles shows greater influence in PEO:NaPF6. This is probably due to the titania particles acting as a scavenger of HF, an inevitable contaminant in electrolyte systems containing PF6- anions.

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Jul 2022 • Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids

Evolution of surface relief gratings in As20Se80 amorphous chalcogenide films under laser illumination

Yu Kaganovskii, V Freilikher, M Rosenbluh

Variation of grating amplitudes on a surface of amorphous chalcogenide films (ACF) As20Se80 has been studied under illumination by a band-gap light with the purpose to understand mechanism of photo-induced (PI) mass transfer. After holographic recording of surface relief gratings (SRGs) of various periods Λ (from 3 to 15 µm) they were illuminated by a diode laser (λ = 660 nm) and their profile variation was analyzed using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, light scattering, and optical profilometry. The SRGs with Λ < 8 µm exponentially flattened with time of illumination, whereas amplitudes of the SRGs with Λ > 8 µm exponentially grew. Theoretical analysis of the kinetics of PI mass transfer shows that the SRG profile variation occurs by bulk diffusion of As and Se atoms as a result of competition between capillary forces and electrostatic forces created by redistribution of electrons and holes generated …

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Jul 2022 • ECS Meeting Abstracts

(Invited) Elucidating the Electrochemically Active Site Density of PGM-Free ORR Catalysts in Situ Fuel Cells Using Fourier Transform Alternating Current Voltammetry

Lior Elbaz, Rifael Z Snitkoff-Sol

The rising interest in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) technology, part of the global shift in energy production to clean sources, is accompanied by efforts to drive down the cost of this technology, which focus primarily on the cathode catalyst, the most expensive PEFC component. While platinum-group metals (PGMs) continues to be the materials of choice for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, use of these materials in PEFCs must be significantly reduced or eliminated without a penalty in the overall cell performance for PEFC technology to become fully viable.The most promising class ORR catalysts that do not utilize PGMs (i.e., PGM-free catalysts), involve first-row transition metals, such as iron and cobalt incorporated in a nitrogen-doped carbon (M-N-C catalysts). While advancements in M-N-C activity have been impressive, the much sought-after improvement in durability has been impeded by limited …

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Jul 2022 • Imaging Systems and Applications, IW1C. 4, 2022

Laser-Induced Tunable Focusing in Semiconductors

Nadav Shabairou, Zeev Zalevsky, Moshe Sinvani

We demonstrate a novel method for focusing a probe IR pulse laser beam in semiconductors. The shaping was done by a temporaly modifying the material complex refractive index by a second pulse pump laser beam absorbed in the sample, using pump-prob experiment.

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Jul 2022 • Pharmaceutics

Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal-like Adherent Stromal Cells as an Effective Cell Therapy for Cocaine Addiction in a Rat Model

Hilla Pe’er-Nissan, Hadas Ahdoot-Levi, Oshra Betzer, Pnina Shirel Itzhak, Niva Shraga-Heled, Iris Gispan, Menachem Motiei, Arthur Doroshev, Yaakov Anker, Rachela Popovtzer, Racheli Ofir, Gal Yadid

Recent research points to mesenchymal stem cells’ potential for treating neurological disorders, especially drug addiction. We examined the longitudinal effect of placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal-like cells (PLX-PAD) in a rat model for cocaine addiction. Sprague–Dawley male rats were trained to self-administer cocaine or saline daily until stable maintenance. Before the extinction phase, PLX-PAD cells were administered by intracerebroventricular or intranasal routes. Neurogenesis was evaluated, as was behavioral monitoring for craving. We labeled the PLX-PAD cells with gold nanoparticles and followed their longitudinal migration in the brain parallel to their infiltration of essential peripheral organs both by micro-CT and by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Cell locations in the brain were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We found that PLX-PAD cells attenuated cocaine-seeking behavior through their capacity to migrate to specific mesolimbic regions, homed on the parenchyma in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and restored neurogenesis. We believe that intranasal cell therapy is a safe and effective approach to treating addiction and may offer a novel and efficient approach to rehabilitation.

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Jul 2022 • International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Th3A. 3, 2022

Ultrafast Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy reveals Phonon-driven Exciton Rabi oscillations in Halide Perovskites

Xuan Trung Nguyen, Katrin Winte, Daniel Timmer, Yevgeny Rakita, David Cahen, Michael Lorke, Frank Jahnke, Christoph Lienau, Antonietta De Sio

We report persistent 100-fs period Rabi oscillations between 1s and 2p excitons in halide perovskite single crystals driven by off-resonant low-frequency phonon modes. This contrasts with prevailing models for the electron-phonon coupling in these materials.

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Jul 2022 • International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics

Deep subwavelength resonant meta-optics enabled by high-index topological insulators

Danveer Singh, Sukanta Nandi, Shany Cohen, Pilkhaz Nanikashvili, Doron Naveh, Tomer Lewi


Jul 2022 • Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 1-12, 2022

Assessing and measuring the active site density of PGM-free ORR catalysts

Rifael Z Snitkoff-Sol, Lior Elbaz

Fuel cells are already employed in commercial transportation even though their price is still too high to enable widespread production. A viable and promising pathway taken to lower this price is the replacement of expensive constitutes, namely the platinum-based catalysts at the cathode, by platinum group metal-free catalysts based on abundant materials, such as iron. This led to the development of iron-based catalysts that show high activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction. The extraction of the intrinsic catalytic activity of any catalyst is important both for finding relations between the chemical properties of the active sites and their activity, as well as a comparison measure between catalysts. An important parameter that has been elusive for many years is the turnover frequency, which is derived form the number of electrochemical active sites’ density (EASD). The ability to measure the EASD was very limited …

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Jul 2022 • New Journal of Physics

Local equilibrium properties of ultraslow diffusion in the Sinai model

Amin Padash, Erez Aghion, Alexander Schulz, Eli Barkai, Aleksei V Chechkin, Ralf Metzler, Holger Kantz

We perform numerical studies of a thermally driven, overdamped particle in a random quenched force field, known as the Sinai model. We compare the unbounded motion on an infinite 1-dimensional domain to the motion in bounded domains with reflecting boundaries and show that the unbounded motion is at every time close to the equilibrium state of a finite system of growing size. This is due to time scale separation: Inside wells of the random potential, there is relatively fast equilibration, while the motion across major potential barriers is ultraslow. Quantities studied by us are the time dependent mean squared displacement, the time dependent mean energy of an ensemble of particles, and the time dependent entropy of the probability distribution. Using a very fast numerical algorithm, we can explore times up top steps and thereby also study finite-time crossover phenomena.

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Jul 2022 • ACS APPLIED NANO MATERIALS

Co3O4 vertical bar CoP Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Performance

Bibhudatta Malik, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Rong Sun, Francis Leonard Deepak, Aharon Gedanken, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Developing high performance, cost-effective, and durable electrocatalysts that must be derived from non-noble metals is crucial for alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER). OER, which takes place at the anode, is accepted as a major obstacle for commercialization due to its sluggish kinetics. In this study, a two-step synthesis method, such as a hydrothermal process followed by the annealing of the reactants in an Ar-filled Swagelok cell, is briefly described to obtain a cubic type of Co3O4 core and CoP shell. As a result of synergy, Co3O4 vertical bar CoP demonstrates an onset overpotential of 280 mV and reaches a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 320 mV in an alkaline medium (pH = 13.5). The electronic property of the heterojunction is verified by the Tauc plot and valence band XPS. The band structure indicates that Co3O4 vertical bar CoP exhibits a more metallic character than pristine …

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Jul 2022 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Co3O4|CoP Core–Shell Nanoparticles with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Performance

Bibhudatta Malik, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Rong Sun, Francis Leonard Deepak, Aharon Gedanken, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Developing high performance, cost-effective, and durable electrocatalysts that must be derived from non-noble metals is crucial for alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER). OER, which takes place at the anode, is accepted as a major obstacle for commercialization due to its sluggish kinetics. In this study, a two-step synthesis method, such as a hydrothermal process followed by the annealing of the reactants in an Ar-filled Swagelok cell, is briefly described to obtain a cubic type of Co3O4 core and CoP shell. As a result of synergy, Co3O4|CoP demonstrates an onset overpotential of 280 mV and reaches a current density of 10 mA cm–2 at an overpotential of 320 mV in an alkaline medium (pH = 13.5). The electronic property of the heterojunction is verified by the Tauc plot and valence band XPS. The band structure indicates that Co3O4|CoP exhibits a more metallic character than pristine Co3O4 due to the fact that …

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Jul 2022 • Journal of Biological Chemistry

Identification and functional implications of pseudouridine RNA modification on small noncoding RNAs in the mammalian pathogen Trypanosoma brucei

K Shanmugha Rajan, Katerina Adler, Tirza Doniger, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Noa Aharon-Hefetz, Saurav Aryal, Yitzhak Pilpel, Christian Tschudi, Ron Unger, Shulamit Michaeli

Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite that causes sleeping sickness, cycles between an insect and a mammalian host. However, the effect of RNA modifications such as pseudouridinylation on its ability to survive in these two different host environments is unclear. Here, two genome-wide approaches were applied for mapping pseudouridinylation sites (Ψs) on small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), 7SL RNA, vault RNA, and tRNAs from T. brucei. We show using HydraPsiSeq and RiboMeth-seq that the Ψ on C/D snoRNA guiding 2′-O-methylation increased the efficiency of the guided modification on its target, rRNA. We found differential levels of Ψs on these noncoding RNAs in the two life stages (insect host and mammalian host) of the parasite. Furthermore, tRNA isoform abundance and Ψ modifications were characterized in these two life stages demonstrating stage-specific regulation. We conclude that the differential Ψ …

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Jul 2022 • Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 89, 101029, 2022

Inherited retinal diseases: Linking genes, disease-causing variants, and relevant therapeutic modalities

Nina Schneider, Yogapriya Sundaresan, Prakadeeswari Gopalakrishnan, Avigail Beryozkin, Mor Hanany, Erez Y Levanon, Eyal Banin, Shay Ben-Aroya, Dror Sharon

Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a clinically complex and heterogenous group of visual impairment phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in at least 277 nuclear and mitochondrial genes, affecting different retinal regions, and depleting the vision of affected individuals. Genes that cause IRDs when mutated are unique by possessing differing genotype-phenotype correlations, varying inheritance patterns, hypomorphic alleles, and modifier genes thus complicating genetic interpretation. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced the identification of novel IRD-related genes and pathogenic variants in the last decade. For this review, we performed an in-depth literature search which allowed for compilation of the Global Retinal Inherited Disease (GRID) dataset containing 4,798 discrete variants and 17,299 alleles published in 31 papers, showing a wide range of frequencies and complexities among …

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Jul 2022 • Journal of Cell Science

Glucocorticoids enhance chemotherapy-driven stress granule assembly and impair granule dynamics, leading to cell death

Avital Schwed-Gross, Hila Hamiel, Gabriel P Faber, Mor Angel, Rakefet Ben-Yishay, Jennifer IC Benichou, Dana Ishay-Ronen, Yaron Shav-Tal

Stress granules (SGs) can assemble in cancer cells upon chemotoxic stress. Glucocorticoids function during stress responses and are administered with chemotherapies. The roles of glucocorticoids in SG assembly and disassembly pathways are unknown. We examined whether combining glucocorticoids such as cortisone with chemotherapies from the vinca alkaloid family, which dismantle the microtubule network, affects SG assembly and disassembly pathways and influences cell viability in cancer cells and human-derived organoids. Cortisone augmented SG formation when combined with vinorelbine (VRB). Live-cell imaging showed that cortisone increased SG assembly rates but reduced SG clearance rates after stress, by increasing protein residence times within the SGs. Mechanistically, VRB and cortisone signaled through the integrated stress response mediated by eIF2α (also known as EIF2S1 …

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Jul 2022 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Co3O4|CoP Core–Shell Nanoparticles with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Performance

Bibhudatta Malik, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Rong Sun, Francis Leonard Deepak, Aharon Gedanken, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Developing high performance, cost-effective, and durable electrocatalysts that must be derived from non-noble metals is crucial for alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER). OER, which takes place at the anode, is accepted as a major obstacle for commercialization due to its sluggish kinetics. In this study, a two-step synthesis method, such as a hydrothermal process followed by the annealing of the reactants in an Ar-filled Swagelok cell, is briefly described to obtain a cubic type of Co3O4 core and CoP shell. As a result of synergy, Co3O4|CoP demonstrates an onset overpotential of 280 mV and reaches a current density of 10 mA cm–2 at an overpotential of 320 mV in an alkaline medium (pH = 13.5). The electronic property of the heterojunction is verified by the Tauc plot and valence band XPS. The band structure indicates that Co3O4|CoP exhibits a more metallic character than pristine Co3O4 due to the fact that …

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Jul 2022 • npj Computational Materials

Classifying handedness in chiral nanomaterials using label error robust deep learning

CK Groschner, Alexander J Pattison, Assaf Ben-Moshe, A Paul Alivisatos, Wolfgang Theis, MC Scott

High-throughput scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with classification using neural networks is an ideal method to determine the morphological handedness of large populations of chiral nanoparticles. Automated labeling removes the time-consuming manual labeling of training data, but introduces label error, and subsequently classification error in the trained neural network. Here, we evaluate methods to minimize classification error when training from automated labels of SEM datasets of chiral Tellurium nanoparticles. Using the mirror relationship between images of opposite handed particles, we artificially create populations of varying label error. We analyze the impact of label error rate and training method on the classification error of neural networks on an ideal dataset and on a practical dataset. Of the three training methods considered, we find that a pretraining approach yields the most accurate …

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Jul 2022 • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C

Thermodynamics of the Adsorption of Cadmium Oleate to Cadmium Sulfide Quantum Dots and Implications of a Dynamic Ligand Shell

Jason J Calvin, Assaf Ben-Moshe, Ethan B Curling, Amanda S Brewer, Adam B Sedlak, Tierni M Kaufman, A Paul Alivisatos

Adsorbed surface ligands play an important role in determining the chemical and physical properties of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. Most particularly, these ligands influence the optical properties of these nanocrystals. For instance, the luminescence of type II–VI quantum dots has been shown to decrease as metal carboxylates are stripped from the surface. To gain a better understanding of the thermodynamics and equilibria that influence the optical properties of colloidal quantum dots, we studied the adsorption energies of aliphatic cadmium carboxylates to the surfaces of cadmium sulfide quantum dots. Direct calorimetric measurements of the adsorption energies of such ligands have previously proven to be challenging because they are tightly adsorbed to the quantum dot surface. Here, we show that tetrahydrofuran can be used as a coordinating solvent, allowing cadmium oleates to more easily be …

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