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Aug 2022 • ACS nano

Noninvasive Nanodiamond Skin Permeation Profiling Using a Phase Analysis Method: Ex Vivo Experiments

Channa Shapira, Daniel Itshak, Hamootal Duadi, Yifat Harel, Ayelet Atkins, Anat Lipovsky, Ronit Lavi, Jean Paul Lellouche, Dror Fixler

Carbon-based nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in nanotechnology. Among them, nanodiamonds (NDs) are suitable for biotechnology and are especially interesting for skin delivery and topical treatments. However, noninvasive detection of NDs within the different skin layers or analyzing their penetration ability is complicated due to the turbid nature of the tissue. The iterative multiplane optical properties extraction (IMOPE) technique detects differences in the optical properties of the measured item by a phase-image analysis method. The phase image is reconstructed by the multiplane Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm. This technique, traditionally, detects differences in the reduced scattering coefficients. Here, however, due to the actual size of the NDs, the IMOPE technique’s detection relies on absorption analysis rather than relying on scattering events. In this paper, we use the IMOPE technique to detect the …

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Aug 2022 • Optical Fiber Sensors, Tu1. 4, 2022

Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Distributed Analysis of Cladding Modes in a Coated Fiber

Elad Zehavi, Alon Bernstein, Gil Bashan, Yosef London, Hilel Hagai Diamandi, Kavita Sharma, Mirit Hen, A Zadok

Brillouin optical time domain analysis of coupling to cladding modes of standard, coated fiber is demonstrated. Uncertainty in local changes of effective indices is below 10-6 RIU. Local effect of acetone on coating is identified.

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Aug 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2208.10538

Two-Dimensional Tunable Solid-State Random laser in the Visible

Bhupesh Kumar, Ran Homri, Patrick Sebbah

A two-dimensional multimode random laser emitting in the visible frequency range of the optical spectrum is proposed, designed and investigated, in which optical feedback is provided by randomly-distributed air holes embedded in dye-doped polymer film. Dependence of lasing threshold on scatterer density and pump spot size has been investigated. Furthermore, peak of the gain curve shows systematic spectral blue shift with increasing scatterer density, as well as pump spot size. Such a 2D random laser provides with a compact on-chip tunable laser source and a unique platform to explore non-Hermitian photonics in the visible

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Aug 2022 • SPring-8/SACLA Research Report

Higher-Order X-ray-Optical Wave Mixing

Priyanka Chakraborti, Ozgur Culfa, Matthias Fuchs, Johann Haber, David Reis, Sharon Shwartz, Kenji Tamasaku, Samuel Teitelbaum

The goal of the experiment was to investigate higher-order X-ray-optical sum-frequency generation (XSFG) as a means to study the dynamics of linear and nonlinear optically-induced local polarization effects in solids with Angstrom resolution. XSFG can be used as time-resolved atomic-scale probe of the dynamics of optically induced charge densities. The ability to optically control carrier dynamics in samples at the microscopic scale has the potential to become the basis of ultrafast optical switching of currents and future petahertz optoelectronic devices.

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Aug 2022 • ACS Applied Energy Materials

High-Energy Ni-Rich LiNi0.85Co0.1Mn0.05O2 Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries Enhanced by Nd- and Y-Doping. A Structural, Electrochemical, and Thermal …

Yehonatan Levartovsky, Arup Chakraborty, Sooraj Kunnikuruvan, Sandipan Maiti, Judith Grinblat, Michael Talianker, Doron Aurbach, Dan Thomas Major

Ni-rich LiNi1–x–yCoxMnyO2 (1 – x – y > 0.5) (NCMs) cathode materials have shown great promise in energy-intensive applications, such as electric vehicles. However, as many layered cathodes do, they suffer from structural and electrochemical degradation during cycling. In this study, we show that Nd- and Y-doped materials, Li(Ni0.85Co0.1Mn0.05)0.995Nd0.005O2 and Li(Ni0.85Co0.1Mn0.05)0.995Y0.005O2, have significantly better structural, electrochemical, and thermal properties compared to the reference LiNi0.85Co0.1Mn0.05O2 (NCM85) due to enhanced structural stability. The doped electrodes were found to have significantly higher specific discharge capacities, better capacity retention, and lower voltage hysteresis compared to the reference (undoped) electrodes. SEM images of the focused-ion beam (FIB) cut of the particles of the doped material showed that they have less cracks when compared …

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Aug 2022 • Optical Fiber Sensors, Tu1. 5, 2022

Direct Spatially Distributed Analysis of Forward Brillouin Scattering in Polarization Maintaining Fibers

Kavita Sharma, Elad Zehavi, Hilel Hagai Diamandi, Gil Bashan, Yosef London, Avi Zadok

Direct distributed analysis of forward Brillouin scattering is demonstrated for the first time. Intermodal scattering in a polarization maintaining fiber is mapped via a counterpropagating probe. Measurements distinguish between air and water outside coated fiber.

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Aug 2022 • Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, 101107, 2022

Electrical Double Layer in Nano-Pores of Carbon Electrodes: Beyond CDI; Sensing and Maximizing Energy Extraction from Salinity Gradients

Eran Avraham, Barak Shapira, Izaak Cohen, Doron Aurbach

The important phenomenon of electrical double layer (EDL) is often described by mathematical relations between surface charges, variation of electrostatic potentials with distance and distribution of ions across the interface between charged surfaces (or particles) and electrolyte solutions. A major advance was made in the last decade in understanding complex EDL relationships with an emphasis on nano-porous carbonaceous materials. These understandings were usually exploited for the interpretation of electro-sorption phenomena connected to capacitive deionization (CDI) processes. The aim of this short paper is to demonstrate, based on previous studies, how models of EDL in nano-porous carbons can be the basis for modification of carbonaceous materials for other applications, like sensors and energy extraction from salinity gradients.

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Aug 2022 • Micromachines

Acoustic Manipulation of Intraocular Particles

Ari Leshno, Avraham Kenigsberg, Heli Peleg-Levy, Silvia Piperno, Alon Skaat, Hagay Shpaisman

Various conditions cause dispersions of particulate matter to circulate inside the anterior chamber of a human eye. These dispersed particles might reduce visual acuity or promote elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), causing secondary complications such as particle related glaucoma, which is a major cause of blindness. Medical and surgical treatment options are available to manage these complications, yet preventive measures are not currently available. Conceptually, manipulating these dispersed particles in a way that reduces their negative impact could prevent these complications. However, as the eye is a closed system, manipulating dispersed particles in it is challenging. Standing acoustic waves have been previously shown to be a versatile tool for manipulation of bioparticles from nano-sized extracellular vesicles up to millimeter-sized organisms. Here we introduce for the first time a novel method utilizing standing acoustic waves to noninvasively manipulate intraocular particles inside the anterior chamber. Using a cylindrical acoustic resonator, we show ex vivo manipulation of pigmentary particles inside porcine eyes. We study the effect of wave intensity over time and rule out temperature changes that could damage tissues. Optical coherence tomography and histologic evaluations show no signs of damage or any other side effect that could be attributed to acoustic manipulation. Finally, we lay out a clear pathway to how this technique can be used as a non-invasive tool for preventing secondary glaucoma. This concept has the potential to control and arrange intraocular particles in specific locations without causing any damage to …

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Aug 2022 • Nature Physics

Topology-driven surface patterning of liquid spheres

Subhomoy Das, Alexander V Butenko, Yitzhak Mastai, Moshe Deutsch, Eli Sloutskin

Surfaces of classical spherical liquid droplets are isotropic, promoting the random distribution of surface-adsorbed molecules. Here we demonstrate a counterintuitive temperature-controlled self-assembly of well-defined and highly ordered patterns of surface-adsorbed fluorescent molecules on the surfaces of water-suspended spherical oil droplets. These patterns are induced by precisely self-positioned, topology-dictated structural defects in a crystalline monolayer covering these droplets’ surfaces over a wide temperature range. We elucidate the pattern formation mechanism, visualize the defects’ positions and map the stress fields within the surface crystal. The observed phenomena provide insights into the interfacial freezing effect on curved surfaces, enable precise positioning of functional ligands on droplets for their self-assembly into higher-hierarchy structures– and may also play an important role in vital …

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Aug 2022 • International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

Adsorption of bromine complexing agents on platinum electrocatalysts and prevention through polydopamine coatings

Samuel S Hardisty, Nagaprasad Reddy Samala, Ilya Grinberg, David Zitoun

Bromine complexing agents (BCAs) are seen as a promising route to mitigate the potential health and environmental risks of the bromine-based redox-flow batteries, like the hydrogen bromine redox flow battery (H2–Br2 RFB). The most studied BCAs are based on the pyridinium anion, which may adsorb and inhibit the Pt catalyst required in the H2–Br2 RFB system for the hydrogen reactions. Herein the effect of two BCAs (ethyl-pyridinium bromide and hexyl-pyridinium bromide) on a Pt electrocatalyst are studied, along with a potential methodology to prevent adsorption of the BCA through a polydopamine (PDA) coating. The results show that the pyridinium anion is adsorbed on Pt throughout a large potential range (−0.02 to 1.0 V), reducing the availability of the surface for the adsorption of other species. The PDA coating prevented this adsorption, but itself experiences adsorption of the BCA leading to some …

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Aug 2022 • IEEE Photonics Journal

Measurement of the Second-Order Polarizability of Silver Nanoparticles With Reference-Free Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering for Entangled Photon Pair Interaction

Ariel Ashkenazy, Racheli Ron, Tchiya Zar, Hannah Aharon, Adi Salomon, Dror Fixler, Eliahu Cohen

Two-photon interactions of entangled-photon pairs with metallic nanoparticles (NPs) can be enhanced by localized surface-plasmon resonance. Recently, we have described how the properties of this quantum light-matter interaction can be deduced from classical second-harmonic generation measurements performed using a reference-free hyper-Rayleigh scattering method. Herein, we report the results of such classical-light characterization measurements. We obtain a large hyperpolarizability for the NPs, present the dependence of the hyperpolarizability on the NPs' spectral features, and show a dipolar emission pattern for the second-harmonic signal. Our results can be used to optimize entangled-photon pair interactions with metallic NPs to enable first ever detection of this process. Moreover, these results suggest that NPs may be used as source for ultra-broadband entangled-photon pairs through nonphase …

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Aug 2022 • Nature Physics

Topology-driven surface patterning of liquid spheres

Subhomoy Das, Alexander V Butenko, Yitzhak Mastai, Moshe Deutsch, Eli Sloutskin

Surfaces of classical spherical liquid droplets are isotropic, promoting the random distribution of surface-adsorbed molecules. Here we demonstrate a counterintuitive temperature-controlled self-assembly of well-defined and highly ordered patterns of surface-adsorbed fluorescent molecules on the surfaces of water-suspended spherical oil droplets. These patterns are induced by precisely self-positioned, topology-dictated structural defects in a crystalline monolayer covering these droplets’ surfaces over a wide temperature range. We elucidate the pattern formation mechanism, visualize the defects’ positions and map the stress fields within the surface crystal. The observed phenomena provide insights into the interfacial freezing effect on curved surfaces, enable precise positioning of functional ligands on droplets for their self-assembly into higher-hierarchy structures– and may also play an important role in vital …

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Aug 2022 • IEEE Photonics Journal

Measurement of the Second-Order Polarizability of Silver Nanoparticles With Reference-Free Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering for Entangled Photon Pair Interaction

Ariel Ashkenazy, Racheli Ron, Tchiya Zar, Hannah Aharon, Adi Salomon, Dror Fixler, Eliahu Cohen

Two-photon interactions of entangled-photon pairs with metallic nanoparticles (NPs) can be enhanced by localized surface-plasmon resonance. Recently, we have described how the properties of this quantum light-matter interaction can be deduced from classical second-harmonic generation measurements performed using a reference-free hyper-Rayleigh scattering method. Herein, we report the results of such classical-light characterization measurements. We obtain a large hyperpolarizability for the NPs, present the dependence of the hyperpolarizability on the NPs' spectral features, and show a dipolar emission pattern for the second-harmonic signal. Our results can be used to optimize entangled-photon pair interactions with metallic NPs to enable first ever detection of this process. Moreover, these results suggest that NPs may be used as source for ultra-broadband entangled-photon pairs through nonphase …

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Aug 2022 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Dealloyed Octahedral PtCu Nanoparticles as High-Efficiency Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Melina Zysler, Enrique Carbo-Argibay, Paulo J Ferreira, David Zitoun

Pt-based nanoparticles (NPs) are used as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) that occurs at the cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, because of their high efficiency. Among these NPs, PtCu electrocatalysts are an important subclass, in which composition, morphology, size, crystal structure, and atomic distribution are tuned to optimize the performance and durability of the catalyst. Most of the efforts so far in the field have been dedicated toward increasing the catalytic activity and stability of these NPs, while reducing the amount of precious material. In this paper, we present a solvothermal method used for the synthesis of carbon-supported octahedral PtCu NPs that show high efficiency toward the ORR. In particular, a specific activity of 1.02 mA cm–2 was achieved after 10,000 cycles (accelerated degradation test) in which 84% of the electrochemical surface area was maintained …

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Aug 2022

Advances in Metamaterials

Mordechai Segev, Erez Hasman, Yonina C Eldar, Uriel Levy, Ben Z Steinberg, Patrick Sebbah, TECHNION ISRAEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYWEIZMANN INST OF SCIENCE REHOVOT (ISRAEL) HEBREW UNIV JERUSALEM (ISRAEL) Tel Aviv UnivBar Ilan Univ


Aug 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2208.07799v1

Deep subwavelength resonant metaphotonics enabled by high-index topological insulator bismuth telluride

Danveer Singh, Sukanta Nandi, Yafit Fleger, Shnay Cohen Z., Tomer Lewi

In nanophotonics, small mode volumes, high-quality factor (Q) resonances, and large field enhancements without metals, fundamentally scale with the refractive index and are key for many implementations involving light-matter interactions. Topological insulators (TI) are a class of insulating materials that host topologically protected surface states, some of which exhibit extraordinary high permittivity values. Here, we study the optical properties of TI bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) single crystals. We find that both the bulk and surface states contribute to the extremely large optical constants, with the real part of the refractive index peaking at n~11. Utilizing these ultra-high index values, we demonstrate that Bi2Te3 metasurfaces are capable of squeezing light in deep subwavelength structures, with the fundamental magnetic dipole (MD) resonance confined in unit cell size smaller than {\lambda}/10. We further show that dense ultrathin metasurface arrays can simultaneously provide large magnetic and electric field enhancements arising from the surface metallic states and the high index of the bulk. These findings demonstrate the potential of chalcogenide TI materials as a platform leveraging the unique combination of ultra-high-index dielectric response with surface metallic states for metamaterial design and nanophotonic applications in sensing, non-linear generation, and quantum information.

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Aug 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2108.13047

Measurement-induced quantum walks

A Didi, E Barkai

We investigate a tight binding quantum walk on a graph. Repeated stroboscopic measurements of the position of the particle yield a measured "trajectory", and a combination of classical and quantum mechanical properties for the walk are observed. We explore the effects of the measurements on the spreading of the packet on a one dimensional line, showing that except for the Zeno limit, the system converges to Gaussian statistics similarly to a classical random walk. A large deviation analysis and an Edgeworth expansion yield quantum corrections to this normal behavior. We then explore the first passage time to a target state using a generating function method, yielding properties like the quantization of the mean first return time. In particular, we study the effects of certain sampling rates which cause remarkable change in the behavior in the system, like divergence of the mean detection time in finite systems and a decomposition of the phase space into mutually exclusive regions, an effect that mimics ergodicity breaking, whose origin here is the destructive interference in quantum mechanics. For a quantum walk on a line we show that in our system the first detection probability decays classically like , this is dramatically different compared to local measurements which yield a decay rate of , indicating that the exponents of the first passage time depends on the type of measurements used.

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Aug 2022 • ACS nano

Noninvasive Nanodiamond Skin Permeation Profiling Using a Phase Analysis Method: Ex Vivo Experiments

Channa Shapira, Daniel Itshak, Hamootal Duadi, Yifat Harel, Ayelet Atkins, Anat Lipovsky, Ronit Lavi, Jean Paul Lellouche, Dror Fixler

Carbon-based nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in nanotechnology. Among them, nanodiamonds (NDs) are suitable for biotechnology and are especially interesting for skin delivery and topical treatments. However, noninvasive detection of NDs within the different skin layers or analyzing their penetration ability is complicated due to the turbid nature of the tissue. The iterative multiplane optical properties extraction (IMOPE) technique detects differences in the optical properties of the measured item by a phase-image analysis method. The phase image is reconstructed by the multiplane Gerchberg–Saxton algorithm. This technique, traditionally, detects differences in the reduced scattering coefficients. Here, however, due to the actual size of the NDs, the IMOPE technique’s detection relies on absorption analysis rather than relying on scattering events. In this paper, we use the IMOPE technique to detect the …

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Aug 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2208.10262

Controls that expedite scale-invariant transport in disordered systems

Marc Höll, Alon Nissan, Brian Berkowitz, Eli Barkai

Transport in disordered media, such as those involving charge carriers in amorphous semiconductors, or contaminants in hydrogeological systems, are often described by time scale-free processes. We study the statistical properties of the first passage time of biased processes in different models, and employ the big jump principle that shows the dominance of the maximum trapping time on the first passage time. Inspired by the restart paradigm, we demonstrate that the removal of this maximum significantly expedites transport. As the disorder increases, the system enters a phase where the removal shows a dramatic effect. Our results show how we may speed up transport in strongly disordered systems exploiting scale invariance.

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Aug 2022 • Nature Physics

Topology-driven surface patterning of liquid spheres

Subhomoy Das, Alexander V Butenko, Yitzhak Mastai, Moshe Deutsch, Eli Sloutskin

Surfaces of classical spherical liquid droplets are isotropic, promoting the random distribution of surface-adsorbed molecules. Here we demonstrate a counterintuitive temperature-controlled self-assembly of well-defined and highly ordered patterns of surface-adsorbed fluorescent molecules on the surfaces of water-suspended spherical oil droplets. These patterns are induced by precisely self-positioned, topology-dictated structural defects in a crystalline monolayer covering these droplets’ surfaces over a wide temperature range. We elucidate the pattern formation mechanism, visualize the defects’ positions and map the stress fields within the surface crystal. The observed phenomena provide insights into the interfacial freezing effect on curved surfaces, enable precise positioning of functional ligands on droplets for their self-assembly into higher-hierarchy structures– and may also play an important role in vital …

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Aug 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2208.07443

Complete reconstruction of the space-time dynamics in a Kerr-lens mode-locked laser

Idan Parshani, Leon Bello, Mallachi-Elia Meller, Avi Pe'er

We present a complete numerical analysis and simulation of the full spatio-temporal dynamics of Kerr-lens mode-locking (KLM) in a laser on all time-scales. The KLM dynamics, which is the workhorse mechanism for generating ultrashort pulses, relies on the intricate coupling between the spatial nonlinear evolution due to self focusing and the temporal nonlinear compression due to self-phase modulation (SPM) and dispersion. Our numerical tool emulates the dynamical evolution of the optical field in the cavity on all time scales: the fast time scale of the pulse envelope within a single round trip, and the slow time-scale between one round-trip to the next. We employ a nonlinear ABCD formalism that fully handles all relevant effects in the laser, namely - self focusing and diffraction, dispersion and SPM, space-dependent loss and gain saturation. We confirm the validity of our model by reproducing the pulse-formation in KLM in all aspects: The evolution of the pulse energy, duration, and gain is observed during the entire cavity buildup (from spontaneous noise to steady state), demonstrating the nonlinear mode competition in full, as well as the dependence of the final pulse in steady state on the interplay between gain bandwidth, dispersion and self-phase modulation. The direct observation of the nonlinear space-time evolution of the pulse is a key enabler to analyse and optimize the KLM operation, as well as to explore new nonlinear space-time phenomena.

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