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Sep 2020 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2009.03930

Experimental tests of Multiplicative Bell Inequalities

Dilip Paneru, Amit Te'eni, Bar Y Peled, James Hubble, Yingwen Zhang, Avishy Carmi, Eliahu Cohen, Ebrahim Karimi

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Sep 2020 • Cells

The Sub-Nuclear Localization of RNA-Binding Proteins in KSHV-Infected Cells

Ella Alkalay, Chen Gam Ze Letova Refael, Irit Shoval, Noa Kinor, Ronit Sarid, Yaron Shav-Tal

RNA-binding proteins, particularly splicing factors, localize to sub-nuclear domains termed nuclear speckles. During certain viral infections, as the nucleus fills up with replicating virus compartments, host cell chromatin distribution changes, ending up condensed at the nuclear periphery. In this study we wished to determine the fate of nucleoplasmic RNA-binding proteins and nuclear speckles during the lytic cycle of the Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). We found that nuclear speckles became fewer and dramatically larger, localizing at the nuclear periphery, adjacent to the marginalized chromatin. Enlarged nuclear speckles contained splicing factors, whereas other proteins were nucleoplasmically dispersed. Polyadenylated RNA, typically found in nuclear speckles under regular conditions, was also found in foci separated from nuclear speckles in infected cells. Poly (A) foci did not contain lncRNAs known to colocalize with nuclear speckles but contained the poly (A)-binding protein PABPN1. Examination of the localization of spliced viral RNAs revealed that some spliced transcripts could be detected within the nuclear speckles. Since splicing is required for the maturation of certain KSHV transcripts, we suggest that the infected cell does not dismantle nuclear speckles but rearranges their components at the nuclear periphery to possibly serve in splicing and transport of viral RNAs into the cytoplasm. View Full-Text

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Sep 2020 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Stabilization of Lithium Cobalt Phosphate Cathodes via Artificial Interphases

Sarah Taragin, Jan L Allen, Lin Ma, Malachi Noked, Marshall A Schroeder

Olivine LiCoPO 4 (LCP) exhibits a rare combination of high theoretical capacity (167 mAh g− 1), excellent thermal stability, and high redox potential (4.8 V vs vs Li/Li+), making it a promising candidate for high voltage lithium batteries. Despite these attractive properties, practical implementation of this electrode chemistry has been limited by stability issues at the cathode-electrolyte interface, including parasitic electrolyte reactions, surface decomposition of the electrode material, and Co dissolution. Carbon coating and substitutions of Co by Fe and other cations improve the performance, however the cycling stability needs further improvement. In an effort to address these issues, we deposited thin, conformal metal oxide surface coatings on substituted LCP powder and investigated the effects of these coatings on the performance of carbon-coated substituted LCP/MCMB graphite full cells with a standard carbonate …

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Sep 2020 • Quantum 2.0, QTh7B. 3, 2020

Persistent beating in coupled parametric oscillators-new coherent dynamics beyond Ising spins

Leon Bello, Marcello Calvanese Strinati, Emanuele G Dalla Torre, Avi Pe’er

Coupled parametric oscillators were recently employed as simulators of artificial Ising networks, with the potential to solve computationally hard minimization problems. We demonstrate a new dynamical regime within the simplest network—two coupled parametric oscillators, where the oscillators never reach a steady state, but show persistent, full-scale, coherent beats, whose frequency reflects the coupling properties and strength. We present a detailed theoretical and experimental study and show that this new dynamical regime appears over a wide range of parameters near the oscillation threshold and depends on the nature of the coupling (dissipative or energy preserving). Thus, a system of coupled parametric oscillators transcends the Ising description and manifests unique coherent dynamics, which may have important implications for coherent computation machines.

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Sep 2020 • Laser Science, JTu1A. 17, 2020

Novel Beam Shaping Based All Optical Measurement Method For Free Charge Carriers Dynamics in Silicon

Maor Tiferet, Nadav Shabairou, Zeev Zalevsky, Moshe Sinvani

We demonstrate a new experimental algorithm for the diffusion length all optical measurement. This Measurement method is based on a novel Plasma Dispersion Effect based on beam shaping method that we demonstrated in the past.

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Sep 2020 • Frontiers in Optics, FTu8B. 6, 2020

Laser-Induced Focusing for Silicon nanoscopy

Nadav Shabairou, Maor Tiferet, Zeev Zalevsky, Moshe Sinvani

We demonstrate the shaping and focusing of a probe IR (λ= 1.55 μm) laser beam in silicon. The shaping was done by a second pump laser beam at λ= 0.775 μm and 30ps pulse width which simultaneously and collinearly, illuminates the silicon surface with the IR beam. The shaped probe beam will be used in silicon nanoscopy.

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Sep 2020 • Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

Correction to: Selected future tasks in electrochemical research related to advanced power sources

David Malka, Netanel Shpigel, Ran Attias, Doron Aurbach

This original article contained a mistake.

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Sep 2020 • Cells

The Sub-Nuclear Localization of RNA-Binding Proteins in KSHV-Infected Cells

Ella Alkalay, Chen Gam Ze Letova Refael, Irit Shoval, Noa Kinor, Ronit Sarid, Yaron Shav-Tal

RNA-binding proteins, particularly splicing factors, localize to sub-nuclear domains termed nuclear speckles. During certain viral infections, as the nucleus fills up with replicating virus compartments, host cell chromatin distribution changes, ending up condensed at the nuclear periphery. In this study we wished to determine the fate of nucleoplasmic RNA-binding proteins and nuclear speckles during the lytic cycle of the Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). We found that nuclear speckles became fewer and dramatically larger, localizing at the nuclear periphery, adjacent to the marginalized chromatin. Enlarged nuclear speckles contained splicing factors, whereas other proteins were nucleoplasmically dispersed. Polyadenylated RNA, typically found in nuclear speckles under regular conditions, was also found in foci separated from nuclear speckles in infected cells. Poly (A) foci did not contain lncRNAs known to colocalize with nuclear speckles but contained the poly (A)-binding protein PABPN1. Examination of the localization of spliced viral RNAs revealed that some spliced transcripts could be detected within the nuclear speckles. Since splicing is required for the maturation of certain KSHV transcripts, we suggest that the infected cell does not dismantle nuclear speckles but rearranges their components at the nuclear periphery to possibly serve in splicing and transport of viral RNAs into the cytoplasm. View Full-Text

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Sep 2020 • Bioresource technology reports

An efficient method to produce 1, 4-pentanediol from the biomass of the algae Chlorella ohadi with levulinic acid as intermediate

Elena Benisvy-Aharonovich, Anat Zandany, Abed Saady, Yael Kinel-Tahan, Yaron Yehoshua, Aharon Gedanken

Today, the development of innovative methods for production of organic compounds from natural resources is essential topic for many research groups in the worldwide. Levulinic acid is a platform for many important organic processes in the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceuticals, plasticizers, drugs and various other additives. In addition, 1,4-pentanediol which is a product of reduction of levulinic acid, is a valuable raw material in the chemical industry. Here, we report a highly efficient method for the production of levulinic acid from Chlorella ohadi algae using hydrothermal hydrolysis process by using HCl. Our methodology shows that the levulinic acid can be obtained in almost 90% molar yield compared to the glucose in Chlorella ohadi. Finally, we describe a one step reaction for the completely conversion of levulinic acid into 1,4-pentadiol in water using S. cerevisiae yeast as a catalyst.

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Sep 2020 • Langmuir

Nucleation and Growth of PbBrF Crystals at the Liquid Mercury–Electrolyte Interface Studied by Operando X-ray Scattering

Sven Festersen, Benjamin Runge, Christian Koops, Florian Bertram, Ben Ocko, Moshe Deutsch, Bridget M Murphy, Olaf M Magnussen

Detailed in operando studies of electrochemically induced PbBrF deposition at the liquid mercury/liquid electrolyte interface are presented. The nucleation and growth were monitored using time-resolved X-ray diffraction and reflectivity combined with electrochemical measurements, revealing a complex potential-dependent behavior. PbBrF deposition commences at potentials above −0.7 V with the rapid formation of an ultrathin adlayer of one unit cell thickness, on top of which (001)-oriented three-dimensional crystallites are formed. Two potential regimes are identified. At low overpotentials, slow growth of a low surface density film of large crystals is observed. At high overpotentials, crossover to a potential-independent morphology occurs, consisting of a compact PbBrF deposit with a saturation thickness of 25 nm, which forms within a few minutes. This potential behavior can be rationalized by the increasing …

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Sep 2020 • Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

Electrophysiologic Characterization of Developing Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Photoreceptor Precursors

Revital Schick, Nairouz Farah, Amos Markus, Alon Korngreen, Yossi Mandel

Purpose: Photoreceptor precursor cells (PRPs) differentiated from human embryonic stem cells can serve as a source for cell replacement therapy aimed at vision restoration in patients suffering from degenerative diseases of the outer retina, such as retinitis pigmentosa and AMD. In this work, we studied the electrophysiologic maturation of PRPs throughout the differentiation process.Methods: Human embryonic stem cells were differentiated into PRPs and whole-cell recordings were performed for electrophysiologic characterization at days 0, 30, 60, and 90 along with quantitative PCR analysis to characterize the expression level of various ion channels, which shape the electrophysiologic response. Finally, to characterize the electrically induced calcium currents, we employed calcium imaging (rhod4) to visualize intracellular calcium dynamics in response to electrical activation.Results: Our results revealed an early and steady presence (approximately 100% of responsive cells) of the delayed potassium rectifier current. In contrast, the percentage of cells exhibiting voltage-gated sodium currents increased with maturation (from 0% to almost 90% of responsive cells at 90 days). Moreover, calcium imaging revealed the presence of voltage-gated calcium currents, which play a major role in vision formation. These results were further supported by quantitative PCR analysis, which revealed a significant and continuous (3-to 50-fold) increase in the expression of various voltage-gated channels concomitantly with the increase in the expression of the photoreceptor marker CRX.Conclusions: These results can shed light on the electrophysiologic …

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Sep 2020 • EMBO molecular medicine

A Parkinson's disease circ rna s resource reveals a link between circ slc 8a1 and oxidative stress

Mor Hanan, Alon Simchovitz, Nadav Yayon, Shani Vaknine, Roni Cohen‐Fultheim, Miriam Karmon, Nimrod Madrer, Talia Miriam Rohrlich, Moria Maman, Estelle R Bennett, David S Greenberg, Eran Meshorer, Erez Y Levanon, Hermona Soreq, Sebastian Kadener

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are brain‐abundant RNAs of mostly unknown functions. To seek their roles in Parkinson's disease (PD), we generated an RNA sequencing resource of several brain region tissues from dozens of PD and control donors. In the healthy substantia nigra (SN), circRNAs accumulate in an age‐dependent manner, but in the PD SN this correlation is lost and the total number of circRNAs reduced. In contrast, the levels of circRNAs are increased in the other studied brain regions of PD patients. We also found circSLC8A1 to increase in the SN of PD individuals. CircSLC8A1 carries 7 binding sites for miR‐128 and is strongly bound to the microRNA effector protein Ago2. Indeed, RNA targets of miR‐128 are also increased in PD individuals, suggesting that circSLC8A1 regulates miR‐128 function and/or activity. CircSLC8A1 levels also increased in cultured cells exposed to the oxidative stress …

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Sep 2020 • Langmuir

Nucleation and Growth of PbBrF Crystals at the Liquid Mercury–Electrolyte Interface Studied by Operando X-ray Scattering

Sven Festersen, Benjamin Runge, Christian Koops, Florian Bertram, Ben Ocko, Moshe Deutsch, Bridget M Murphy, Olaf M Magnussen

Detailed in operando studies of electrochemically induced PbBrF deposition at the liquid mercury/liquid electrolyte interface are presented. The nucleation and growth were monitored using time-resolved X-ray diffraction and reflectivity combined with electrochemical measurements, revealing a complex potential-dependent behavior. PbBrF deposition commences at potentials above −0.7 V with the rapid formation of an ultrathin adlayer of one unit cell thickness, on top of which (001)-oriented three-dimensional crystallites are formed. Two potential regimes are identified. At low overpotentials, slow growth of a low surface density film of large crystals is observed. At high overpotentials, crossover to a potential-independent morphology occurs, consisting of a compact PbBrF deposit with a saturation thickness of 25 nm, which forms within a few minutes. This potential behavior can be rationalized by the increasing …

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Sep 2020 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Preface—Focus Issue on Battery Safety, Reliability and Mitigation

Boryann Liaw, Thomas P Barrera, Doron Aurbach

Battery reliability and safety are two key issues critically affecting the sustainability of battery technology and the entire supply chain. Reliability and safety are interrelated and inseparable. In this focus issue, sixty (60) articles have been published online. This is quite an accomplishment for the Journal of The Electrochemical Society, indicative of the importance of this subject matter. We would like to take this opportunity to emphasize the meaning of reliability and safety in a proper context. Reliability, in principle, refers to a cell’s ability to sustain its functionality for the intended use, not only in performance but also in consistency for all aspects of the functions and for resilience in the event of failures. The reliability issues could range from a material’s electrochemical stability, an electrode’s architectural stability, and a cell’s energetic stability under the influences of external stress factors (such as mechanical stresses …

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Sep 2020 • Review of Scientific Instruments

AC Measurement of the Nernst effect of thin films at low temperatures

Yuxiao Wu, S Dutta, J Jesudasan, A Frydman, A Roy

We describe an alternating current method to measure the Nernst effect in superconducting thin films at low temperatures. The Nernst effect is an important tool in the understanding of superconducting fluctuations and, in particular, vortex motion near critical points. However, in most materials, the Nernst signal in a typical experimental setup rarely exceeds a few μV, in some cases being as low as a few nV. DC measurements of such small signals require extensive signal processing and protection against stray pickups and offsets, limiting the sensitivity of such measurements to >1 nV. Here, we describe a method utilizing a one-heater-two-thermometer setup with the heating element and thermometers fabricated on-chip with the sample, which helped to reduce the thermal load and temperature lag between the substrate and the thermometer. Using AC heating power and 2ω measurement, we are able to achieve …

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Sep 2020 • Journal of Biophotonics 13 (9), e202000158, 2020

Fluorescence for biological logic gates

EA Barnoy, R Popovtzer, D Fixler

Biological logic gates are smart probes able to respond to biological conditions in behaviors similar to computer logic gates, and they pose a promising challenge for modern medicine. Researchers are creating many kinds of smart nanostructures that can respond to various biological parameters such as pH, ion presence, and enzyme activity. Each of these conditions alone might be interesting in a biological sense, but their interactions are what define specific disease conditions. Researchers over the past few decades have developed a plethora of stimuli‐responsive nanodevices, from activatable fluorescent probes to DNA origami nanomachines, many explicitly defining logic operations. Whereas many smart configurations have been explored, in this review we focus on logic operations actuated through fluorescent signals. We discuss the applicability of fluorescence as a means of logic gate implementation …

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Sep 2020 • Advanced Composites and Hybrid Materials

Surfactant-assisted cerium oxide and its catalytic activity towards Fenton process for non-degradable dye

Bhawana Jain, Ajaya K Singh, Ayesha Hashmi, Md Abu Bin Hasan Susan, Jean-Paul Lellouche

Water pollution kills nearly 2 million people and costs trillions of dollars every year, which continuously threatens the survival of both human and animal species in the world. The textile industry is considered as pollutant-releasing industries in water. In this research work, we firstly report the synthesis of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in the range of quantum dots (QDs). Syntheses of cerium oxide nanomaterials were assisted by using three different surfactants, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; anionic), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB; cationic), and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC; cationic); the surfactants control the growth and particle size of the prepared material. The nanomaterials were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and …

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Sep 2020 • APL Photonics

Temporal imaging with a high filling factor

Avi Klein, Inbar Sibony, Sara Meir, Hamootal Duadi, Michelle Y Sander, Moti Fridman

We demonstrate a temporal imaging system that can capture events with unknown time-of-arrival in the time domain without the need to synchronize the signal. The temporal imaging system is based on a time-lens that uses a high repetition-rate fiber laser for the pump wave together with a time-stretch scheme. After dispersion, the timing between adjacent pump pulses is smaller than the pulse width. Therefore, the signal interacts with one of the pump pulses with high probability, regardless of its arrival time. We discuss the intensity dependence and temporal aberrations of such an imaging system and demonstrate a direct temporal imaging of the buildup dynamics of solitons.

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Sep 2020 • Nature Energy 5 (9), 646-656, 2020

Current status and future directions of multivalent metal-ion batteries

Yanliang Liang, Hui Dong, Doron Aurbach, Yan Yao

Batteries based on multivalent metals have the potential to meet the future needs of large-scale energy storage, due to the relatively high abundance of elements such as magnesium, calcium, aluminium and zinc in the Earth’s crust. However, the complexity of multivalent metal-ion chemistries has led to rampant confusions, technical challenges, and eventually doubts and uncertainties about the future of these technologies. In this Review, we clarify the key strengths as well as common misconceptions of multivalent metal-based batteries. We then examine the growth behaviour of metal anodes, which is crucial for their safety promises but hitherto unestablished. We further discuss scrutiny of anode efficiency and cathode storage mechanism pertaining to complications arising from electrolyte solutions. Finally, we critically review existing cathode materials and discuss design strategies to enable genuine multivalent …

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Sep 2020 • Drug Resistance Updates 52, 100704, 2020

Nanomedicine to target multidrug resistant tumors

Elise Lepeltier, Patricia Rijo, Flavio Rizzolio, Rachela Popovtzer, Vilma Petrikaite, Yehuda G Assaraf, Catherine Passirani

Nanomedicine employs nanotechnologies to develop innovative applications, and more specifically nano-objects in the field of human health, through exploitation of the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials at the nanoscale. The use of nanovehicles capable of transporting and releasing the active therapeutic payload into target cells, particularly in the case of cancer or inflammatory diseases, can also enhance diagnosis. Therefore, nanomedicines improve the benefit/risk ratio of drugs by increasing their bioavailability, selectivity, and efficacy in the target tissue, while reducing the necessary doses and hence diminishing untoward toxicity to healthy tissues. Overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) to antitumor agents is a central goal of cancer research and therapeutics, making it possible to treat these diseases more accurately and effectively. The adaptability of nanomedicines e.g. modulation of …

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Sep 2020 • Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

Selected future tasks in electrochemical research related to advanced power sources

David Malka, Netanel Shpigel, Ran Attias, Doron Aurbach

The purpose of this short paper is to outline important research tasks related to electrochemical power sources. In fact, we can mention four main avenues related to electrochemical science connected to energy challenges, ie energy harvesting by photovoltaic cells, hydrogen economy (hydrogen production by electrolysis, followed by its effective storage and use in fuel cells), the energy-water nexus which is related to capacitive interactions (including important topics such as capacitive deionisation and the field of supercapacitors and related devices) and electrochemical energy storage and conversion by batteries.

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