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Mar 2022 • Proc. of SPIE Vol

A magnetic modulation biosensing-based molecular assay for rapid and highly sensitive clinical diagnosis of COVID-19

Michael Margulis, Oran Erster, Shira Roth, Michal Mandelboim, Amos Danielli

The COVID-19 pandemic demands fast, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tools for virus surveillance and containment. Current methods for diagnosing the COVID-19 are based on direct detection of either viral antigens or viral ribonucleic acids (RNA) in swab samples. Antigen-targeting tests are simple, have fast turnaround times, and allow rapid testing. Unfortunately, compared with viral RNA-targeting tests, their sensitivity is low, especially during the initial stages of the disease, which limits their adoption and implementation. Direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reversetranscription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is sensitive and specific, making it a golden standard in SARS-CoV-2 detection. However, it had not seen a significant update since its introduction three decades ago. It has a long turnaround time, requires a high number of amplification cycles, and a complicated and …

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Mar 2022 • Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems XIV, PC1197902, 2022

Optical modulation biosensing platform for high sensitivity and high throughput detection of antigens and specific RNA sequences

Shmuel Burg, Shira Roth, Meir Cohen, Shira Avivi-Mintz, Michael Margulis, Amos Danielli

Detection of biomarkers at low concentrations is essential for early diagnosis of numerous diseases. In many sensitive assays, the target molecules are tagged using fluorescently labeled probes and captured using magnetic beads. Current devices rely on quantifying the target molecules by detecting the fluorescent signal from individual beads. Here, we demonstrate a high-throughput optical modulation biosensing (ht-OMB) system Using the ht-OMB system to detect human Interleukin-8, we demonstrated a limit of detection of 0.14 ng/L and a 4-log dynamic range, values which are on par with the most sensitive devices, but are achieved without their bulk and laborious protocols.

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Mar 2022 • Proc. of SPIE Vol

Identification of inhibitors for the S1-ACE2 interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 using magnetically modulated biosensors

Shira Roth, Amos Danielli, Michael Margulis

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease emphasized the need for fast and sensitive inhibitor screening tools for the identification of new drug candidates. In SARS-CoV-2, one of the initial steps in the infection cycle is the adherence of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein 1 (S1) to the host cell by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Therefore, inhibition of S1-ACE2 interaction may block the entry of the virus to the host cell, and thus may limit the spread of the virus in the body. We demonstrate a rapid and quantitative method for the detection and classification of different types of molecules as inhibitors or non-inhibitors of the S1-ACE2 interaction using magnetically modulated biosensors (MMB). In the MMB-based assay, magnetic beads are attached to the S1 protein and the ACE2 receptor is fluorescently labeled. Thus, only when the proteins interact, the fluorescent …

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Mar 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2203.17133

Reduced Material Loss in Thin-film Lithium Niobate Waveguides

Amirhassan Shams-Ansari, Guanhao Huang, Lingyan He, Zihan Li, Jeffrey Holzgrafe, Marc Jankowski, Mikhail Churaev, Prashanta Kharel, Rebecca Cheng, Di Zhu, Neil Sinclair, Boris Desiatov, Mian Zhang, Tobias J Kippenberg, Marko Loncar

Mar 2022 • International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23 (7), 3811, 2022

Behavioral Neuroscience in the Era of Genomics: Tools and Lessons for Analyzing High-Dimensional Datasets

Assa Bentzur, Shahar Alon, Galit Shohat-Ophir

Behavioral neuroscience underwent a technology-driven revolution with the emergence of machine-vision and machine-learning technologies. These technological advances facilitated the generation of high-resolution, high-throughput capture and analysis of complex behaviors. Therefore, behavioral neuroscience is becoming a data-rich field. While behavioral researchers use advanced computational tools to analyze the resulting datasets, the search for robust and standardized analysis tools is still ongoing. At the same time, the field of genomics exploded with a plethora of technologies which enabled the generation of massive datasets. This growth of genomics data drove the emergence of powerful computational approaches to analyze these data. Here, we discuss the composition of a large behavioral dataset, and the differences and similarities between behavioral and genomics data. We then give examples of genomics-related tools that might be of use for behavioral analysis and discuss concepts that might emerge when considering the two fields together.

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Mar 2022 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XIX …, 2022

Extracting the reduced scattering coefficient in different optical magnifications in the blue regime: theory and experiments

Channa Shapira, Inbar Yariv, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Imaging inside a turbid media is range limited. In contrast, sensing the medium’s optical properties is possible in larger depths using the iterative multi-plane optical properties extraction (IMOPE) technique. It analyzes the reemitted light phase image reconstructed from the iterative multi-plane Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm. The root mean square (RMS) of the phase yields two graphs with opposite behaviors, that cross each other in μ's,cp. The graphs enable the extraction of the reduced scattering coefficient, μs', of the measured tissue. The IMOPE was originally developed for illumination of red wavelength and for biological applications and was extended to the blue regime of the electromagnetic field, which is applicable for underwater research. In this work, we aim to extend the range of μs' detection by optical magnification. We use a modified diffusion theory and show how μ's,cp shifts with the varying …

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Mar 2022 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XIX …, 2022

Scattering detection in multi-layer tissue: phantom experiments and in vivo applications

Inbar Yariv, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Deep tissue imaging using visible light is challenging due to its turbid nature. Nevertheless, clinical information can be detected by sensing changes in the tissue’s optical properties with low spatial resolution. The most challenging aspect is the spectral dependent scattering, which varies with physiological state and tissue layer. In this paper, we present the multi-layer study of the reflection-based iterative multiplane optical property extraction (IMOPE) technique. The IMOPE is a noninvasive nanophotonics technique that detects medium scattering properties based on the reemitted light phase. The extracted scattering properties are used as indicators of the internal tissue information and the presence of additional nanoparticles (NPs) in it. The technique is a combination of a theoretical model, an experimental setup, and the phase retrieval Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. The IMOPE experimental setup records light …

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Mar 2022 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Effect of acoustic phonons on quantum criticality

Abhisek Samanta, Efrat Shimshoni, Daniel Podolsky

We study the fate of quantum criticality in a spin system coupled to gapless phonons. In one dimension, a recent study based on renormalization group (RG) analysis and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations reveals the possibility of the transition to remain second-order or driven to first-order, depending on the ratio of velocities of the spins and the phonons. Our goal is to understand how the coupling affects the transition in higher dimensions. We did a perturbative RG analysis of the Φ 4 theory coupled to acoustic phonons, using an ε expansion near (3+ 1) dimensions. Our analysis is supplemented by a Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the coupled system in two and three dimensions.

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Mar 2022 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Hidden magnetic memory and spontaneous superconducting vortices in alternating stacking compound 4Hb-TaS2

Eylon Persky, Anders Bjørlig, Irena Feldman, Avior Almoalem, Ehud Altman, Erez Berg, Itamar Kimchi, Jonathan Ruhman, Beena Kalisky

W61. 00009: Hidden magnetic memory and spontaneous superconducting vortices in alternating stacking compound 4Hb-TaS 2

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Mar 2022 • High Contrast Metastructures XI, PC120110S, 2022

CVD grown selenium spherical resonators for mid-infrared meta-optics

Danveer Singh, Tomer Lewi, Doron Naveh, Michal Poplinger

Efficient light manipulation at subwavelength scales in the mid-infrared (MIR) region is essential for various applications and can be harnessed from intrinsic low-loss dielectric resonators. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of truncated spherical selenium (Se) resonators with tunable high-quality (Q) factor Mie resonances. Large area amorphous Se subwavelength resonators of varying sizes were grown on different substrates, using a novel CVD process. We demonstrate size-tunable Mie resonances spanning the 2-16 µm range, for single isolated resonators and large area ensembles, respectively. We show strong tunable absorption resonances (90%) in ensembles of resonators in a significantly broad MIR range. Moreover, by coupling resonators to epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) substrates, we engineer high-Q resonances as high as Q=40. We also show the resonance pinning effect near the substrate ENZ value …

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Mar 2022 • Langmuir

Mussel-Inspired Polynorepinephrine/MXene-Based Magnetic Nanohybrid for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding in X-Band and Strain-Sensing Performance

Sayan Ganguly, Poushali Das, Arka Saha, Malachi Noked, Aharon Gedanken, Shlomo Margel

The current work delivers preparation of MXene-based magnetic nanohybrid coating for flexible electronic applications. Herein, we report carbon dot-triggered photopolymerized polynorepinepherene (PNE)-coated MXene and iron oxide hybrid deposited on the cellulose microporous membrane via a vacuum-assisted filtration strategy. The surface morphologies have been monitored by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and the coating thickness was evaluated by the gallium-ion-based focused ion beam method. Coated membranes have been tested against uniaxial tensile stretching and assessed by their fracture edges in order to assure flexibility and mechanical strength. Strain sensors and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding have both been tested on the material because of its electrical conductivity. The bending strain sensitivity has been stringent because of their fast ‘rupture and reform …

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Mar 2022 • High Contrast Metastructures XI, PC120110U, 2022

Chalcogenides for static and active meta-optics

Tomer Lewi, Danveer Singh, Sukanta Nandi, Shany Cohen, Pilkhaz Nanikashvili, Michal Poplinger, Doron Naveh

We present a study of various compositions of the chalcogenide family used for static and active metasurfaces. We start with large area CVD grown amorphous spherical Selenium nanoparticles on various substrates and show that their Mie-resonant response spans the entire mid-infrared (MIR) range. By coupling Se Mie-resonators to ENZ substrates we demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in quality factor. Next, we investigate topological insulators Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 metasurfaces. We study the optical constants of single crystal Bi2Te3 in the NIR to the MIR range, followed by fabrication and characterization of metasurface disk arrays. We show that these high permittivity metasurfaces can yield very large absorption resonances using deep subwavelength structures. Finally, we demonstrate ultra-wide dynamic tuning of PbTe meta-atoms and metasurfaces, utilizing the anomalously large thermo-optic …

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Mar 2022 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Electronic Tuning of 2D Materials with Zwitterionic and Functional Polymers

James Nicolas Pagaduan, Nicholas Hight-Huf, Yehiel Nagar, Avdhoot Datar, Doron Naveh, Michael Barnes, Ashwin Ramasubramaniam, Reika Katsumata, Todd Emrick

Functional polymers are increasingly recognized for their ability to engineer the electronic properties of 2D materials for device performance enhancement. Although dipole-rich polymer zwitterions have shown significant work function modulation of 2D materials, the contribution of zwitterion structure is not well understood. To this end, a series of zwitterionic sulfobetaine-based random copolymers with varying substituents has been prepared and applied as negative-tone resists on graphene, enabling evaluation of surface potential contrast. The influence of steric footprint on calculated dipole moment and resulting work function measured by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy will be presented. To assess the nature of graphene surface doping by polymer zwitterions, a sample geometry that permits direct access to either the polymer or graphene side is employed using a zwitterionic phosphorylcholine-based …

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Mar 2022 • Real-time Measurements, Rogue Phenomena, and Single-Shot Applications VII …, 2022

Nonlinear aberrations in time lenses

Hamootal Duadi, Moti Fridman

We study the aberrations of four-wave mixing-based time-lenses resulting from the cross-phase modulations of the pump wave. These temporal aberrations have no spatial equivalent and are important when imaging weak signals with strong pump waves.In this work we show that as the pump power increases the cross-phase modulations of the pump are responsible for shifting, defocusing, and imposing temporal coma aberrations on the image.

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Mar 2022 • European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry

Formation of Iron (III) Trimesate Xerogel by Ultrasonic Irradiation

Guido Ennas, Aharon Gedanken, Giada Mannias, Vijay B Kumar, Alessandra Scano, Ze'ev Porat, Martina Pilloni

Fe−BTC materials have attracted vast attention owing to their high chemical stability, adaptable synthesis, and potential applications. Herein, we describe, for the first time, the preparation of iron trimesate gels by ultrasonic (US) irradiation of an aqueous solution of Iron (III) nitrate and trimesic acid. Two different procedures were used: (1) sonication for 10 or 20 minutes, (2) 3 minutes sonication under controlled pH (pH 3–5). After drying, stable Fe−BTC xerogels were obtained from both procedures. The xerogels consisted of interconnected spherical nanoparticles with similar microstructure when analyzed by FT‐IR and PXRD and similar thermal behavior under oxygen in the range of 25–900 °C. When analyzed by Nitrogen adsorption‐desorption at 77 K, all samples showed a permanent porosity with a narrow micropore distribution below 10 Å. Different textural properties were found among samples obtained …

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Mar 2022 • Macromol 2 (1), 78-99, 2022

Antimicrobial Activities of Conducting Polymers and Their Composites

Moorthy Maruthapandi, Arumugam Saravanan, Akanksha Gupta, John HT Luong, Aharon Gedanken

Conducting polymers, mainly polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY) with positive charges bind to the negatively charged bacterial membrane to interfere with bacterial activities. After this initial electrostatic adherence, the conducting polymers might partially penetrate the bacterial membrane and interact with other intracellular biomolecules. Conducting polymers can form polymer composites with metal, metal oxides, and nanoscale carbon materials as a new class of antimicrobial agents with enhanced antimicrobial properties. The accumulation of elevated oxygen reactive species (ROS) from composites of polymers-metal nanoparticles has harmful effects and induces cell death. Among such ROS, the hydroxyl radical with one unpaired electron in the structure is most effective as it can oxidize any bacterial biomolecules, leading to cell death. Future endeavors should focus on the combination of conducting polymers and their composites with antibiotics, small peptides, and natural molecules with antimicrobial properties. Such arsenals with low cytotoxicity are expected to eradicate the ESKAPE pathogens: Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.

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Mar 2022 • ACS Applied Energy Materials

Bifunctional Pt–Ni Electrocatalyst Synthesis with Ultralow Platinum Seeds for Oxygen Evolution and Reduction in Alkaline Medium

Melina Zysler, Victor Shokhen, Samuel Spencer Hardisty, Anya Muzikansky, David Zitoun

Pt–Ni polyhedral nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively studied as electrocatalysts, mainly for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but they display a poor activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, ultralow platinum Pt@Ni@Pt core–bishell nanorods were designed (less than 1 wt % of Pt), synthesized, and characterized to yield bifunctional electrocatalysts with high efficiency toward ORR and OER in alkaline media. Ultralow platinum Pt@Ni@Pt core–bishell nanorods achieve an unprecedented (for a Pt-based catalyst) overpotential of 0.29 V at 10 mA cm–2 and current density of 162 mA μg–1Pt at 1.6 V (vs RHE) for the OER, while still maintaining a very decent value of 0.32 A mg–1Pt at 0.85 V for the ORR. These values outperform the standard Pt catalyst for the ORR and the Ni catalyst for the OER, using less than 1 wt % Pt. We describe the two-step synthesis of the Pt@Ni@Pt nanorods, demonstrating the …

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Mar 2022 • PLoS pathogens

Experimental evolution links post-transcriptional regulation to Leishmania fitness gain

Laura Piel, K Shanmugha Rajan, Giovanni Bussotti, Hugo Varet, Rachel Legendre, Caroline Proux, Thibaut Douché, Quentin Giai-Gianetto, Thibault Chaze, Thomas Cokelaer, Barbora Vojtkova, Nadav Gordon-Bar, Tirza Doniger, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Praveenkumar Rengaraj, Céline Besse, Anne Boland, Jovana Sadlova, Jean-François Deleuze, Mariette Matondo, Ron Unger, Petr Volf, Shulamit Michaeli, Pascale Pescher, Gerald F Späth

The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani causes fatal human visceral leishmaniasis in absence of treatment. Genome instability has been recognized as a driver in Leishmania fitness gain in response to environmental change or chemotherapy. How genome instability generates beneficial phenotypes despite potential deleterious gene dosage effects is unknown. Here we address this important open question applying experimental evolution and integrative systems approaches on parasites adapting to in vitro culture. Phenotypic analyses of parasites from early and late stages of culture adaptation revealed an important fitness tradeoff, with selection for accelerated growth in promastigote culture (fitness gain) impairing infectivity (fitness costs). Comparative genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics analyses revealed a complex regulatory network associated with parasite fitness gain, with genome instability causing highly reproducible, gene dosage-independent and -dependent changes. Reduction of flagellar transcripts and increase in coding and non-coding RNAs implicated in ribosomal biogenesis and protein translation were not correlated to dosage changes of the corresponding genes, revealing a gene dosage-independent, post-transcriptional mechanism of regulation. In contrast, abundance of gene products implicated in post-transcriptional regulation itself correlated to corresponding gene dosage changes. Thus, RNA abundance during parasite adaptation is controled by direct and indirect gene dosage changes. We correlated differential expression of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) with changes in rRNA modification …

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Mar 2022 • Journal of the American Chemical Society

Biogenic guanine crystals are solid solutions of guanine and other purine metabolites

Noam Pinsk, Avital Wagner, Lilian Cohen, Christopher JH Smalley, Colan E Hughes, Gan Zhang, Mariela J Pavan, Nicola Casati, Anne Jantschke, Gil Goobes, Kenneth DM Harris, Benjamin A Palmer

Highly reflective crystals of the nucleotide base guanine are widely distributed in animal coloration and visual systems. Organisms precisely control the morphology and organization of the crystals to optimize different optical effects, but little is known about how this is achieved. Here we examine a fundamental question that has remained unanswered after over 100 years of research on guanine: what are the crystals made of? Using solution-state and solid-state chemical techniques coupled with structural analysis by powder XRD and solid-state NMR, we compare the purine compositions and the structures of seven biogenic guanine crystals with different crystal morphologies, testing the hypothesis that intracrystalline dopants influence the crystal shape. We find that biogenic “guanine” crystals are not pure crystals but molecular alloys (aka solid solutions and mixed crystals) of guanine, hypoxanthine, and …

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Mar 2022 • Langmuir

Mussel-Inspired Polynorepinephrine/MXene-Based Magnetic Nanohybrid for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding in X-Band and Strain-Sensing Performance

Sayan Ganguly, Poushali Das, Arka Saha, Malachi Noked, Aharon Gedanken, Shlomo Margel

Mar 2022 • MDPI

Synthesis of Doped/Hybrid Carbon Dots and Their Biomedical Application

Vijay Bhooshan Kumar, Ze’ev Porat, Aharon Gedanken

Carbon dots (CDs) are a novel type of carbon-based nanomaterial that has gained considerable attention for their unique optical properties, including tunable fluorescence, stability against photobleaching and photoblinking, and strong fluorescence, which is attributed to a large number of organic functional groups (amino groups, hydroxyl, ketonic, ester, and carboxyl groups, etc.). In addition, they also demonstrate high stability and electron mobility. This article reviews the topic of doped CDs with organic and inorganic atoms and molecules. Such doping leads to their functionalization to obtain desired physical and chemical properties for biomedical applications. We have mainly highlighted modification techniques, including doping, polymer capping, surface functionalization, nanocomposite and core-shell structures, which are aimed at their applications to the biomedical field, such as bioimaging, bio-sensor applications, neuron tissue engineering, drug delivery and cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the key challenges to be addressed, the future directions of research, and the possibilities of a complete hybrid format of CD-based materials.

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