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Mar 2024 • Real-time Measurements, Rogue Phenomena, and Single-Shot Applications IX …, 2024

Multimode dispersive waves

Yuval Tamir, Moti Fridman

Lately, there has been a renewed attention to the study of multimode signals and their ultrafast interactions. One fascinating phenomenon in this field is known as nonlinear multimode dispersive waves. These waves are frequently observed and hold significant applications across diverse physical systems. While the single-mode case of these waves has been widely researched, the multimode scenario remains relatively unexplored. Understanding and studying nonlinear multimode dispersive waves holds great significance in predicting and analyzing wave phenomena within many systems. In our lab, we developed multimode time lens, which can measure the temporal and spatial dynamics of signals inside multimode fibers. We study the interactions of multimode dispersive waves, in both frequency and time domain. We use the multimode time lens we developed to image and analyze the temporal dynamics …

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Mar 2024 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Measurement induced phase transition with an extended log-law phase in an integrability-broken transverse field Ising model

Monalisa Singh Roy, Jonathan Ruhman, Emanuele Dalla Torre, Efrat Shimshoni

B31. 00011: Measurement induced phase transition with an extended log-law phase in an integrability-broken transverse field Ising model

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Mar 2024 • Circulation

Small Extracellular Vesicles From Infarcted and Failing Heart Accelerate Tumor Growth

Tal Caller, Itai Rotem, Olga Shaihov-Teper, Daria Lendengolts, Yeshai Schary, Ruty Shai, Efrat Glick-Saar, Dan Dominissini, Menachem Motiei, Idan Katzir, Rachela Popovtzer, Merav Nahmoud, Alex Boomgarden, Crislyn D’Souza-Schorey, Nili Naftali-Shani, Jonathan Leor

BACKGROUND Myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. However, the mechanism is complex and unclear. Here, we aimed to test our hypothesis that cardiac small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), particularly cardiac mesenchymal stromal cell–derived sEVs (cMSC-sEVs), contribute to the link between post-MI left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) and cancer. METHODS We purified and characterized sEVs from post-MI hearts and cultured cMSCs. Then, we analyzed cMSC-EV cargo and proneoplastic effects on several lines of cancer cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Next, we modeled heterotopic and orthotopic lung and breast cancer tumors in mice with post-MI LVD. We transferred cMSC-sEVs to assess sEV biodistribution and its effect on tumor growth. Finally, we tested the effects of sEV depletion and spironolactone treatment on cMSC-EV release …

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Mar 2024 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XXI …, 2024

Synthesis and characterization of antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles for biological applications

Adi Anaki, Tamar Sadan, Menachem Motiei, Rachela Popovtzer

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have garnered significant attention in biomedical applications, particularly as versatile platforms for drug delivery and targeted therapy. The conjugation of GNPs with antibodies offers a promising strategy to enhance their specificity and efficacy in various therapeutic approaches. In this study, we focus on synthesizing different types of GNPs conjugated with antibodies and investigate the influence of various synthesis methods on nanoparticle characterization. The results demonstrated that different synthesis methods lead to different degrees of antibody conjugation on the GNP surface and to varied efficiency on biosystems. This work has the potential to outline design principles that could positively affect the development of targeted nanotherapeutics for various biomedical applications.

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Mar 2024 • Phytobiomes Journal

Persistence and microbiome modification in Rhizoctonia solani inoculated rhizosphere following amendment of a Bacillus biocontrol agent

Maya Moshe, Omer Frenkel, Noa Sela, Chagai Davidovich, Hildah Amutuhaire, Ehud Banin, Eddie Cytryn

Background Bacterial biocontrol agents that antagonize soilborne pathogens are increasingly considered as alternatives to chemical pesticides, but their in-vivo efficacy is often inconsistent, restricting commercial use. The efficacy of a biocontrol agent can depend on rhizosphere competence and its interaction with native microbiomes, which can effect ecosystem functioning. This study investigated the capacity of a Bacillus cereus sensu lato (Bcsl) biocontrol strain (S-25) to persist on roots and in the rhizosphere of cucumber, and evaluated its impact on bacterial and fungal community composition in the rhizosphere, in the absence and presence of Rhizoctonia solani, the causative agent of damping-off disease in young seedlings. Results Following amendment, S-25 abundance in the cucumber rhizosphere decreased by two orders of magnitude, but remained relatively high for the duration of the experiment, in …

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Mar 2024 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XXI …, 2024

Self-calibrated biosensor for measuring multiple physiological parameters

Michal Katan, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Nanophotonic techniques for diagnosis of a physiological tissue state are useful due to their noninvasive nature. Yet, light reflectance from a tissue is determined by the medium optical properties, absorption and scattering. Therefore, evaluating physiological parameters that correlate with absorption exclusively requires calibration of the scattering. While finding pulse rate is possible in a single wavelength, other parameters, such as oxygen saturation, require more than one light source and ratiometric measurements. As a result, the differences in the optical pathlength of the different wavelengths produce an inherent error. We have previously discovered the iso-path length (IPL) point, a specific position around a cylindrical media where the light intensity is not affected by the scattering. It was found by measuring the full scattering profile (FSP), meaning the angular distribution of light intensity of cylindrical tissues …

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Mar 2024 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XXI …, 2024

Endoscope-based scattering measurements of esophagus phantoms

Natanel Ovadia Sr, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

In today's medical world, endoscopy is one of the most common methods for assessing a patient's health status, yet in most cases, endoscopy is not sufficient and usually requires other examinations as well. It is widely known that healthy, and diseased tissues possess different optical properties like scattering and absorption. By finding the changes in those optical properties it's possible to determine the tissue status by endoscopy only. This poster suggests an alternative self-calibrated endoscopy examination for finding these properties and quantitatively assessing the tissue. Implementing the physical phenomenon called the iso pathlength (IPL) point, makes it possible to extract the tissue absorption property since it simplifies the problem into an easily solvable first-order problem. The phenomenon claims the existence of physical positions on the surface tissue, in which the light reflected from, isn't affected by the …

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Mar 2024 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Specific Removal and Recovery of Bromide Ions: The Search for Stable Electrodes and Operation Modes

Izaak Cohen, Barak Shapira, Alexey Shopin, Yuval Elias, Eran Avraham, Doron Aurbach

In previous work, we introduced an elegant approach for bromide recovery from water by the introduction of a hybrid physical adsorption and capacitive deionization processes for selective removal and recovery of boron from water. In this paper, we show that the harsh environment of water contaminated with bromine-moieties adversely affects the longevity of relevant electrodes, with close to 100 consecutive work hours of bromides removal without noticeable degradation. To extend the lifespan of electrodes, we used an asymmetric CDI cell with a 1:5 positive/negative electrodes ratio in which a polarity switch between electrodes is applied every six adsorption-desorption cycles in a way that in each adsorption-desorption cycle, a different electrode of the six electrodes, functions as the positive electrode. We deduce that the polarity switch reduces oxidation and subsequent degradation of the positive electrodes …

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Mar 2024 • ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering

Inhibiting Vertical Zinc Growth Using Low-Cost Composite Membranes

Nophar Tubul, Noam Levi, Gil Bergman, Amey Nimkar, Masato Sonoo, Noa Lulu-Bitton, Shlomo Haroush, Yaniv Gelbstein, Daniel Sharon, Netanel Shpigel, Doron Aurbach

Vertical growth of Zn crystals is widely recognized as a primary factor responsible for the premature failure of aqueous Zn batteries. These vertically aligned sharp-tipped Zn plates can easily pierce the separator, propagating toward the cathode side, and short-circuit the cell. While inhibition of this phenomenon may be achieved by electrolyte engineering or manipulation of the anode’s interface, we propose herein an effective suppression of vertical Zn growth by replacing the conventional separators with highly affordable commercially available printing paper. Based on electrochemical and structural studies followed by small punch measurements, we found that these papers comprise nanometric rigid ceramic particles that act as a physical barrier for the growth of Zn plates, preventing their penetration through the paper-based separator. As a result, the examined cells demonstrate excellent long-term performance …

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Mar 2024 • Biosensors

A Self-Calibrated Single Wavelength Biosensor for Measuring Oxygen Saturation

Michal Katan, Ori Pearl, Alon Tzroya, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Traditional methods for measuring blood oxygen use multiple wavelengths, which produce an intrinsic error due to ratiometric measurements. These methods assume that the absorption changes with the wavelength, but in fact the scattering changes as well and cannot be neglected. We found that if one measures in a specific angle around a cylindrical tissue, called the iso-pathlength (IPL) point, the reemitted light intensity is unaffected by the tissue’s scattering. Therefore, the absorption can be isolated from the scattering, which allows the extraction of the subject’s oxygen saturation. In this work, we designed an optical biosensor for reading the light intensity reemitted from the tissue, using a single light source and multiple photodetectors (PDs), with one of them in the IPL point’s location. Using this bio-device, we developed a methodology to extract the arterial oxygen saturation using a single wavelength light source. We proved this method is not dependent on the light source and is applicable to different measurement locations on the body, with an error of 0.5%. Moreover, we tested thirty-eight males and females with the biosensor under normal conditions. Finally, we show the results of measuring subjects in a hypoxic chamber that simulates extreme conditions with low oxygen.

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Mar 2024 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XXI …, 2024

An improved diffusion model of fluorescence attenuated by a thick scattering medium

Yitzchak Weber, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Fluorescence-based imaging is a powerful tool for studying biological systems, but its application in vivo is hindered by tissue scattering and autofluorescence. To enhance the usefulness of non-invasive in vivo fluorescence imaging, a comprehensive understanding of these factors is crucial. This presentation introduces a diffusion model that represents a fluorophore within tissue, verified using Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements with tissue-like phantom slabs of varying reduced scattering coefficients and thicknesses. The study reveals a correlation between fluorescence intensity (FI) and thickness, confirming the expected decay. Surprisingly, the exponential decay rate decreases with increasing scattering coefficient, contradicting intuition. This counterintuitive finding suggests that highly scattering media result in weaker FI decay dependence on tissue depth, reducing fluorescence artifacts …

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Mar 2024 • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

Chiral Molecular Coating of a LiNiCoMnO2 Cathode for High-Rate Capability Lithium-Ion Batteries

Nir Yuran, Bagavathi Muniyandi, Arka Saha, Shira Yochelis, Daniel Sharon, Yossi Paltiel, Malachi Noked

The growing demand for energy has increased the need for battery storage, with lithium-ion batteries being widely used. Among those, nickel-rich layered lithium transition metal oxides [LiNi1–x–yCoxMnyO2 NCM (1 – x – y > 0.5)] are some of the promising cathode materials due to their high specific capacities and working voltages. In this study, we demonstrate that a thin, simple coating of polyalanine chiral molecules improves the performance of Ni-rich cathodes. The chiral organic coating of the active material enhances the discharge capacity and rate capability. Specifically, NCM811 and NCM622 electrodes coated with chiral molecules exhibit lower voltage hysteresis and better rate performance, with a capacity improvement of >10% at a 4 C discharge rate and an average improvement of 6%. We relate these results to the chirally induced spin selectivity effect that enables us to reduce the resistance of the …

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Mar 2024 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2403.03050

Microscopic origin of abrupt transition in interdependent superconducting networks

Bnaya Gross, Irina Volotsenko, Ivan Bonamassa, Shlomo Havlin, Aviad Frydman

The paradigm of interdependent networks has recently been manifested in experimentally testable lab setup of interdependent superconducting networks. This system experiences an abrupt transition due to the thermal dissipation between the networks but its underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we study the critical behavior and the underlying mechanism of the transition, unveiling its unique microscopic nature. The microscopic characteristics of the transition result in a macroscopic long-living plateau that lasts for thousands of seconds and increases with the size of the system. We characterize the critical behavior of the transition and find that the critical exponents are consistent with those predicted theoretically for percolation of abstract interdependent networks and interdependent ferromagnetic networks, supporting a common universal origin of interdependent systems.

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Mar 2024 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Light chaotic dynamics and ray engineering transformed from curved to flat space

Chenni Xu, Itzhack Dana, Li-Gang Wang, Patrick Sebbah

G54. 00011: Light chaotic dynamics and ray engineering transformed from curved to flat space

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Mar 2024 • Nucleic Acids Research

Two redundant transcription factor binding sites in a single enhancer are essential for mammalian sex determination

Meshi Ridnik, Elisheva Abberbock, Veronica Alipov, Shelly Ziv Lhermann, Shoham Kaufman, Maor Lubman, Francis Poulat, Nitzan Gonen

Male development in mammals depends on the activity of the two SOX gene: Sry and Sox9, in the embryonic testis. As deletion of Enhancer 13 (Enh13) of the Sox9 gene results in XY male-to-female sex reversal, we explored the critical elements necessary for its function and hence, for testis and male development. Here, we demonstrate that while microdeletions of individual transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in Enh13 lead to normal testicular development, combined microdeletions of just two SRY/SOX binding motifs can alone fully abolish Enh13 activity leading to XY male-to-female sex reversal. This suggests that for proper male development to occur, these few nucleotides of non-coding DNA must be intact. Interestingly, we show that depending on the nature of these TFBS mutations, dramatically different phenotypic outcomes can occur, providing a molecular explanation for the distinct clinical …

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Mar 2024 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Observation of photon sphere modes in black hole microcavity laser

Chenni Xu, Aswathy Sundaresan, Dominique Decanini, Hugo Girin, Clement Lafargue, Ligang Wang, Melanie Lebental, Patrick Sebbah

One of interesting phenomena of a black hole (BH) in its vicinity due to its extreme curvature of spacetime is called a photon sphere (PS), a closed trajectory where photons get trapped and orbit. In this work, we design novel 3D microcavities and investigate lasing on modes localized on a PS, induced by attractive nature of BH. We explore these eigenmodes by conformally transforming a Schwarzschild BH metric into a 2D plane with varying refractive index. We analytically confirm the existence of PS modes by extending our previous theory of conformal transformations [PNAS 119, e2112052119 (2022)] into open systems, and solving the wave equation under a WKB framework. To numerically induce lasing of PS modes, we selectively pump the 2D cavity above the vicinity of the PS. The lasing process is revealed by a 3D finite-difference time-domain simulation coupled to the atomic population of a four-level …

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Mar 2024 • High Contrast Metastructures XIII, PC1289711, 2024

Extreme metaphotonics with ultra high-index chalcogenide topological insulators

Tomer Lewi

In nanophotonic, small mode volumes, narrow resonance linewidths and field enhancements, fundamentally scales with refractive index values and are key for many implementations involving light-matter interactions. Topological insulators (TI) are a class of insulating materials that host topologically protected surface states, some of which exhibit very high permittivity values. In this talk, I will present my group’s latest results on chalcogenide metaphotonics. I start by discussing Chalcogenide Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 TIs nanostructures. Using polarized far-field and near field Nanospectroscopy we reveal that Bi2Se3 nanobeams exhibit mid-infrared resonant modes with 2π phase shifts across the resonance. We further demonstrate that Bi2Te3 metasurfaces exhibit deep-subwavelength resonant modes utilizing their record high index value peaking at n~11. Finally we discuss how the anomalous thermo-optic effect in …

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Feb 2024 • Biophysical Journal

Disentangling conformational and photophysical dynamics in single-molecule FRET and PIFE experiments with multiparameter photon-by-photon hidden Markov modeling

Paul D Harris, Eitan Lerner, Alessandra Narducci, Christian Gebhardt, Shimon Weiss, Thorben Cordes

Conformational dynamics of individual biomolecules have been reported using confocal-based single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy on timescale from nanoseconds to seconds. The data, a list of photon arrival times and detector IDs, can contain several distinct parameters observed simultaneously, such as FRET ratio, polarization ratio, and fluorescence lifetime. Identifying dynamics reflecting conformational changes in this data, however, can be difficult, especially when the dynamics are faster than the few milliseconds it takes for a single molecule to traverse the confocal excitation volume. We demonstrate an extension to the previously developed photon-by-photon hidden Markov modeling (H 2 MM) multi-parameter H 2 MM (mpH 2 MM) as a general and efficient method for extracting fast dynamics from both FRET and PIFE based studies. We demonstrate that H 2 MM can accept number of photon types …

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Feb 2024 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2402.13733

Laplace's first law of errors applied to diffusive motion

Omer Hamdi, Stanislav Burov, Eli Barkai

In biological, glassy, and active systems, various tracers exhibit Laplace-like, i.e., exponential, spreading of the diffusing packet of particles. The limitations of the central limit theorem in fully capturing the behaviors of such diffusive processes, especially in the tails, have been studied using the continuous time random walk model. For cases when the jump length distribution is super-exponential, e.g., a Gaussian, we use large deviations theory and relate it to the appearance of exponential tails. When the jump length distribution is sub-exponential the packet of spreading particles is described by the big jump principle. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach for finite time, indicating that rare events and the asymptotics of the large deviations rate function can be sampled for large length scales within a reasonably short measurement time.

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Feb 2024 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Superparamagnetic Amine-Functionalized Maghemite Nanoparticles as a Thixotropy Promoter for Hydrogels and Magnetic Field-Driven Diffusion-Controlled Drug Release

Sayan Ganguly, Poushali Das, Seshasai Srinivasan, Amin Reza Rajabzadeh, Xiaowu Shirley Tang, Shlomo Margel

Superparamagnetic nanoparticle-arrested hydrogel matrices have immense significance in smart soft biomaterials. Herein, we report the synthesis of superparamagnetic nanoparticle-loaded magneto-responsive tough elastomeric hydrogels for dual-responsive drug delivery. In the first phase of work, we carried out room-temperature synthesis of amine-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), and in the second phase of work, we demonstrated that IONPs could act as a toughening agent as well as a viscosity modifier for poly(acrylic acid-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) copolymer hydrogels. The hydrogel was tested by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and continuous-wave-electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR). Moreover, the IONPs affect its gelation time and elasticity significantly, which was also evaluated from its …

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Feb 2024 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Protective Al2O3 Thin Film Coating by ALD to Enhance the Anodic Stability of Metallic Current Collectors in Ethereal Mg Electrolyte Solutions

Ananya Maddegalla, Yogendra Kumar, Sri Harsha Akella, Sarah Taragin, Dmitry Brav-Zhivotovksii, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Doron Aurbach, Malachi Noked

Organometallic complex-based magnesium electrolytes in ethereal solutions have been extensively studied in the context of rechargeable magnesium batteries (RMBs) due to their ability to facilitate highly reversible magnesium deposition while demonstrating wide enough electrochemical stability windows. However, these solutions containing a unique mixture of organo-halo aluminate complexes have a detrimental effect on the anodic stability of metallic current collectors for cathodes, like Ni and Al foils. We were able to synthesize and isolate Mg2Cl3(THF)6Ph2AlCl2/THF electrolyte as the sole electroactive species using simple precursors: Ph2AlCl and MgCl2 in THF, via atom efficient mono-chloro abstraction Schlenk technique. We characterized the anodic stability of Ni, Ni@C, Al, and Al@C current collectors by monitoring their electrochemical behavior. Additionally, we investigated the anodic stability …

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