2839 articles

72 publishers

Join mailing list

2022 • Proc. of SPIE Vol

Characterization of second-harmonic generation in silver nanoparticles for spontaneous parametric down-conversion

Ariel Ashkenazy, Eliahu Cohen, Dror Fixler

Energy-time entangled photon pairs (EPPs), which are at the heart of numerous quantum light applications, are commonly generated in nonlinear crystals. Some highly sensitive quantum applications require the use of ultra-broadband entangled photons that cannot be generated in nonlinear crystals due to phase-matching requirements. Here, we investigate the possibility of using metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a means for generating entangled photons through spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). MNPs are known for their strong light-matter coupling at their localized surfaceplasmon resonance, and since the propagation length through them is negligible relative to optical wavelengths, we consider them as excellent candidates to serve as non-phase matched sources of ultra-broadband entangled photons.To that end, we report experimental results of classical-light second-harmonic generation …

Show more

2022 • Proc. of SPIE Vol

Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XIX

Dror Fixler, Ewa M Goldys, Sebastian Wachsmann-Hogiu

Paper Numbering: A unique citation identifier (CID) number is assigned to each article in the Proceedings of SPIE at the time of publication. Utilization of CIDs allows articles to be fully citable as soon as they are published online, and connects the same identifier to all online and print versions of the publication. SPIE uses a seven-digit CID article numbering system structured as follows:▪ The first five digits correspond to the SPIE volume number.▪ The last two digits indicate publication order within the volume using a Base 36 numbering system employing both numerals and letters. These two-number sets start with 00, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, 0A, 0B… 0Z, followed by 10-1Z, 20-2Z, etc. The CID Number appears on each page of the manuscript.

Show more

2022 • Sci Adv. 2022 Jun 17; 8 (24): eabn2706

A long noncoding RNA promotes parasite differentiation in African trypanosomes

Fabien Guegan, K Shanmugha Rajan, Fábio Bento, Daniel Pinto-Neves, Mariana Sequeira, Natalia Gumińska, Seweryn Mroczek, Andrzej Dziembowski, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Tirza Doniger, Beathrice Galili, Antonio M Estévez, Cedric Notredame, Shulamit Michaeli, Luisa M Figueiredo

The parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes African sleeping sickness that is fatal to patients if untreated. Parasite differentiation from a replicative slender form into a quiescent stumpy form promotes host survival and parasite transmission. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate cell differentiation in other eukaryotes. To determine whether lncRNAs are also involved in parasite differentiation, we used RNA sequencing to survey the T. brucei genome, identifying 1428 previously uncharacterized lncRNA genes. We find that grumpy lncRNA is a key regulator that promotes parasite differentiation into the quiescent stumpy form. This function is promoted by a small nucleolar RNA encoded within the grumpy lncRNA. snoGRUMPY binds to messenger RNAs of at least two stumpy regulatory genes, promoting their expression. grumpy overexpression reduces parasitemia in infected mice. Our analyses suggest that T. brucei lncRNAs modulate parasite-host interactions and provide a mechanism by which grumpy regulates cell differentiation in trypanosomes.

Show more

2022 • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

The effects of thermal treatment and irradiation on the chemical properties of natural diamonds

Ira Litvak, Haim Cohen, Sharon Ruthstein, Yaakov Anker, Avner Cahana

The modification of nitrogen-contaminated diamonds into color-enhanced diamonds is usually achieved by irradiation and thermal treatment (annealing). These treatments affect nitrogen contamination chemical bonding, vacancy concentration, and atom orientation centers in the diamond lattice. In this study, natural diamonds were subjected to irradiation and thermal annealing color enhancement treatments to produce green, blue, and yellow fancy diamonds. The study followed the changes that occur during treatment relying on visual assessment, fluorescence, UV-vis, FTIR, and EPR spectroscopy to characterize paramagnetic centers. The results indicated that diamonds containing high levels of nitrogen contamination presented a relatively high carbon-centered radical concentration. Two paramagnetic groups with different g-values were found, namely, low g-value centers of 2.0017-2.0027 and high g-value …

Show more

2022 • s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published …, 2022

Phosphate-Trapping Liposomes for Long-Term Management of Hyperphosphatemia. Materials 2022, 15, 7779

C Tzror-Azankot, A Anaki, T Sadan, M Motiei, R Popovtzer

Hyperphosphatemia is a typical complication of end-stage renal disease, characterized by elevated and life-threatening serum phosphate levels. Hemodialysis does not enable sufficient clearance of phosphate, due to slow cell-to-plasma kinetics of phosphate ions; moreover, dietary restrictions and conventional treatment with oral phosphate binders have low success rates, together with adverse effects. Here, we developed a new concept of phosphate-trapping liposomes, to improve and prolong the control over serum phosphate levels. We designed liposomes modified with polyethylene glycol and encapsulated with the phosphate binder ferric citrate (FC liposomes). These liposomes were found to trap phosphate ions in their inner core, and thereby lower free phosphate ion concentrations in solution and in serum. The FC liposomes showed higher phosphate binding ability as phosphate concentrations increased. Moreover, these liposomes showed a time-dependent increase in uptake of phosphate, up to 25 h in serum. Thus, our findings demonstrate effective long-term phosphate trapping by FC liposomes, indicating their potential to reduce serum phosphate toxicity and improve current management of hyperphosphatemia.

Show more

2022 • Advanced Photonics Research

Coupled Molecular Emitters in Superstructures Interact with Plasmonic Nanoparticles

Daniel Beitner, Itai Carmeli, Zeev Zalevsky, Shachar Richter, Haim Suchowski

Using hyperspectral measurements, J‐aggregate nanorods of porphyrin molecules embedded in plasmonic Au nanoparticles arrays are studied. Measurements of J‐aggregate nanorods that cross onto a plasmonic array exhibit a shift in their absorption peak, and display weak coupling properties only for the embedded part. Furthermore, a significant thickness‐dependent redshift in the plasmonic resonance for the J‐aggregate clusters is observed. Such redshift is also dependent on the ratio of J‐aggregate in the plasmonic dipole interaction area, reaching values of up to 120 meV for ≈40% coverage. In addition, for large clusters of J‐aggregates, the plasmonic spectrum shows coupling behavior between the systems indicated by a small Rabi splitting. The findings are validated by a quasi‐static model based on the change of the dielectric environment around the embedded nanoparticles. Using the model, the …

Show more

2022 • Advanced Functional Materials

Sulfur‐Treatment Passivates Bulk Defects in Sb2Se3 Photocathodes for Water Splitting

Rajiv Ramanujam Prabhakar, Thomas Moehl, Dennis Friedrich, Marinus Kunst, Sudhanshu Shukla, Damilola Adeleye, Vinayaka H Damle, Sebastian Siol, Wei Cui, Laxman Gouda, Jihye Suh, Yaakov R Tischler, Roel van de Krol, S David Tilley

Sb2Se3 has emerged as an important photoelectrochemical (PEC) and photovoltaic (PV) material due to its rapid rise in photoconversion efficiencies. However, Sb2Se3 has a complex defect chemistry, which reduces the maximum photovoltage. Thus, it is important to understand these defects and develop defect passivation strategies in Sb2Se3. A comprehensive investigation of the charge carrier dynamics of Sb2Se3 and the influence of sulfur treatment on its optoelectronic properties is performed using time‐resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and low‐frequency Raman spectroscopy (LFR). The key finding in this work is that upon sulfur treatment of Sb2Se3, the carrier lifetime is increased by the passivation of deep defects in Sb2Se3 in both the surface region and the bulk, which is evidenced by increased charge carrier lifetime of TRMC decay dynamics, increased …

Show more

2022 • Chemical Science

Cu (II)-based DNA Labeling Identifies the Structural Link Between Activation and Termination in a Metalloregulator

Joshua Casto, Alysia Mandato, Lukas Hofmann, Idan Yakobov, Shreya Ghosh, Sharon Ruthstein, Sunil Saxena

Understanding the structural and mechanistic details of protein-DNA interactions that lead to cellular defence against toxic metal ions in pathogenic bacteria can lead to new ways of combating their virulence. Herein, we examine the Copper Efflux Regulator (CueR) protein, a transcription factor which interacts with DNA to generate proteins that ameliorate excess free Cu(I). We exploit site directed Cu(II) labeling to measure the conformational changes in DNA as a function of protein and Cu(I) concentration. Unexpectedly, the EPR data indicates that the protein can bend the DNA at high protein concentrations even in the Cu(I)-free state. On the other hand, the bent state of the DNA is accessed at a low protein concentration in the presence of Cu(I). Such bending enables the coordination of the DNA with RNA polymerase. Taken together, the results lead to a structural understanding of how transcription is activated in …

Show more

2022 • Advanced Photonics Research

Nanoscopy of Aluminum Plasmonic Cavities by Cathodoluminescence and Second Harmonic Generation

Tchiya Zar, Racheli Ron, Omer Shavit, Alon Krause, David Gachet, Adi Salomon

Herein, centrosymmetric aluminum plasmonic structures composed of triangular cavities are studied and their long‐range coupling by cathodoluminescence nanoscopy are visualized. Four different plasmonic structures containing the same subunit are studied. The plasmonic modes of the individual triangular subunits are localized at the triangle sides rather than at the vertices, in agreement with other studies. Yet, upon strong interaction between the cavities, a redistribution of the electromagnetic field is observed such that it delocalizes around the cavities in the form of a contour, providing a mode enhancement and a pronounced nonlinear response as observed by second harmonic generation. Comparison between plasmonic structures made of either silver or aluminum reveals that the metal dielectric function plays an important role in the interaction between the cavities. This work provides a rationale for …

Show more

2022 • Soft Matter

Network model of active elastic shells swollen by hydrostatic pressure

Ajoy Maji, Yitzhak Rabin

Many organisms have an elastic skeleton that consists of a closed shell of epithelial cells that is filled with fluid, and can actively regulate both elastic forces in the shell and hydrostatic pressure inside it. In this work we introduce a simple network model of such pressure-stabilized active elastic shells in which cross-links are represented by material points connected by non-linear springs of some given equilibrium lengths and spring constants. We mimic active contractile forces in the system by changing the parameters of randomly chosen springs and use computer simulations to study the resulting local and global deformation dynamics of the network. We elucidate the statistical properties of these deformations by computing the corresponding distributions and correlation functions. We show that pressure-induced stretching of the network introduces coupling between its local and global behavior: while the network …

Show more


Specific Susceptibility to COVID-19 in Adults with Down Syndrome (Mar, 10.1007/s12017-021-08651-5, 2021)

Tomer Illouz, Arya Biragyn, Milana Frenkel-Morgenstern, Orly Weissberg, Alessandro Gorohovski, Eugene Merzon, Ilan Green, Florencia Iulita, Lisi Flores-Aguilar, Mara Dierssen, Ilario De Toma, Hefziba Lifshitz, Stylianos E Antonarakis, Eugene Yu, Yann Herault, Marie-Claude Potier, Alexandra Botte, Randall Roper, Benjamin Sredni, Ronit Sarid, Jacqueline London, William Mobley, Andre Strydom, Eitan Okun

Dec 2021 • Optics

Analysis of Decoherence in Linear and Cyclic Quantum Walks

Mahesh N Jayakody, Asiri Nanayakkara, Eliahu Cohen

We theoretically analyze the case of noisy Quantum walks (QWs) by introducing four qubit decoherence models into the coin degree of freedom of linear and cyclic QWs. These models include flipping channels (bit flip, phase flip and bit-phase flip), depolarizing channel, phase damping channel and generalized amplitude damping channel. Explicit expressions for the probability distribution of QWs on a line and on a cyclic path are derived under localized and delocalized initial states. We show that QWs which begin from a delocalized state generate mixture probability distributions, which could give rise to useful algorithmic applications related to data encoding schemes. Specifically, we show how the combination of delocalzed initial states and decoherence can be used for computing the binomial transform of a given set of numbers. However, the sensitivity of QWs to noisy environments may negatively affect various other applications based on QWs.

Show more

Dec 2021 • OSA Continuum

Usage of fiber optics as an underground deployable radon gas detector

Yehuda Rodal, Amir Shemer, Ariel Schwarz, Nisan Ozana, Hovav Zafrir, Zeev Zalevsky

Radon gas was previously presented to be a good tool as a proxy for pre-seismic precursory before earthquakes, especially when the detector is deployed a few meters underground in regions of high seismic activity. In this paper, we present a fiber optic-based detector that can be deployed underground and assist in the measurement of radon gas temporal concentration variations. The sensitivity of the fiber-based sensor is enhanced due to Fabry-Perot resonator realized within the fiber. The sensing principle is related to the impact of the alpha particles released from the surrounding radon gas on the optical transmission parameters of the fiber. By incorporation of WDM filters along the fiber sensor, the dispersion of the radon's radiation damage along the deployed fiber can be allocated.

Show more

Dec 2021 • The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics

A magnetic modulation biosensing-based molecular assay for rapid and highly sensitive clinical diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Michael Margulis, Oran Erster, Shira Roth, Michal Mandelboim, Amos Danielli

Rapid and sensitive detection of human pathogens, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an urgent and challenging task for clinical laboratories. Currently, the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2–specific RNA is based on quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), which relies on target amplification by Taq polymerase and uses a fluorescent resonance energy transfer–based hydrolysis probe. Although this method is accurate and specific, it is also time consuming. Here, a new molecular assay is described that combines a highly sensitive magnetic modulation biosensing (MMB) system, rapid thermal cycling, and a modified double-quenched hydrolysis probe. In vitro transcribed SARS-CoV-2 RNA targets spiked in PCR-grade water, were used to show that the calculated limit of detection of the MMB-based molecular assay was 1.6 copies per reaction. Testing 309 RNA extracts from …

Show more

Dec 2021 • Magnetochemistry 8 (1), 3, 2021

The advantages of EPR spectroscopy in exploring diamagnetic metal ion binding and transfer mechanisms in biological systems

Shelly Meron, Yulia Shenberger, Sharon Ruthstein

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has emerged as an ideal biophysical tool to study complex biological processes. EPR spectroscopy can follow minor conformational changes in various proteins as a function of ligand or protein binding or interactions with high resolution and sensitivity. Resolving cellular mechanisms, involving small ligand binding or metal ion transfer, is not trivial and cannot be studied using conventional biophysical tools. In recent years, our group has been using EPR spectroscopy to study the mechanism underlying copper ion transfer in eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems. This mini-review focuses on our achievements following copper metal coordination in the diamagnetic oxidation state, Cu(I), between biomolecules. We discuss the conformational changes induced in proteins upon Cu(I) binding, as well as the conformational changes induced in two proteins involved in Cu(I) transfer. We also consider how EPR spectroscopy, together with other biophysical and computational tools, can identify the Cu(I)-binding sites. This work describes the advantages of EPR spectroscopy for studying biological processes that involve small ligand binding and transfer between intracellular proteins.

Show more

Dec 2021 • Biotechnology Advances 53, 107843, 2021

Microbial inhibition and biosensing with multifunctional carbon dots: Progress and perspectives

Moorthy Maruthapandi, Arumugam Saravanan, Poushali Das, John HT Luong, Aharon Gedanken

Carbon dots (CDs) and their doped counterparts including nitrogen-doped CDs (N@CDs) have been synthesized by bottom-up or top-down approaches from different precursors. The attractiveness of such emerging 2D‑carbon-based nanosized materials is attributed to their excellent biocompatibility, preparation, aqueous dispersibility, and functionality. The antimicrobial, optical, and electrochemical properties of CDs have been advocated for two important biotechnological applications: bacterial eradication and sensing/biosensing. CDs as well as N@CDs act as antimicrobial agents as their surfaces encompass functional hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino groups that generate free radicals. As a new class of photoluminescent nanomaterials, CDs can be employed in diversified analytics. CDs with surface carboxyl or amino groups form nanocomposites with nanomaterials or be conjugated with biorecognition …

Show more

Dec 2021 • Small

Interfacial Engineering of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 Hollow Spheres through Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2: Boosting Capacity and Mitigating Structural Instability

Tali Sharabani, Sarah Taragin, Ilana Perelshtein, Malachi Noked, Ayan Mukherjee

To mitigate the associated challenges of instability and capacity improvement in Na3V2(PO4)2F3 (NVPF), rationally designed uniformly distributed hollow spherical NVPF and coating the surface of NVPF with ultrathin (≈2 nm) amorphous TiO2 by atomic layer deposition is demonstrated. The coating facilitates higher mobility of the ion through the cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) and enables higher capacity during cycling. The TiO2@NVPF exhibit discharge capacity of >120 mAhg−1, even at 1C rates, and show lower irreversible capacity in the first cycle. Further, nearly 100% capacity retention after rate performance in high current densities and 99.9% coulombic efficiency after prolonged cycling in high current density is reported. The improved performance in TiO2@NVPF is ascribed to the passivation behavior of TiO2 coating which protects the surface of NVPF from volume expansion, significantly less …

Show more

Dec 2021 • IEEE Photonics Journal

Spectral Ghost Imaging for Ultrafast Spectroscopy

Shir Rabi, Sara Meir, Raphi Dror, Hamootal Duadi, Francesco Baldini, Francesco Chiavaioli, Moti Fridman

We experimentally demonstrate ghost imaging in the frequency domain based on frequency speckle patterns as references. Our method is suitable for measuring the spectrum of ultrafast signals with high repetition rates. We study the reconstruction resolution as a function of the signal periodicity and found the maximal signal periodicity which can be reconstructed. We also study the reconstruction resolution as a function of the speckle size and show that the speckle size determines the quality of the ghost image. Finally, we perform numerical and analytical calculations which agree with our experimental measured results. Our method is simple, broadband, and utilizes a low cost bucket detector for ultrafast spectral measurements.

Show more

Dec 2021 • Optics Express

Broadband complex two-mode quadratures for quantum optics

Leon Bello, Yoad Michael, Michael Rosenbluh, Eliahu Cohen, Avi Pe’er

In their seminal paper, Caves and Schumaker presented a new formalism for quantum optics, intended to serve as a building block for describing two-photon processes, in terms of new, generalized qudratures. The important, revolutionary concept in their formalism was that it was fundamentally two-mode, ie the related observables could not be attributed to any single one of the comprising modes, but rather to a generalized complex quadrature that could only be attributed to both of them. Here, we propose a subtle, but fundamentally meaningful modification to their important work. Unlike the above proposal, we deliberately choose a frequency-agnostic definition of the two-mode quadrature, that we motivate on physical grounds. This simple modification has far-reaching implications to the formalism–the real and imaginary parts of the quadratures now coincide with the famous EPR variables, and our two-mode …

Show more

Dec 2021 • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

Selective Catalyst Surface Access through Atomic Layer Deposition

Samuel S Hardisty, Shira Frank, Melina Zysler, Reut Yemini, Anya Muzikansky, Malachi Noked, David Zitoun

Catalyst poisoning is a prominent issue, reducing the lifetime of catalysts and increasing the costs of the processes that rely on them. The electrocatalysts that enable green energy conversion and storage, such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells and hydrogen bromine redox flow batteries, also suffer from this issue, hindering their utilization. Current solutions to protect electrocatalysts from harmful species fall short of effective selectivity without inhibiting the required reactions. This article describes the protection of a standard 50% Pt/C catalyst with a V2O5 coating through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The ALD selectively deposited V2O5 on the Pt, which enhanced hydrogen transport to the Pt surface and resulted in a higher mass activity in alkaline electrolytes. Cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the Pt was protected by the coating in the HBr/Br2 electrolyte which dissolved …

Show more

Dec 2021 • Big Data and Cognitive Computing

Gambling Strategies and Prize-Pricing Recommendation in Sports Multi-Bets

Oz Pirvandy, Moti Fridman, Gur Yaari

A sports multi-bet is a bet on the results of a set of N games. One type of multi-bet offered by the Israeli government is WINNER 16, where participants guess the results of a set of 16 soccer games. The prizes in WINNER 16 are determined by the accumulated profit in previous rounds, and are split among all winning forms. When the reward increases beyond a certain threshold, a profitable strategy can be devised. Here, we present a machine-learning algorithm scheme to play WINNER 16. Our proposed algorithm is marginally profitable on average in a range of hyper-parameters, indicating inefficiencies in this game. To make a better prize-pricing mechanism we suggest a generalization of the single-bet approach. We studied the expected profit and risk of WINNER 16 after applying our suggestion. Our proposal can make the game more fair and more appealing without reducing the profitability. View Full-Text

Show more


Powered by Articali