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Dec 2020 • Scientific reports

Human kidney clonal proliferation disclose lineage-restricted precursor characteristics

Osnat Cohen-Zontag, Rotem Gershon, Orit Harari-Steinberg, Itamar Kanter, Dorit Omer, Oren Pleniceanu, Gal Tam, Sarit Oriel, Herzel Ben-Hur, Guy Katz, Zohar Dotan, Tomer Kalisky, Benjamin Dekel, Naomi Pode-Shakked

In-vivo single cell clonal analysis in the adult mouse kidney has previously shown lineage-restricted clonal proliferation within varying nephron segments as a mechanism responsible for cell replacement and local regeneration. To analyze ex-vivo clonal growth, we now preformed limiting dilution to generate genuine clonal cultures from one single human renal epithelial cell, which can give rise to up to 3.4* 10 6 cells, and analyzed their characteristics using transcriptomics. A comparison between clonal cultures revealed restriction to either proximal or distal kidney sub-lineages with distinct cellular and molecular characteristics; rapidly amplifying de-differentiated clones and a stably proliferating cuboidal epithelial-appearing clones, respectively. Furthermore, each showed distinct molecular features including cell-cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, oxidative phosphorylation, BMP signaling pathway and cell …

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Nov 2020 • Energy Storage Materials

New aqueous energy storage devices comprising graphite cathodes, MXene anodes and concentrated sulfuric acid solutions

Netanel Shpigel, Fyodor Malchik, Mikhael D Levi, Bar Gavriel, Gil Bergman, Shay Tirosh, Nicole Leifer, Gil Goobes, Reut Cohen, Michal Weitman, Hagit Aviv, Yaakov R Tischler, Doron Aurbach, Yury Gogotsi

The newly emerging demand for ‘beyond-lithium’ electrochemical energy storage systems necessitates the development of alternative options in providing sustainable cost-effective storage capabilities. In pursuit of discovering such a solution, the intercalation of bisulfate anions into graphite in 17 ​M ​H2SO4 solutions has been revaluated. Although the insertion process of bisulfate into graphite was extensively studied many years ago, only poor electrochemical performance has been demonstrated. In this work, we discovered the superior performance of the graphite bisulfate system, associated with the electrodes’ fabrication method which presents a high energy density of more than 80 ​mW ​h/g and a surprising rate capability (75 ​mW ​h/g was obtained at 15 ​C) alongside impressive long-term stability of more than 1500 cycles with only 5% capacity fading. Potentiostatic intermittent titration technique …

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Nov 2020 • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters

Gas Phase Bond Formation in Dipeptide Clusters

Maria Nihamkin, Avinoam Isaak, Amnon Albeck, Yitzhak Mastai, Yoni Toker

Protein bonds between amino acids are one of the most important biological linkages that create life. The detection of amino acids in the interstellar environments and in meteorites may lead to the suggestion that amino acids came from outer space and that peptides bonds may have been created in the gas phase. Here we show experimentally the creation of covalent bonds, most likely peptide bonds, between serine dipeptides in the gas phase. More specifically, we show that spraying a solution of Ser-Ser dipeptides results, in addition to dipeptide clusters, in a peak with the same mass as the serine tetrapeptide, which also has the same fragmentation pattern. Moreover, we show that this mass is formed upon collision induced dissociation of clusters containing four serine dipeptides. Thence, if the dipeptide can be generated abiotically the polymerization process may occur spontaneously.

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Nov 2020 • ACS Applied Bio Materials

Applications of N-doped carbon dots as antimicrobial agents, antibiotic carriers, and selective fluorescent probes for nitro explosives

A Saravanan, M Maruthapandi, P Das, S Ganguly, S Margel, JHT Luong, ...

The synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N@CDs) was accomplished by a hydrothermal process using meta- phenylenediamine as a source of carbon and nitrogen. As prepared N@CDs exhibited bright blue color fluorescence emission (λex = 340 nm and λem = 420 nm) with a quantum yield of 12%. Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus were eradicated by N@CDs with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 1 and 0.75 mg/mL, respectively. The N@CDs were also proven as nanovesicles for drug molecules where the drug release displayed a sustained time-dependent profile at the physiological condition. The release of ciprofloxacin as a model drug was governed by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, indicating ∼60% of its release from the N@CD conjugated drug system at the physiological pH. Selective analysis of trinitrophenol (TNP), a popular explosive, was …

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Nov 2020 • Journal of the Electrochemical Society

Stabilizing lithium-sulfur cells with practical loading and cycling conditions using Li2S8-containing ethereal electrolyte solution

E Markevich, G Salitra, H Yoshida, S Sawada, D Aurbach

We report on stabilization of Li–S cells cycled with an areal charge/discharge capacity of 2 mAh cm− 2 at current densities of 1–2 mA cm− 2 using ethereal LiTFSI/LiNO 3/DOL/DME electrolyte solution containing 0.1 M Li 2 S 8. This electrolyte solution enables stable lithium metal stripping− plating both in symmetric Li mid Li and full Li–S cells with composite binder free sulfur impregnated activated carbon fibers cathodes. The addition of Li 2 S 8 substantially extends cycling life of these cells due to the formation of smooth non-dendritic Li metal surface protected with an effective SEI enriched with Li sulfides, sulfites and sulfates species. Symmetric Li mid Li could be cycled stably for more than 1000 h at 1–2 mA cm− 2 with Li 2 S 8-containing electrolyte solutions. Full Li–S cells demonstrate more than 500 stable cycles (at least 3 times more than with Li 2 S 8 free electrolyte solution) at a current density of 1 mA cm− 2 …

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Nov 2020 • AIP Advances

Self-consistent gain calculations and carrier transport analysis for split-well direct-phonon terahertz quantum cascade lasers

Nathalie Lander Gower, Silvia Piperno, Asaf Albo

A split-well direct phonon THz quantum cascade laser scheme supporting a clean three-level system was analyzed using nonequilibrium Green’s functions. In this system, most of the electrons occupy the lower three levels, and thermally activated leakage channels are suppressed almost entirely. The simulations showed that the gain values were deeply affected by the changes in the devices’ interface roughness and impurity scattering strengths. We concluded that in addition to the low oscillator strength and relatively low doping level, these are the mechanisms responsible for the temperature performance limitations of this scheme.

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Nov 2020 • Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology 12 (6 …, 2020

Nanoparticle contrast agents for X‐ray imaging applications

Jessica C Hsu, Lenitza M Nieves, Oshra Betzer, Tamar Sadan, Peter B Noël, Rachela Popovtzer, David P Cormode

X‐ray imaging is the most widely used diagnostic imaging method in modern medicine and several advanced forms of this technology have recently emerged. Iodinated molecules and barium sulfate suspensions are clinically approved X‐ray contrast agents and are widely used. However, these existing contrast agents provide limited information, are suboptimal for new X‐ray imaging techniques and are developing safety concerns. Thus, over the past 15 years, there has been a rapid growth in the development of nanoparticles as X‐ray contrast agents. Nanoparticles have several desirable features such as high contrast payloads, the potential for long circulation times, and tunable physicochemical properties. Nanoparticles have also been used in a range of biomedical applications such as disease treatment, targeted imaging, and cell tracking. In this review, we discuss the principles behind X‐ray contrast …

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Nov 2020 • Diamond and Related Materials

Effect of radiation damage on the quantum optical properties of nitrogen vacancies in diamond

Hadar Genish, Kumar Ganesan, Alastair Stacey, Steven Prawer, Michael Rosenbluh

Single crystal diamond (<5 ppm nitrogen) containing native NV centers with coherence time of 150 μs was irradiated with 2 MeV alpha particles, with doses ranging from 1012 ion/cm2 to 1015 ion/cm2. The effect of ion damage on the coherence time of NV centers was studied using optically detected magnetic resonance and supplemented by fluorescence and Raman microscopy. A cross-sectional geometry was employed so that the NV coherence time could be measured as a function of increasing defect concentration along the ion track. Surprisingly, although the ODMR contrast was found to decrease with increasing ion induced vacancy concentration, the measured decoherence time remained undiminished at 150us despite the estimated vacancy concentration reaching a value of 40 ppm at the end of range. These results suggest that ion induced damage in the form of an increase in vacancy …

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Nov 2020 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2011.08099

Complex two-mode quadratures--a unified formalism for continuous-variable quantum optics

Leon Bello, Yoad Michael, Michael Rosenbluh, Eliahu Cohen, Avi Pe&#39;er

Quantum squeezing, a major resource for quantum information processing and quantum metrology, is best analyzed in terms of the field quadratures - the quantum optical analogues of position and momentum, which form the continuous-variable formalism of quantum light. Degenerate squeezing admits a very helpful and simple description in terms of the single-mode quadrature operators, but the non-degenerate case, i.e. when the squeezing involves pairs of modes, requires a more complicated treatment involving correlations between the quadratures of the different modes. We introduce a generalized set of complex quadrature operators that treats degenerate and non-degenerate squeezing on equal footing. We describe the mode-pairs (and photon-pairs) as a single entity, generalizing the concept of single-mode quadrature operators to two-mode fields of any bandwidth. These complex operators completely describe the SU(1,1) algebra of two-photon devices and directly relate to observable physical quantities, like power and visibility. Based on this formalism, we discuss the measurement of optically-broad squeezed signals with direct detection, and present a compact set of phase-dependent observables that completely and intuitively determine the two-mode squeezed state, and quantify the degree of inseparability and entanglement between the modes.

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Nov 2020 • Advanced Energy Materials 10 (41), 2002506, 2020

Surface Modification of Li‐Rich Mn‐Based Layered Oxide Cathodes: Challenges, Materials, Methods, and Characterization

Yike Lei, Jie Ni, Zijun Hu, Ziming Wang, Fukang Gui, Bing Li, Pingwen Ming, Cunman Zhang, Yuval Elias, Doron Aurbach, Qiangfeng Xiao

Rechargeable lithium‐ion batteries have become the dominant power sources for portable electronic devices, and are regarded as the battery technology of choice for electric vehicles and as potential candidates for grid‐scale storage. Commercial lithium‐ion batteries, after three decades of cell engineering, are approaching their energy density limits. Toward continually improving the energy density and reducing cost, Li‐rich Mn‐based layered oxide (LMLO) cathodes are receiving more and more attention due to their high discharge capacity and low cost. However, commercialization has been hampered by severe capacity and voltage decay, sluggish rate capability, and poor safety performance during charge/discharge cycles. Surface modification has effectively adopted to improve the electrochemical performance of LMLO cathodes. In this review, the main problems and recent progress in the field are …

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Nov 2020 • ACS Applied Energy Materials

Boosting Tunnel-Type Manganese Oxide Cathodes by Lithium Nitrate for Practical Aqueous Na-Ion Batteries

Munseok S Chae, Hyojeong J Kim, Jeyne Lyoo, Ran Attias, Yuval Elias, Yosef Gofer, Seung-Tae Hong, Doron Aurbach

Aqueous Na-ion batteries are proposed as cheap, safe, environmentally friendly systems for large-scale energy storage owing to the high abundance of sodium in earth’s crust and the benign nature of most of its salts. Practical utilization, however, is limited by poor electrochemical performance due to the slow diffusion kinetics of large sodium ions. Here, lithium nitrate was added to the electrolyte solutions to boost the performance of sodium manganese oxide cathodes. Ultrafast rate capability, high ion diffusivity, and superior cycling stability are attributed to enhanced conductivity of the ions in the solution, cointercalation of Li and Na ions, and lower cathode surface resistance. Three-dimensional bond valence maps illuminate the intercalation mechanism of sodium ions in the host structure. Lithium ions establish additional diffusion paths that activate sodium sites. Multistack cells were constructed and showed …

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Nov 2020 • Journal of the American Chemical Society

Protein Binding and Orientation Matter: Bias-Induced Conductance Switching in a Mutated Azurin Junction

Jerry A Fereiro, Tatyana Bendikov, Israel Pecht, Mordechai Sheves, David Cahen

We observe reversible, bias-induced switching of conductance via a blue copper protein azurin mutant, N42C Az, with a nearly 10-fold increase at |V| &gt; 0.8 V than at lower bias. No such switching is found for wild-type azurin, WT Az, up to |1.2 V|, beyond which irreversible changes occur. The N42C Az mutant will, when positioned between electrodes in a solid-state Au–protein–Au junction, have an orientation opposite that of WT Az with respect to the electrodes. Current(s) via both proteins are temperature-independent, consistent with quantum mechanical tunneling as dominant transport mechanism. No noticeable difference is resolved between the two proteins in conductance and inelastic electron tunneling spectra at &lt;|0.5 V| bias voltages. Switching behavior persists from 15 K up to room temperature. The conductance peak is consistent with the system switching in and out of resonance with the changing bias …

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Nov 2020 • The journal of physical chemistry letters

Coherent electron transport across a 3 nm bioelectronic junction made of multi-heme proteins

Zdenek Futera, Ichiro Ide, Ben Kayser, Kavita Garg, Xiuyun Jiang, Jessica H van Wonderen, Julea N Butt, Hisao Ishii, Israel Pecht, Mordechai Sheves, David Cahen, Jochen Blumberger

Multi-heme cytochromes (MHCs) are fascinating proteins used by bacterial organisms to shuttle electrons within, between, and out of their cells. When placed in solid-state electronic junctions, MHCs support temperature-independent currents over several nanometers that are 3 orders of magnitude higher compared to other redox proteins of similar size. To gain molecular-level insight into their astonishingly high conductivities, we combine experimental photoemission spectroscopy with DFT+Σ current–voltage calculations on a representative Gold-MHC-Gold junction. We find that conduction across the dry, 3 nm long protein occurs via off-resonant coherent tunneling, mediated by a large number of protein valence-band orbitals that are strongly delocalized over heme and protein residues. This picture is profoundly different from the electron hopping mechanism induced electrochemically or photochemically under …

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Nov 2020 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Nickel-Rich Phosphide (Ni12P5) Nanosheets Coupled with Oxidized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Oxygen Evolution

SK Tarik Aziz, Bibhudatta Malik, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Aharon Gedanken, Malachi Noked, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Exploring and identifying efficient materials with operative active sites for electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of paramount importance for the future of energy conversion technologies like electrolyzers and fuel cells. Herein, we develop an effective strategy to couple physically distinct metal-rich nickel phosphide (Ni12P5) with mildly oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) to boost the efficiency of OER. Ni12P5-O-MWCNTs outperforms O2 evolution activity in contrast to the parental materials, Ni12P5 and O-MWCNTs. Intriguingly, Ni12P5-O-MWCNTs shows an overpotential of 280 mV achieved at a current density of 10 mAcm–2. The hybrid, Ni12P5–O-MWCNTs demonstrates remarkable OER activity by the virtue of development of heterointerfaces in which the effective interaction between Ni12P5 and O-MWCNTs plays a crucial role. Moreover, we have analyzed the XPS and HR-TEM of …

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Nov 2020 • Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry

Integral Role of the NiS Electrode/Electrolyte Interface in the Redox Reaction with Lithium

RD Apostolova, EM Shembel, B Markovsky, D Aurbach

Electrochemically synthesized thin-layer NiS electrodes were studied in lithium perchlorate dissolved in 1.3-dioxolane or in a mixture of 1.3-dioxolane and tetrahydrofuran. In the 1.3-dioxolane 1 M LiClO 4 electrolyte, the irreversible capacity was reduced by 20% сompared to the initial capacity. However, the stability of the electrochemical characteristics of NiS electrodes in redox reactions with lithium is unsatisfactory. Much better results of charge–discharge cycling of NiS electrodes were obtained in the electrolyte solutions of 1.3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, and 1 M LiClO 4 demonstrating a stable reversible capacity of 400–450 mAh/g during 50–75 cycles. Using the methods of electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy with Fourier transform, it was established that the reason for the discharge capacity fading of NiS electrodes was associated with the formation of a surface film, which reduces the adhesion and …

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Nov 2020 • 2020 International Conference Laser Optics (ICLO), 1-1, 2020

Magnetic and Gold Nanoparticles Optimized for Cancer Treatment via Cell Hitchhiking

MN Yakovtseva, O Betzer, AV Lunin, EN Mochalova, M Beiderman, M Motiei, SD Zvereva, OB Proushinskaya, T Sadan, R Popovtzer, MP Nikitin

To date, targeting cancer cells by nanoparticles has been limited due to physical and biological obstructions, including the mononuclear phagocyte system. A novel approach for prolongation of nanoparticle circulation is cellular ‘hitchhiking’, or use of cells as vehicles to increase co-delivery of cancer therapeutics and particles to affected tissue. In this work, we studied the main characteristics of nanoagents based on magnetic and gold particles, to ensure optimal physicochemical characteristics. The developed agents hold promise to overcome the challenges that still hinder effective drug delivery for treatment of such complex diseases as cancer.

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Nov 2020

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR USE IN REMOTE DETECTION

Z Zalevsky, H GOLDENFELD

Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.) 2017-02-15

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Nov 2020 • Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States), 2020

Protection layers for metal anodes

Alexander C Kozen, Marshall A Schroeder, Gary W Rubloff, Liangbing Hu, Malakhi Noked, Sang Bok Lee

A protection layer is formed on a highly-reactive substantially-pure metal anode to a thickness of between 1 nm and 200 nm, inclusive, using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The ALD protection layer allows the conduction of ions of the metal of the anode therethrough but suppresses electron transport therethrough. The ALD protection layer may also be effective to inhibit passage of air and/or water therethrough. The ALD protection layer can allow more relaxed purity requirements for subsequent battery assembly, electrolyte specifications, and/or cathode gas purity. Fabrication methods for the protection layers, protected metal anodes, and systems and devices incorporating such protected metal anodes are also disclosed herein.

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Nov 2020 • International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, M3A. 1, 2020

Probing electron-phonon couplings in halide perovskites crystals by temperature-dependent ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

Xuan Trung Nguyen, Daniel Timmer, Yevgeny Rakita, David Cahen, Alexander Steinhoff, Frank Jahnke, Christoph Lienau, Antonietta De Sio

We track ultrafast charge carrier relaxation and the concurrent build-up of dynamical exciton screening on a 30-fs timescale, and probe strong electron-phonon couplings in halide perovskite crystals by temperature-dependent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

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Nov 2020 • arXiv e-prints

Opto-Mechanical Interactions in Multi-Core Optical Fibers and Their Applications

Hilel Hagai Diamandi, Yosef London, Arik Bergman, Gil Bashan, Javier Madrigal, David Barrera, Salvador Sales, Avi Zadok

Optical fibers containing multiple cores are being developed towards capacity enhancement in space-division multiplexed optical communication networks. In many cases, the fibers are designed for negligible direct coupling of optical power among the cores. The cores remain, however, embedded in a single, mechanically-unified cladding. Elastic (or acoustic) modes supported by the fiber cladding geometry are in overlap with multiple cores. Acoustic waves may be stimulated by light in any core through electrostriction. Once excited, the acoustic waves may induce photo-elastic perturbations to optical waves in other cores as well. Such opto-mechanical coupling gives rise to inter-core cross-phase modulation effects, even when direct optical crosstalk is very weak. The cross-phase modulation spectrum reaches hundreds of megahertz frequencies. It may consist of discrete and narrow peaks, or may become quasi …

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Nov 2020 • ECS Meeting Abstracts

Fourier Transform Alternating Current Voltammetry (FTacV) As a Tool for in-Operando Study of PGM-Free ORR Catalysts' Durability in Pemfcs

Lior Elbaz, Ariel Friedman

The activity of Pt-group metal-free (PGM-free) ORR catalysts, has been increasing significantly in the past decade, and reached a level where it is comparable to Pt-based catalysts, proving their viability. Nowadays, the advancement in their development matured to the point where their stability and durability under fuel cells operating conditions must be determined, and the activity of the catalyst must be studied in-situ in-operando, in order to monitor the catalyst performance. While the advancement in activity is impressive, the next necessary improvement, durability, is impeded by the lack of a procedure that is specific towards the catalyst’s activity, and informative with respect to its degradation rate during fuel cell testing, undermining the ability of understanding durability issues. Currently, the degradation of the catalyst is described quantitatively by using the Tafel region of polarization curves. While an …

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