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Oct 2022 • ECS Meeting Abstracts

Electrocatalyzing Oxygen Evolution Reaction with Nifeooh Aerogels

Lior Elbaz, Wenjamin Moschkowitsch

Increasing the production capacity of electrical energy to fulfill the continuously rising global demand, while simultaneously trying to avoid greenhouse gas emissions in the process, and being environmentally sound, is one of the largest challenges of this era.One way to achieve it is to rely on hydrogen for energy storage. Nowadays, most of the hydrogen produced is mainly from fossil fuels, and the emission of detrimental gasses is only shifted. To get to a true green hydrogen, it is necessary to produce it in emissions-free processes.One method to achieve this is to use renewable energies in combination with electrochemical water electrolyzers, in which two distinct chemical reactions take place: the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Both reaction require catalysts to execute at high rates, and while the HER is considered to be relatively facile and takes …

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Oct 2022 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Improving Li Anode Reversibility in Li–S Batteries by ZnO Coated Separators Using Atomic Layer Deposition

Shalev Blanga, Reut Yemini, Eti Teblum, Merav Nadav Tsubery, Sarah Taragin, Malachi Noked

Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) are considered a very attractive alternative to lithium-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity and the low cost of the active materials. However, the realization of LSBs remains hostage to many challenges associated with the cathode and anode response to the electrochemical conditions inside the battery cell. While working with LSBs, elemental sulfur undergoes multielectron reduction reactions until it is reduced to Li2S. The intermediate long chain lithium-polysulfide (LiPS) species are soluble, and hence diffuse through the electrolyte solution from the cathode side to the anode. This “shuttle” phenomenon is considered to be one of the main issues of LSB. Most effort in investigating LSBs has focused on the cathode side while few have considered the importance of the lithium anode reversibility and the separator role in preventing the “shuttle” phenomenon. In the current …

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Oct 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2210.07732

The identification of mean quantum potential with Fisher information leads to a strong uncertainty relation

Yakov Bloch, Eliahu Cohen

The Cramer-Rao bound, satisfied by classical Fisher information, a key quantity in information theory, has been shown in different contexts to give rise to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we show that the identification of the mean quantum potential, an important notion in Bohmian mechanics, with the Fisher information, leads, through the Cramer-Rao bound, to an uncertainty principle which is stronger, in general, than both Heisenberg and Robertson-Schrodinger uncertainty relations, allowing to experimentally test the validity of such an identification.

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Oct 2022 • Biology

The Gut-Ex-Vivo System (GEVS) Is a Dynamic and Versatile Tool for the Study of DNBS-Induced IBD in BALB/C and C57BL/6 Mice, Highlighting the Protective Role of Probiotics

Romina Monzani, Mara Gagliardi, Nausicaa Clemente, Valentina Saverio, Elżbieta Pańczyszyn, Claudio Santoro, Nissan Yissachar, Annalisa Visciglia, Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Marco Corazzari

Simple Summary IBD is considered a modern and western diet-related disease characterized by uncontrolled immune activation, resulting in chronic bowel inflammation and tissue damage. Although the precise causes of the onset of the disease are still elusive, it seems that both the environment, genetic predisposition and the dysregulation of the intestinal microbiota are actively involved. The development of a model to study the etiopathology of this disease characterized by an increasing incidence in the population is urgently needed. We have recently developed an organ-on-chip system (Gut-Ex-Vivo System, GEVS) to model IBD induced by DNBS in the colon of mice of the BALB/c strain. Here, we provide data demonstrating that the process can also be efficiently induced in mice of another strain, C57BL/6, which is usually less sensitive to this treatment, using our GEVS. Furthermore, we have shown that the system also replicates other characteristics of human pathology, such as the induction of the two most represented cell death pathways responsible for the tissue damage characteristic of IBD. Finally, we demonstrate that our system can be used efficiently to test new therapeutic interventions, such as those based on the use of probiotics. Indeed, we demonstrated the positive impact of both Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Abstract Background: IBD is a spectrum of pathologies characterized by dysregulated immune activation leading to uncontrolled response against the intestine, thus resulting in chronic gut inflammation and tissue damage. Due to its complexity, the molecular mechanisms responsible for …

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Oct 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2210.02739

High energy-resolution transient ghost absorption spectroscopy

Alok Kumar Tripathi, Yishai Klein, Edward Strizhevsky, Flavio Capotondi, Dario De Angelis, Luca Giannessi, Matteo Pancaldi, Emanuele Pedersoli, Kevin C Prince, Or Sefi, Young Yong Kim, Ivan A Vartanyants, Sharon Shwartz

We demonstrate the measurement of ultrafast dynamics using ghost spectroscopy and a pump-probe approach with an optical pump and a short-wavelength radiation probe. The ghost spectroscopy approach is used to overcome the challenge of the strong intensity and spectrum fluctuations at free-electron lasers and to provide high -spectral resolution, which enables the measurement of small energy shifts in the absorption spectrum. We exploit the high resolution to explore the dynamics of the charge carrier excitations and relaxations and their impact on the photoinduced structural changes in silicon by measuring the variation of the absorption spectrum of a Si(100) membrane near the silicon L2,3 edge and the accompanying edge shifts in response to the optical illumination.

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Oct 2022 • ACS Energy Letters

Solvent-Assisted Hopping Mechanism Enables Ultrafast Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Xiaoteng Huang, Ruhong Li, Chuangchao Sun, Haikuo Zhang, Shuoqing Zhang, Ling Lv, Yiqiang Huang, Liwu Fan, Lixin Chen, Malachi Noked, Xiulin Fan

Fast charging is regarded as one of the most coveted technologies for commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs), but the lack of suitable electrolytes with sufficient ionic conductivity and effective passivation properties hinders its development. Herein, we designed a mixed-solvent electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in fluoroethylene carbonate/acetonitrile, FEC/AN, 7/3 by vol.) to overcome these two limitations by achieving an FEC-dominated solvation structure and an AN-rich environment. The specific AN-assisted Li+ hopping transport behavior shortens the Li+ diffusion time, doubling the ionic conductivity to 12 mS cm–1, thus endowing the graphite anode with >300 mAh g–1 at 20C and reversible (de)intercalation over a wide temperature range (from −20 to +60 °C). Furthermore, the designed electrolyte triples the capacity of the 1 Ah graphite||LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) pouch cells at 8C in comparison with the commercial …

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Oct 2022 • Journal of Personalized Medicine

Trace Elements in Tears: Comparison of Rural and Urban Populations Using Particle Induced X-ray Emission

Olga Girshevitz, Noa Cohen-Sinai, Alon Zahavi, Yoav Vardizer, Dror Fixler, Nitza Goldenberg-Cohen

We aimed to evaluate the types and concentrations of trace elements in tears of individuals living in urban and rural environments using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the possible association with exposure to air pollution and suggest a novel method for tear-based biomonitoring studies. This cross-sectional pilot study comprised 42 healthy subjects, 28 living in a rural area and 14 in an industrial city. Tears were collected with Schirmer paper and characterized by PIXE. Trace element concentrations from both eyes were averaged together with environmental pollution data. Main outcome measures were between-group differences in types and concentrations of trace elements in tears and comparison to environmental data. The rural group included 12/28 men, mean age 45.2 ± 14.8 years. The urban group consisted of 11/14 men of mean age 27 ± 5.9 years. Six rural and all urban were active smokers. Air pollution data showed more toxic elements in the rural environment. On PIXE analysis, chlorine, sodium, and potassium were found in similar concentrations in all samples. Normalizing to chlorine yielded higher values of aluminum, iron, copper, and titanium in the rural group; aluminum was found only in the rural group. The higher levels of certain trace elements in the rural group may, in part, be a consequence of exposure to specific environmental conditions. No direct association was found with air pollution data. PIXE is useful to analyze trace elements in tears, which might serve as a marker for individual exposure to environmental pollutants in biomonitoring studies.

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Oct 2022 • Applied Sciences

Kerr-Lens Mode-Locking: Numerical Simulation of the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics on All Time Scales

Idan Parshani, Leon Bello, Mallachi-Elia Meller, Avi Pe’er

We present a complete numerical analysis and simulation of the full spatio-temporal dynamics of Kerr-lens mode-locking in a laser. This dynamic, which is the workhorse mechanism for generating ultrashort pulses, relies on the intricate coupling between the spatial nonlinear propagation and the temporal nonlinear compression. Our numerical tool emulates the dynamical evolution of the optical field in the cavity on all time-scales: the fast time scale of the pulse envelope within a single round trip, and the slow time-scale between round-trips. We employ a nonlinear ABCD formalism that fully handles all relevant effects in the laser, namely—self focusing and diffraction, dispersion and self-phase modulation, and space-dependent loss and gain saturation. We confirm the validity of our model by reproducing the pulse-formation in all aspects: The evolution of the pulse energy, duration, and gain during the entire cavity buildup, demonstrating the nonlinear mode competition in full, as well as the dependence of the final pulse in steady state on the interplay between gain bandwidth, dispersion, and self-phase modulation. The direct observation of the nonlinear evolution of the pulse in space-time is a key enabler to analyze and optimize the Kerr-lens mode-locking operation, as well as to explore new nonlinear phenomena.

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Oct 2022 • Protein Science

Copper coordination states affect the flexibility of copper Metallochaperone Atox1: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations

Renana Schwartz, Sharon Ruthstein, Dan Thomas Major

Copper is an essential element in nature but in excess it is toxic to the living cell. The human metallochaperone Atox1 participates in copper homeostasis and is responsible for copper transmission. In a previous multiscale simulation study, we noticed a change in the coordination state of the Cu(I) ion, from 4 bound cysteine residues to 3, in agreement with earlier studies. Here we perform and analyse classical molecular dynamic simulations of various coordination states: 2, 3, and 4. The main observation is an increase in protein flexibility as a result of a decrease in coordination state. Additionally, we identified several populated conformations that correlate well with double electron‐electron resonance distance distributions or an X‐ray structure of Cu(I)‐bound Atox1. We suggest that the increased flexibility might benefit the process of ion transmission between interacting proteins. Further experiments can …

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Oct 2022

Characterization of nanometric thin films with far-field light

Adi Salomon, Omer Shavit, Carine Julien, Ilya Olevsko, Mohamed Hamode, Yossi Abulafia, Hervé Suaudeau, Vincent Armand, Martin Oheim

The fabrication and characterisation of ultra-thin, transparent lms is paramount for protective layers on semiconductors, solar cells, as well as for nano-composite materials and optical coatings. Similarly, the probe volume of nano-sensors, as well the calibration of axial distances in super-resolution microscopies, all require the metrology of axial uorophore distances. However, the reliable production and precise characterisation of such nanometric thin layers are di cult and labor-intense and they require specialized equipment and trained personnel. In our present work, we describe a simple, non-invasive, all-optical technique for simultaneously measuring the refractive index, thickness, and homogeneity of such thin lms. We assemble transparent layers from My-133-MC, a biomimetic transparent polymer with a refractive index of 1.33, amenable for applications in the life sciences. All parameters characterising the lms are obtained in a single measurement from the analysis of supercritical angle uorescence radiation patterns acquired on a minimally modi ed inverted microscope. Results compare favorably to those obtained through a combination of atomic force and electron microscopy, surface-plasmon resonance spectroscopy and ellipsometry. To illustrate the utility of our technique, we present two applications, one in metrology and one in bio-imaging;(i), the calibration of axial uorophore distance in a total internal re ection uorescence geometry; and,(ii), live-cell super-resolution imaging of organelle dynamics in cortical astrocytes, an important type of brain cell. Our approach is cheap, versatile and it has obvious applications in pro lometry …

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Oct 2022 • Cureus

Effect of Cocaine on Potassium-Evoked Release of Glutamate From Fetal Rat Brain Synaptosomes

Donald H Penning, Brian Jones, Mohamed Fayed, Xiaoxia Han, Chaya Brodie

MethodRat pups' brains were dissected and placed on a chilled petri dish. They then entered the experimental protocol. The suspended synaptosomes were divided equally into four experimental groups (control, high potassium" surrogate to hypoxic stimulation," cocaine, and cocaine+ high K). Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyzed glutamate with fluorescent detectionResultsThe glutamate level was lowest in the cocaine-only group, with a level of 1.96× 10 4, compared to the control and high potassium group. However, combining cocaine with high potassium seemed to generate a synergistic effect, achieving the highest glutamate level of all groups with a value of 5.31× 10 4.

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Oct 2022 • ACS nano

Optoelectronics of Atomic Metal–Semiconductor Interfaces in Tin-Intercalated MoS2

Avraham Twitto, Chen Stern, Michal Poplinger, Ilana Perelshtein, Sabyasachi Saha, Akash Jain, Kristie J Koski, Francis Leonard Deepak, Ashwin Ramasubramaniam, Doron Naveh

Metal–semiconductor interfaces are ubiquitous in modern electronics. These quantum-confined interfaces allow for the formation of atomically thin polarizable metals and feature rich optical and optoelectronic phenomena, including plasmon-induced hot-electron transfer from metal to semiconductors. Here, we report on the metal–semiconductor interface formed during the intercalation of zero-valent atomic layers of tin (Sn) between layers of MoS2, a van der Waals layered material. We demonstrate that Sn interaction leads to the emergence of gap states within the MoS2 band gap and to corresponding plasmonic features between 1 and 2 eV (0.6–1.2 μm). The observed stimulation of the photoconductivity, as well as the extension of the spectral response from the visible regime toward the mid-infrared suggests that hot-carrier generation and internal photoemission take place.

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Oct 2022 • Forward Brillouin Scattering in Standard Optical Fibers: Single-Mode …, 2022

Guided Acoustic Waves in Standard Single-Mode Fibers

Avi Zadok, Hilel Hagai Diamandi, Yosef London, Gil Bashan

This chapter provides the analysis of acoustic modes that are guided by the structure of standard single-mode optical fibers. The elastic wave equation is solved in cylindrical coordinates, and solutions are categorized according to their azimuthal symmetry. The boundary conditions of a bare fiber in air are formulated in terms of a matrice of coefficients, whose elements depend on the order of azimuthal symmetry. Discrete solutions of the boundary condition equations signify the cutoff frequencies of guided acoustic modes. Expressions are provided for the normalized transverse profiles of material displacement in modal solutions. Emphasis is given to radially symmetric modes and to torsional-radial modes with twofold azimuthal symmetry. The transverse profiles of these specific mode categories can match those of electrostrictive force terms that may be induced by guided light in the fiber.

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Oct 2022 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2110.12418

Gas of sub-recoiled laser cooled atoms described by infinite ergodic theory

Eli Barkai, Günter Radons, Takuma Akimoto

The velocity distribution of a classical gas of atoms in thermal equilibrium is the normal Maxwell distribution. It is well known that for sub-recoiled laser cooled atoms L\'evy statistics and deviations from usual ergodic behaviour come into play. Here we show how tools from infinite ergodic theory describe the cool gas. Specifically, we derive the scaling function and the infinite invariant density of a stochastic model for the momentum of laser cooled atoms using two approaches. The first is a direct analysis of the master equation and the second following the analysis of Bertin and Bardou using the lifetime dynamics. The two methods are shown to be identical, but yield different insights into the problem. In the main part of the paper we focus on the case where the laser trapping is strong, namely the rate of escape from the velocity trap is for and . We construct a machinery to investigate the time averages of physical observables and their relation to ensemble averages. The time averages are given in terms of functionals of the individual stochastic paths, and here we use a generalisation of L\'evy walks to investigate the ergodic properties of the system. Exploring the energy of the system, we show that when it exhibits a transition between phases where it is either an integrable or non integrable observable, with respect to the infinite invariant measure. This transition corresponds to very different properties of the mean energy, and to a discontinuous behaviour of the fluctuations. Since previous experimental work showed that both and are attainable we believe that both phases could be explored also experimentally.

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Oct 2022 • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Sequestration of gut pathobionts in intraluminal casts, a mechanism to avoid dysregulated T cell activation by pathobionts

Martina Sassone-Corsi, Shalhevet Azriel, Ariel Simon, Deepshika Ramanan, Adriana Ortiz-Lopez, Felicia Chen, Nissan Yissachar, Diane Mathis, Christophe Benoist

T cells that express the transcription factor RORγ, regulatory (Treg), or conventional (Th17) are strongly influenced by intestinal symbionts. In a genetic approach to identify mechanisms underlying this influence, we performed a screen for microbial genes implicated, in germfree mice monocolonized with Escherichia coli Nissle. The loss of capsule-synthesis genes impaired clonal expansion and differentiation of intestinal RORγ+ T cells. Mechanistic exploration revealed that the capsule-less mutants remained able to induce species-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and were highly IgA-coated. They could still trigger myeloid cells, and more effectively damaged epithelial cells in vitro. Unlike wild-type microbes, capsule-less mutants were mostly engulfed in intraluminal casts, large agglomerates composed of myeloid cells extravasated into the gut lumen. We speculate that sequestration in luminal casts of potentially …

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Oct 2022 • Metamaterials, Metadevices, and Metasystems 2022, PC121951T, 2022

Deep subwavelength resonant meta-optics enabled by high-index topological insulators

Tomer Lewi

In nanophotonics, small mode volume and high-quality factor (Q-factor) resonances fundamentally scales with high refractive index values. Topological insulators (TI) are a new class of materials possessing narrow bulk bandgap and gapless Dirac surface states, and exhibit ultra high permittivity values. In this work, I will discuss our latest results on Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 TI meta-optics. Using polarized far-field and near field Nanospectroscopy we reveal that Bi2Se3 nanobeams exhibit mid-infrared resonant modes with 2pi phase shifts across the resonance. We further demonstrate that Bi2Te3 metasurfaces exhibit deep subwavelength resonant modes utilizing their record high index value peaking at n~11.

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Oct 2022 • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

Mitigation of Oxygen Evolution and Phase Transition of Li-Rich Mn-Based Layered Oxide Cathodes by Coating with Oxygen-Deficient Perovskite Compounds

Yike Lei, Yuval Elias, Yongkang Han, Dongdong Xiao, Jun Lu, Jie Ni, Yingchuan Zhang, Cunman Zhang, Doron Aurbach, Qiangfeng Xiao

Li-rich Mn-based layered oxide cathodes with a high discharge capacity hold great promise for high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, application is hampered by voltage and capacity decay and gas evolution during cycling due to interfacial side reactions. Here, we report coating by oxygen-deficient perovskite La0.9Sr0.1CoO3 using the Pechini process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy both exhibit a uniform coating layer with a high oxygen vacancy concentration. The coating effectively mitigates the first cycle irreversible capacity loss and voltage decay while increasing cyclability. Optimized coating improves capacity retention from 55.6% to 84.8% after 400 cycles at 2 C. Operando differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy shows that such a coating can significantly mitigate the release of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Electrochemical impedance …

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Oct 2022 • Biosensors

A Contact-Free Optical Device for the Detection of Pulmonary Congestion—A Pilot Study

Ilan Merdler, Aviram Hochstadt, Eihab Ghantous, Lior Lupu, Ariel Borohovitz, David Zahler, Philippe Taieb, Ben Sadeh, Zeev Zalevsky, Javier Garcia-Monreal, Michael Shergei, Maxim Shatsky, Yoav Beck, Sagi Polani, Yaron Arbel

Background: The cost of heart failure hospitalizations in the US alone is over USD 10 billion per year. Over 4 million Americans are hospitalized every year due to heart failure (HF), with a median length of stay of 4 days and an in-hospital mortality rate that exceeds 5%. Hospitalizations of patients with HF can be prevented by early detection of lung congestion. Our study assessed a new contact-free optical medical device used for the early detection of lung congestion. Methods: The Gili system is an FDA-cleared device used for measuring chest motion vibration data. Lung congestion in the study was assessed clinically and verified via two cardiologists. An algorithm was developed using machine learning techniques, and cross-validation of the findings was performed to estimate the accuracy of the algorithm. Results: A total of 227 patients were recruited (101 cases vs. 126 controls). The sensitivity and specificity for the device in our study were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86–0.93) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87–0.94), respectively. In all instances, the observed estimates of PPVs and NPVs were at least 0.82 and 0.90, respectively. The accuracy of the algorithm was not affected by different covariates (including respiratory or valvular conditions). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the efficacy of a contact-free optical device for detecting lung congestion. Further validation of the study results across a larger and precise scale is warranted.

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Oct 2022 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Pulsed Charging Protocols with Non-Zero Relaxation Time for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lautaro Nicolás Acosta, Guillermo Garaventta, Mikhael Levi, Doron Aurbach, Victoria Flexer

Lithium-ion batteries are commonly charged following the constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV) protocol. Current flow during charging implies an equivalent ionic flow through the battery materials. Intercalation and de-intercalation of Li+ are accompanied by concentration gradients that are reflected by the rise in the cells' potentials that is required to maintain the constant current during the CC regime. In this work, two new pulsed charging protocols were tested. First, a square current pulse is applied to the cell until the cut-off voltage is reached, followed by a pulsed square voltage protocol (PV). The second methodology keeps the same current pulse; however, after the limiting voltage was reached, the pulsing regime consisted in alternating between a maximum voltage value and a minimum, non-zero, constant current value. Different voltage pulse widths and frequencies were tested, in order to study the …

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Oct 2022 • Optics Express

Optical fiber point sensors based on forward Brillouin scattering

Keren Shemer, Gil Bashan, Elad Zehavi, Hilel Hagai Diamandi, Alon Bernstein, Kavita Sharma, Yosef London, David Barrera, Salvador Sales, Arik Bergman, Avi Zadok

Forward Brillouin scattering interactions support the sensing and analysis of media outside the cladding boundaries of standard fibers, where light cannot reach. Quantitative point-sensing based on this principle has yet to be reported. In this work, we report a forward Brillouin scattering point-sensor in a commercially available, off-the-shelf multi-core fiber. Pump light at the inner, on-axis core of the fiber is used to stimulate a guided acoustic mode of the entire fiber cross-section. The acoustic wave, in turn, induces photoelastic perturbations to the reflectivity of a Bragg grating inscribed in an outer, off-axis core of the same fiber. The measurements successfully analyze refractive index perturbations on the tenth decimal point and distinguish between ethanol and water outside the centimeter-long grating. The measured forward Brillouin scattering linewidths agree with predictions. The acquired spectra are unaffected by forward Brillouin scattering outside the grating region. The results add point-analysis to the portfolio of forward Brillouin scattering optical fiber sensors.

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Oct 2022 • Optics Continuum

16-channel O-band silicon-photonic wavelength division multiplexer with a 1 nm channel spacing

Matan Slook, Saawan Kumar Bag, Moshe Katzman, Dvir Munk, Yuri Kaganovskii, Michael Rosenbluh, Naor Inbar, Inbar Shafir, Leroy Dokhanian, Maayan Priel, Mirit Hen, Elad Zehavi, Avi Zadok

Silicon-photonic integrated circuits are a pivotal technology for the continued growth of data communications. A main task of silicon photonics is the wavelength division multiplexing of communication channels to aggregate bandwidths that exceed the working rates available in electronics. In this work, we design and implement a 16-channel, wavelength division multiplexing device in silicon-on-insulator. The device operates at the O-band wavelengths, centered at 1310 nm, which are favored by many data center applications. The spacing between adjacent channels is 0.96 nm (167 GHz), close to those of dense wavelength division multiplexing standards in the 1550 nm wavelength range (C band). The layout consists of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers, cascaded in a four-stage tree topology. The differential phase delay within each interferometer is precisely trimmed post-fabrication, through local illumination of a photosensitive upper cladding layer of As 2 Se 3 chalcogenide glass. Trimming is performed subject to closed-loop feedback of transfer functions measurements. The devices can be useful in data center optical communications.

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