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Dec 2020 • Critical Care Explorations

Frequency and analysis of unplanned extubation in coronavirus disease 2019 patients

Anoop K Chhina, Gary E Loyd, Trevor J Szymanski, Katherine A Nowak, William T Peruzzi, Nicholas S Yeldo, Xiaoxia Han, Lotfi S Kerzabi, Dragos M Galusca, Simona Cazacu, Chaya Brodie, Donald H Penning

Objectives:To determine if patients with coronavirus disease 2019 had a greater number of unplanned extubations resulting in reintubations than in patients without coronavirus disease 2019.Design:Retrospective cohort study comparing the frequency of unplanned extubations resulting in reintubations in a group of coronavirus disease 2019 patients to a historical (noncoronavirus disease 2019) control group.Setting:This study was conducted at Henry Ford Hospital, an academic medical center in Detroit, MI. The historical noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients were treated in the 68 bed medical ICU. The coronavirus disease 2019 patients were treated in the coronavirus disease ICU, which included the 68 medical ICU beds, 18 neuro-ICU beds, 32 surgical ICU beds, and 40 cardiovascular ICU beds, as the medical ICU was expanded to these units at the peak of the pandemic in Detroit, MI.Patients:The coronavirus …

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Dec 2020 • Experimental Eye Research

A dichoptic presentation device and a method for measuring binocular temporal function in the visual system

Auria Eisen-Enosh, Nairouz Farah, Zvia Burgansky-Eliash, Idit Maharshak, Uri Polat, Yossi Mandel

Recent studies highlight the importance of the temporal domain in visual processing. Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF), the frequency at which a flickering light is perceived as continuous, is a widely used measure for evaluating visual temporal processing. Another important issue to investigate is the cortical interactions arising between the flicker stimuli of both eyes.This paper presents a robust and reliable dichoptic tool for evaluating the CFF threshold in both eyes. This system is based on an analog output device used to independently drive two LEDs through a custom-written MATLAB code (using a laptop PC) for eliciting sinusoidal flickering stimuli and for psychophysically measuring the perceived CFF threshold. The luminance and phases of each LED are individually controlled, enabling the investigation of the effect of phase and luminance differences on binocular summation in subjects with different ocular …

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Dec 2020 • Polymers

Engineering of Doxorubicin-Encapsulating and TRAIL-Conjugated Poly (RGD) Proteinoid Nanocapsules for Drug Delivery Applications

Elad Hadad, Safra Rudnick-Glick, Ella Itzhaki, Matan Y Avivi, Igor Grinberg, Yuval Elias, Shlomo Margel

Proteinoids are non-toxic biodegradable polymers prepared by thermal step-growth polymerization of amino acids. Here, P (RGD) proteinoids and proteinoid nanocapsules (NCs) based on D-arginine, glycine, and L-aspartic acid were synthesized and characterized for targeted tumor therapy. Doxorubicin (Dox), a chemotherapeutic drug used for treatment of a wide range of cancers, known for its adverse side effects, was encapsulated during self-assembly to form Dox/P (RGD) NCs. In addition, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which can initiate apoptosis in most tumor cells but undergoes fast enzyme degradation, was stabilized by covalent conjugation to hollow P (RGD) NCs. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugation was also studied. Cytotoxicity tests on CAOV-3 ovarian cancer cells demonstrated that Dox/P (RGD) and TRAIL-P (RGD) NCs were as effective as free Dox and TRAIL with cell viability of 2% and 10%, respectively, while PEGylated NCs were less effective. Drug-bearing P (RGD) NCs offer controlled release with reduced side effects for improved therapy. View Full-Text

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Dec 2020 • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C

Monte Carlo-and Simulated-Annealing-Based Funneled Approach for the Prediction of Cation Ordering in Mixed Transition-Metal Oxide Materials

Sooraj Kunnikuruvan, Arup Chakraborty, Dan Thomas Major

The development of cathode materials with good electrochemical performance is vital to the effort to design rechargeable batteries for applications such as electric mobility. Li-intercalated mixed transition-metal layered oxides such as LiNixCoyMn(1–x–y)O2 (NCM) and LiNixCoyAl(1–x–y)O2 (NCA) have gained considerable attention due to their good electrochemical properties. The properties of these materials are strongly affected by the arrangement of ions in their crystal lattice, yet accurate determination of this arrangement using experiments and theory remains a challenge. Here, we present a hybrid approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) and simulated annealing (SA) in conjunction with an empirical potential to determine the most probable ionic arrangements from a large number of possibilities. The MCSA approach is followed by a density functional theory (DFT)-based rescoring to determine the energetically …

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Dec 2020 • Journal of the Electrochemical Society

Evaluating the high-voltage stability of conductive carbon and ethylene carbonate with various lithium salts

Michael Metzger, Patrick Walke, Sophie Solchenbach, Gregory Salitra, Doron Aurbach, Hubert A Gasteiger

The anodic stability of conductive carbon and alkyl carbonate-based electrolyte solvents is a crucial requirement for the success of high-voltage lithium-ion cells, particularly at elevated temperatures. In order to quantify the oxidative stability of ethylene carbonate (EC), a critical component of lithium-ion battery electrolytes, and conductive carbons, we have evaluated the stability of a 13 C-labeled conductive carbon and an EC-based electrolyte up to 5.5 V vs Li+/Li. We examined the behavior between 25 C and 60 C for four different lithium salts (LiClO 4, LiPF 6, LiTFSI, and LiBF 4). This is done by means of On-line Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry (OEMS), whereby the isotopically labeled carbon is used to differentiate between the CO and CO 2 evolution from the oxidation of the conductive carbon (13 CO/13 CO 2) and of the electrolyte (12 CO/12 CO 2). Our analysis reveals that conductive carbon is stable with …

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Dec 2020 • Journal of Catalysis 395, 23-35, 2020

Heterogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide with transition metal complexes

Ariel Friedman, Lior Elbaz

Reducing the atmospheric CO2 level is of a great interest these days, as it is negatively affecting our environment. Despite the large efforts invested in development of technologies for CO2 fixation, there is still no large-scale, man-made solution to deal with it. A useful strategic solution is to retrieve CO2 from the air and to reduce it into valuable products, to establish a closed carbon cycle. Reduction of CO2 by electrochemical means seems to be the most practical and economical alternative, but there is still much to be done in terms of catalysts’ development, to enable energy-efficient and cost-effective technology at-scale. In this mini-review, we will focus on the progress that has been made in the area of first-row transition metals complexes as catalysts for CO2 electro-reduction, mostly under conditions that are relevant for large scale applications.

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Dec 2020 • Iscience

Developmentally regulated novel non-coding anti-sense regulators of mRNA translation in Trypanosoma brucei

K Shanmugha Rajan, Tirza Doniger, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Praveenkumar Rengaraj, Beathrice Galili, Saurav Aryal, Ron Unger, Christian Tschudi, Shulamit Michaeli

The parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of sleeping sickness and cycles between insect and mammalian hosts. The parasite appears to lack conventional transcriptional regulation of protein coding genes, and mRNAs are processed from polycistronic transcripts by the concerted action of trans-splicing and polyadenylation. Regulation of mRNA function is mediated mainly by RNA binding proteins affecting mRNA stability and translation. In this study, we describe the identification of 62 non-coding (nc) RNAs that are developmentally regulated and/or respond to stress. We characterized two novel anti-sense RNA regulators (TBsRNA-33 and 37) that originate from the rRNA loci, associate with ribosomes and polyribosomes, and interact in vivo with distinct mRNA species to regulate translation. Thus, this study suggests for the first-time anti-sense RNA regulators as an additional layer for controlling …

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Dec 2020 • Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics

Synthesis of Multi Amino Acid Chiral Polymeric Microparticles for Enantioselective Chemistry

Meir Abuaf, Yitzhak Mastai

Chiral polymeric particles have emerged as a new and exciting field of research and in the last years due to their possible use for many applications in chiral chemistry. In this article, an important question is focused upon that has not been explored in detail in the field of chiral polymeric particles. The main question is whether the chiral composition of the polymeric particles affects their chiral recognition. The hypothesis is that chiral polymeric particles with a variety of different chiral groups will improve chiral recognition and improve their use of enantioselectivity crystallization. Consequently, chiral microparticles based on one up to three different amino acids based monomers are prepared by precipitation polymerization. The chiral microspheres are characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope (SEM), mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and display a narrow …

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Dec 2020 • IEEE Sensors Letters

Detection of low-frequency magnetic fields down to sub-pT resolution with planar-Hall effect sensors

Proloy Taran Das, Hariharan Nhalil, Moty Schultz, Shai Amrusi, Asaf Grosz, Lior Klein

Using planar Hall effect sensors with magnetic flux concentrators, we measure magnetic fields at frequencies below 100 Hz. We show that for a measurement time of up to 100 s, it is possible to detect fields of ∼700 fT and ∼1 pT at 10 Hz and 0.1 Hz, respectively. In addition, we measure the linearity and hysteresis of the sensor for fields ≤2.6 μ T. These features, combined with the sensor miniature size, low power consumption, and potential low cost, may pave the way for usage in a wide range of applications.

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Dec 2020 • Journal of Nanobiotechnology

Designed proteinoid polymers and nanoparticles encapsulating risperidone for enhanced antipsychotic activity

L Lugasi, I Grinberg, S Rudnick-Glick, E Okun, H Einat, S Margel

Nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating drug formulations can be used to facilitate passage through biological barriers including the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and increase drug delivery and bioavailability. Hence, NP-based administration may enhance the efficiency of current antipsychotics. Encapsulation within NPs can resolve aqueous solubility problems that not only reduce permeability through the BBB but also affect targeting. The present study describes a new drug delivery system based on proteinoid NPs to explore the possibility of improving drug efficacy. Risperidone (RSP) is a commonly used atypical antipsychotic medication, and was therefore selected for encapsulation by proteinoid NPs. Proteinoid polymers with high molecular weight and low polydispersity were synthesized from l-amino acids and poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) by thermal step-growth polymerization mechanism. RSP-loaded proteinoid NPs …

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Dec 2020 • Scientific Reports

Autoencoder based blind source separation for photoacoustic resolution enhancement

Matan Benyamin, Hadar Genish, Ran Califa, Lauren Wolbromsky, Michal Ganani, Zhen Wang, Shuyun Zhou, Zheng Xie, Zeev Zalevsky

Photoacoustics is a promising technique for in-depth imaging of biological tissues. However, the lateral resolution of photoacoustic imaging is limited by size of the optical excitation spot, and therefore by light diffraction and scattering. Several super-resolution approaches, among which methods based on localization of labels and particles, have been suggested, presenting promising but limited solutions. This work demonstrates a novel concept for extended-resolution imaging based on separation and localization of multiple sub-pixel absorbers, each characterized by a distinct acoustic response. Sparse autoencoder algorithm is used to blindly decompose the acoustic signal into its various sources and resolve sub-pixel features. This method can be used independently or as a combination with other super-resolution techniques to gain further resolution enhancement and may also be extended to other imaging …

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Dec 2020 • Applied Physics Letters

Thickness dependence of elliptical planar Hall effect magnetometers

Hariharan Nhalil, Proloy T Das, Moty Schultz, Shai Amrusi, Asaf Grosz, Lior Klein

We fabricate elliptical planar Hall effect magnetometers with Permalloy thickness ranging between 25 and 200 nm. We study the thickness dependence of their equivalent magnetic noise by examining the effect of the layer thickness on the signal and noise including Joule heating contributions. Sensors with a thickness of 50 nm achieve equivalent magnetic noise as low as ∼24 pT/ √ Hz at 50 Hz and ∼36 pT/ √ Hz at 10 Hz, which are the best reported values for any type of magnetic sensor of similar or smaller size. These results are achieved without the use of magnetic flux concentrators, which helps to reduce the sensor volume while improving its spatial resolution and reducing the complexity and time of its production and, hence, its potential cost. We discuss different routes for further resolution improvements.

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Dec 2020 • Brain Research

Computational capacity of pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex

Danko D Georgiev, Stefan K Kolev, Eliahu Cohen, James F Glazebrook

The electric activities of cortical pyramidal neurons are supported by structurally stable, morphologically complex axo-dendritic trees. Anatomical differences between axons and dendrites in regard to their length or caliber reflect the underlying functional specializations, for input or output of neural information, respectively. For a proper assessment of the computational capacity of pyramidal neurons, we have analyzed an extensive dataset of three-dimensional digital reconstructions from the NeuroMorpho. Org database, and quantified basic dendritic or axonal morphometric measures in different regions and layers of the mouse, rat or human cerebral cortex. Physical estimates of the total number and type of ions involved in neuronal electric spiking based on the obtained morphometric data, combined with energetics of neurotransmitter release and signaling fueled by glucose consumed by the active brain, support …

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Dec 2020 • ACS nano

Glucose-Functionalized Liposomes for Reducing False Positives in Cancer Diagnosis

Chen Tzror-Azankot, Oshra Betzer, Tamar Sadan, Menachem Motiei, Shai Rahimipour, Ayelet Atkins, Aron Popovtzer, Rachela Popovtzer

Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) is a powerful tool for cancer detection, staging, and follow-up. However, 18F-FDG-PET imaging has high rates of false positives, as it cannot distinguish between tumor and inflammation regions that both feature increased glucose metabolic activity. In the present study, we engineered liposomes coated with glucose and the chelator dodecane tetraacetic acid (DOTA) complexed with copper, to serve as a diagnostic technology for differentiating between cancer and inflammation. This liposome technology is based on FDA-approved materials and enables complexation with metal cations and radionuclides. We found that these liposomes were preferentially uptaken by cancer cell lines with high metabolic activity, mediated via glucose transporter-1. In vivo, these liposomes were avidly uptaken by tumors, as compared to liposomes without glucose …

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Dec 2020 • Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics

Synthesis of Multi Amino Acid Chiral Polymeric Microparticles for Enantioselective Chemistry

Meir Abuaf, Yitzhak Mastai

Chiral polymeric particles have emerged as a new and exciting field of research and in the last years due to their possible use for many applications in chiral chemistry. In this article, an important question is focused upon that has not been explored in detail in the field of chiral polymeric particles. The main question is whether the chiral composition of the polymeric particles affects their chiral recognition. The hypothesis is that chiral polymeric particles with a variety of different chiral groups will improve chiral recognition and improve their use of enantioselectivity crystallization. Consequently, chiral microparticles based on one up to three different amino acids based monomers are prepared by precipitation polymerization. The chiral microspheres are characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscope (SEM), mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and display a narrow …

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Dec 2020 • physica status solidi (a)

Laser Recording in Chalcogenide Glass Films: Driving Forces and Kinetics of the Mass Transfer

Yuri S Kaganovskii, Hadar Genish, Michael Rosenbluh

Herein, precision recording of indented dots and lines in As10Se90 and As2S3 chalcogenide glass films by a focused laser beam is demonstrated and the kinetics and mechanisms of mass transfer under illumination are studied. Due to inhomogeneous intensity distribution and local heating of the film at the focal point, the beam at rest produces an indentation whose depth increases with time and laser power. Illumination by a moving beam leads to formation of groves whose morphology depends on the beam speed and power. At low light intensities, formation of the indentations occurs in the solid phase, due to photoinduced radial diffusion of the film constituents coupled with electrons and holes created by light. The two main driving forces present are: 1) a lateral steady‐state electric field formed due to different mobilities of electrons and holes and 2) driving force of thermodiffusion (Soret effect). At high light …

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Dec 2020 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Alumina Thin-Film Deposition on Rough Topographies Comprising Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes: Implications for Membranes, Sensors, and Electrodes

Lev Rovinsky, Barun Kumar Barick, Elnatan Lieberman, Efrat Shawat Avraham, Gilbert Daniel Nessim, Tamar Segal-Peretz, Noa Lachman

In this article, the limits of thin-film deposition on very rough topographies are demonstrated by depositing alumina on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). Vapor deposition techniques are the enabling platforms of the thin-film industry, offering high material versatility and good coverage ability on relatively flat surfaces, leading to frequent use in a large array of applications, especially nanoscale electronic devices such as sensors and electrodes. However, when surface topography exhibits high roughness, even depositions that are not limited to line-of-sight show only partial coverage, significantly hindering performances. Our manufacturing process of VACNT/Al2O3 nanocomposites has three vaporous steps: CNT growth by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), functionalization via controlled thermal oxidation, and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina. The same limited accessibility hinders each of …

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Dec 2020 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2012.12338

Quantum complementarity of one-and two-particle visibilities:: direct evaluation method for continuous variables

Danko Georgiev, Leon Bello, Avishy Carmi, Eliahu Cohen

Bipartite entangled Gaussian states provide an important resource for quantum information based on continuous variables. Perfect complementarity between one-particle visibility and two-particle visibility in discrete systems, has been previously generalized to an inequality, rather than equality, for Gaussian states characterized by varying amounts of squeezing and entanglement. The latter quantum inequality, however, appears to be due to assessment of two-particle visibility using an indirect method that first corrects the two-particle probability distribution by adding and subtracting distributions with varying degree of entanglement. In this work, we develop a new direct method for quantifying two-particle visibility based on measurement of a pair of two-particle observables that commute with the measured pair of single-particle observables. This direct method treats the two pairs of quantum observables on equal footing by formally identifying all four observable distributions as Radon transforms of the original two-particle probability distribution. The quantum complementarity relation between one-particle visibility and two-particle visibility obtained through the direct method deviates from unity by an exponentially small quantity bounded by the amount of squeezing, which is shown to vanish in the limit of infinite squeezing when the entangled Gaussian state approaches an ideal Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state. The presented results demonstrate the theoretical utility of Radon transforms for elucidating the nature of two-particle visibility and provide new tools for the development of quantum applications employing continuous variables.

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Dec 2020 • Journal of Optics

Emotion recognition using speckle pattern analysis and k-nearest neighbors classification

Hadas Lupa Yitzhak, Yarden Tzabari Kelman, Alexey Moskovenko, Evgenii Zhovnerchuk, Zeev Zalevsky

Emotion recognition is a basic communication tool in our daily interaction, and the recognition of emotions without contact and with high sensitivity may be very useful for various purposes. This paper presents a preliminary experimental investigation in which emotions of healthy subjects were recognized while they performed facial gestures related to those different emotions. Their faces were illuminated with a few laser spots and the formed back-scattered speckle patterns were analyzed with a camera having proper optics. By analyzing the temporal variation in the spatial distribution of those speckle patterns we estimated the muscles' contraction–release motion in specific locations. The used data amount for the estimation procedure was less than 1% of the face frame so as to maintain the subjects' privacy. Moreover, the presented optic method enables the detection of minor movements that cannot be recognized …

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Dec 2020 • Scientific reports

Human kidney clonal proliferation disclose lineage-restricted precursor characteristics

Osnat Cohen-Zontag, Rotem Gershon, Orit Harari-Steinberg, Itamar Kanter, Dorit Omer, Oren Pleniceanu, Gal Tam, Sarit Oriel, Herzel Ben-Hur, Guy Katz, Zohar Dotan, Tomer Kalisky, Benjamin Dekel, Naomi Pode-Shakked

In-vivo single cell clonal analysis in the adult mouse kidney has previously shown lineage-restricted clonal proliferation within varying nephron segments as a mechanism responsible for cell replacement and local regeneration. To analyze ex-vivo clonal growth, we now preformed limiting dilution to generate genuine clonal cultures from one single human renal epithelial cell, which can give rise to up to 3.4* 10 6 cells, and analyzed their characteristics using transcriptomics. A comparison between clonal cultures revealed restriction to either proximal or distal kidney sub-lineages with distinct cellular and molecular characteristics; rapidly amplifying de-differentiated clones and a stably proliferating cuboidal epithelial-appearing clones, respectively. Furthermore, each showed distinct molecular features including cell-cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, oxidative phosphorylation, BMP signaling pathway and cell …

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Dec 2020 • physica status solidi (a)

Laser Recording in Chalcogenide Glass Films: Driving Forces and Kinetics of the Mass Transfer

Yuri S Kaganovskii, Hadar Genish, Michael Rosenbluh

Herein, precision recording of indented dots and lines in As10Se90 and As2S3 chalcogenide glass films by a focused laser beam is demonstrated and the kinetics and mechanisms of mass transfer under illumination are studied. Due to inhomogeneous intensity distribution and local heating of the film at the focal point, the beam at rest produces an indentation whose depth increases with time and laser power. Illumination by a moving beam leads to formation of groves whose morphology depends on the beam speed and power. At low light intensities, formation of the indentations occurs in the solid phase, due to photoinduced radial diffusion of the film constituents coupled with electrons and holes created by light. The two main driving forces present are: 1) a lateral steady‐state electric field formed due to different mobilities of electrons and holes and 2) driving force of thermodiffusion (Soret effect). At high light …

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