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Mar 2024 • Journal of Physics: Energy

Roadmap on Multivalent Batteries

M Rosa Palacin, Patrik Johansson, Robert Dominko, Ben Dlugatch, Doron Aurbach, Zhenyou Li, Maximilian Fichtner, Olivera Lužanin, Jan Bitenc, Zhixuan Wei, Clarissa Glaser, Jürgen Janek, Ana Fernández-Barquín, Aroa R Mainar, Olatz Leonet, Idoia Urdampilleta, J Alberto Blázquez, Deyana S Tchitchekova, Alexandre Ponrouch, Pieremanuele Canepa, Gopalakrishnan Sai Gautam, Raúl San Román Gallego Casilda, Cynthia S Martinez-Cisneros, Nieves Ureña Torres, Alejandro Varez, Jean-Yves Sanchez, Kostiantyn V Kravchyk, Maksym V Kovalenko, Anastasia A Teck, Huw Shiel, Ifan EL Stephens, Mary P Ryan, Eugen Zemlyanushin, Sonia Dsoke, Rebecca Grieco, Nagaraj Patil, Rebeca Marcilla, Xuan Gao, Claire J Carmalt, Guanjie He, Maria-Magdalena Titirici

Battery technologies based in multivalent charge carriers with ideally two or three electrons transferred per ion exchanged between the electrodes have large promises in raw performance numbers, most often expressed as high energy density, and are also ideally based on raw materials that are widely abundant and less expensive. Yet, these are still globally in their infancy, with some concepts (e.g., Mg metal) being more technologically mature. The challenges to address are derived on one side from the highly polarizing nature of multivalent ions when compared to single valent concepts such as Li+ or Na+ present in Li-ion or Na-ion batteries, and on the other, from the difficulties in achieving efficient metal plating/stripping (which remains the holy grail for lithium). Nonetheless, research performed to date has given some fruits and a clearer view of the challenges ahead. These include technological topics …

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Mar 2024 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Scanning SQUID imaging of metastable states in 1T-TaS2

Devidas TR, Shannon Haley, Valeria Rosa Rocha, James Analytis, Beena Kalisky, Eran Maniv

Visualizing the current distribution in materials is a powerful tool to investigate and understand unconventional transport they exhibit. In the present work, we study a few microns thick devices of the layered chalcogenide material 1T-TaS 2. Pulsed DC excitation of the commensurate charge density wave (CCDW) phase in the system leads to a controllable, non-volatile, resistance-switching states. We use scanning SQUID microscopy to image, in-situ, the local current density map by mapping the field generated by the current flow. The images reveal the presence of electrical domains in the device and their effect on the current flow.

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Mar 2024 • Biosensors

A Self-Calibrated Single Wavelength Biosensor for Measuring Oxygen Saturation

Michal Katan, Ori Pearl, Alon Tzroya, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Traditional methods for measuring blood oxygen use multiple wavelengths, which produce an intrinsic error due to ratiometric measurements. These methods assume that the absorption changes with the wavelength, but in fact the scattering changes as well and cannot be neglected. We found that if one measures in a specific angle around a cylindrical tissue, called the iso-pathlength (IPL) point, the reemitted light intensity is unaffected by the tissue’s scattering. Therefore, the absorption can be isolated from the scattering, which allows the extraction of the subject’s oxygen saturation. In this work, we designed an optical biosensor for reading the light intensity reemitted from the tissue, using a single light source and multiple photodetectors (PDs), with one of them in the IPL point’s location. Using this bio-device, we developed a methodology to extract the arterial oxygen saturation using a single wavelength light source. We proved this method is not dependent on the light source and is applicable to different measurement locations on the body, with an error of 0.5%. Moreover, we tested thirty-eight males and females with the biosensor under normal conditions. Finally, we show the results of measuring subjects in a hypoxic chamber that simulates extreme conditions with low oxygen.

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Mar 2024 • Real-time Measurements, Rogue Phenomena, and Single-Shot Applications IX …, 2024

Quantum temporal optics

Moti Fridman

Temporal optics, and specifically time-lenses and time-stretch systems, revolutionized the field of ultrafast measurements. Over the last years, we utilized time-lenses to measure different quantum schemes and studied the temporal modes of correlated photons with high temporal resolution. We developed temporal schemes based on quantum light, for realizing quantum tomography in the time-domain. We developed low-resolution time-lenses for weak quantum measurements. Finally, we suggest how quantum time-lens can lead to optical deep learning systems. In the talk, I will give an overview of the different types of quantum temporal schemes, elaborate on the future challenges in the field, and discuss the prospects and future applications which may be possible.

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Mar 2024 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Conductivity of edge states in 1T-TaS2

Jonathan Reichanadter, Jeffrey Neaton, James Analytis, Beena Kalisky

The layered compound TaS2 has been shown to form a commensurate Charge-Density Wave (CCDW) lattice at low temperatures, and undergoes multiple fascinating transitions between nearly-commensurate and incommensurate CDW phases with increasing temperature. Such phases exhibit unique conductive properties that offer a new platform for next-generation electronic devices, namely the ultra-fast insulator-metal transition observed in CCDW 1T-TaS2 under optical or electric excitation.Prior work in our group has shown, using a cross-bar device, that one can toggle the resistivity of CCDW-phase TaS2 via directional write currents. While initially thought to be a slidetronic effect driven by the interlayer alignment of CCDWs, state-of-the-art SQUID measurements of spatially-resolved current density show the current path to orient along lateral edges of the device. Using first principles calculations, we model …

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Mar 2024 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Observation of photon sphere modes in black hole microcavity laser

Chenni Xu, Aswathy Sundaresan, Dominique Decanini, Hugo Girin, Clement Lafargue, Ligang Wang, Melanie Lebental, Patrick Sebbah

One of interesting phenomena of a black hole (BH) in its vicinity due to its extreme curvature of spacetime is called a photon sphere (PS), a closed trajectory where photons get trapped and orbit. In this work, we design novel 3D microcavities and investigate lasing on modes localized on a PS, induced by attractive nature of BH. We explore these eigenmodes by conformally transforming a Schwarzschild BH metric into a 2D plane with varying refractive index. We analytically confirm the existence of PS modes by extending our previous theory of conformal transformations [PNAS 119, e2112052119 (2022)] into open systems, and solving the wave equation under a WKB framework. To numerically induce lasing of PS modes, we selectively pump the 2D cavity above the vicinity of the PS. The lasing process is revealed by a 3D finite-difference time-domain simulation coupled to the atomic population of a four-level …

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Mar 2024 • Label-free Biomedical Imaging and Sensing (LBIS) 2024, PC128540H, 2024

Spatially and temporally resolution enhanced, all-optical, localized, non-contact and photoacoustic imaging

Matan Benyamin, Zeev Zalevsky

In this presentation we will present an all-optical pump-probe approach for non-contact photo-acoustic sensing and imaging. We will show various configurations for enhancing the obtainable spatial and temporal resolution as well as usage of the proposed sensing technique for various important applications. The presented pump-probe approach allows localized and direct technique for performing photoacoustic imaging while the focused pump beam excites the acoustic signal, and a focused probe beam does the spatial-temporal analysis of the diffracted speckle patterns. This analysis is done in one configuration by analyzing time changing contrast of the time varying speckle patterns and in another sensing configuration, where the speckle pattern do not vary but rather laterally move, by tracking the position of the correlation peak. Due to its advantage of performing localized photo-acoustic sensing, the …

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Mar 2024 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Specific Removal and Recovery of Bromide Ions: The Search for Stable Electrodes and Operation Modes

Izaak Cohen, Barak Shapira, Alexey Shopin, Yuval Elias, Eran Avraham, Doron Aurbach

In previous work, we introduced an elegant approach for bromide recovery from water by the introduction of a hybrid physical adsorption and capacitive deionization processes for selective removal and recovery of boron from water. In this paper, we show that the harsh environment of water contaminated with bromine-moieties adversely affects the longevity of relevant electrodes, with close to 100 consecutive work hours of bromides removal without noticeable degradation. To extend the lifespan of electrodes, we used an asymmetric CDI cell with a 1:5 positive/negative electrodes ratio in which a polarity switch between electrodes is applied every six adsorption-desorption cycles in a way that in each adsorption-desorption cycle, a different electrode of the six electrodes, functions as the positive electrode. We deduce that the polarity switch reduces oxidation and subsequent degradation of the positive electrodes …

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Mar 2024 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XXI …, 2024

Detection and classification of heavy metal and organic material in water using iso-pathlength point characterization

Alon Tzroya, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Water pollution, particularly from hazardous substances like heavy metal ions, poses a serious threat to both human health and the environment. The conventional methods used to measure these pollutants in water are not only expensive and time-consuming but also require extensive sample preparation. Addressing this challenge, we propose an optical approach that utilizes the full scattering profile, focusing on the iso-pathlength (IPL) point. The IPL point remains constant for different scattering coefficients, with absorption affecting only its intensity, not its position. This paper demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach detecting FeCl2 and intralipid in concentrations of 70-100 and 20-30 ppm, respectively. These findings highlight the IPL point as an intrinsic calibration parameter, offering an efficient means to differentiate water contamination. The method is not only precise and versatile but also emerges as a …

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Mar 2024 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2403.03050

Microscopic origin of abrupt transition in interdependent superconducting networks

Bnaya Gross, Irina Volotsenko, Ivan Bonamassa, Shlomo Havlin, Aviad Frydman

The paradigm of interdependent networks has recently been manifested in experimentally testable lab setup of interdependent superconducting networks. This system experiences an abrupt transition due to the thermal dissipation between the networks but its underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we study the critical behavior and the underlying mechanism of the transition, unveiling its unique microscopic nature. The microscopic characteristics of the transition result in a macroscopic long-living plateau that lasts for thousands of seconds and increases with the size of the system. We characterize the critical behavior of the transition and find that the critical exponents are consistent with those predicted theoretically for percolation of abstract interdependent networks and interdependent ferromagnetic networks, supporting a common universal origin of interdependent systems.

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Mar 2024 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Non-Volatile Memory Effects in Transition Metal Oxides

Amos Sharoni, Elihu Anouchi, Avital Fried

We have recently reported on a non-volatile memory effect we discovered in correlated oxides with temperature-driven insulator-metal transitions (IMT), such as VO 2, V 2 O 3 and NdNiO 3. The memory appears as a resistance increase at predefined temperatures that are set or erased by simple heating-cooling (ie, ramp-reversal) protocols, thus it is coined the ramp reversal memory (RRM)[1]. The characteristics of this memory effect do not coincide with any previously reported history or memory effects in similar systems.We will review the broad range of experimental features of the RRM, including the ability to write multiple memories of the device, the effects of writing and erasing speeds on the memory, and the role of epitaxial coupling to the substrate in limiting the magnitude of the memory [2-4]. From these we conclude that the main ingredients for the effect to arise are the spatial phase-separation of metallic …

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Mar 2024 • Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism

Probing the Difference Between Amorphous and Granular Superconducting Nanowires in Transport Measurements

Zoharchen Sofer, Avner Shaulov, Amos Sharoni, Yosef Yeshurun

Superconducting non-granular quasi-one-dimensional (1D) NbN nanowires and relatively wide granular wires of the same material exhibit similar magneto-transport behavior arising from different physical origin. Both types of wires exhibit a broad transition into the superconducting state with non-vanishing resistance well below Tc, and negative magnetoresistance (nMR) decreasing in magnitude with temperature. A distinct behavior between the two wires is revealed in their response to increasing current. In V-I measurements, the 1D wires exhibit finite initial slope, i.e., zero critical current, at all temperatures below the transition, while the granular wires exhibit a nonzero critical current that depends on temperature. Also, the two wires differ from each other in the current dependence of the nMR. In the 1D wires, at low temperature, the nMR decreases monotonically with the current, while in the granular wires the …

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Mar 2024 • Nature Communications

Reshaped three-body interactions and the observation of an Efimov state in the continuum

Yaakov Yudkin, Roy Elbaz, José P D’Incao, Paul S Julienne, Lev Khaykovich

Efimov trimers are exotic three-body quantum states that emerge from the different types of three-body continua in the vicinity of two-atom Feshbach resonances. In particular, as the strength of the interaction is decreased to a critical point, an Efimov state merges into the atom-dimer threshold and eventually dissociates into an unbound atom-dimer pair. Here we explore the Efimov state in the vicinity of this critical point using coherent few-body spectroscopy in 7Li atoms using a narrow two-body Feshbach resonance. Contrary to the expectation, we find that the 7Li Efimov trimer does not immediately dissociate when passing the threshold, and survives as a metastable state embedded in the atom-dimer continuum. We identify this behavior with a universal phenomenon related to the emergence of a repulsive interaction in the atom-dimer channel which reshapes the three-body interactions in any system …

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Mar 2024 • Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems XVI, PC1286109, 2024

From concept to commercialization: automated high throughput optical modulation biosensing for detection of low concentrations of biomarkers

Shmuel Burg, Meir Cohen, Michael Margulis, Reut Askenasy, Amos Danielli

Rapid, highly sensitive, and high-throughput detection of biomarkers at low concentrations is invaluable for the early diagnosis of various diseases. In many sensitive immunoassays, the protocol is time-consuming and requires a complicated and expensive detection system. Previously, we presented a high-throughput optical modulation biosensing (ht-OMB) system, which enables reading a 96-well plate within 10 minutes. In ht-OMB, to aggregate and immobilize the magnetic beads to one spot, a single cylindrical permanent magnet with a sharp tip is positioned under a 96-well plate. To reduce washing and separation steps, the laser beam is manipulated relative to the fixed magnetic beads. Recently, MagBiosense Inc., which commercializes the ht-OMB technology, provided us with a fully automated OMBi detection system. Here, we show the use of the OMBi system for highly sensitive serological (clinical anti …

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Mar 2024 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XXI …, 2024

Surface radiolabeling of PEGylated liposomes for biomedical applications

Chen Tzror-Azankot, Adi Anaki, Tamar Sadan, Menachem Motiei, Rachela Popovtzer

Liposomes, self-assembled lipid-based nanoparticles, have gained significant attention due to their versatility and potential applications in various biomedical fields. They serve as promising platforms for targeted drug delivery, imaging, and therapeutics. Among the various types of liposomes, radiolabeled liposomes have attracted considerable interest due to their unique capabilities in both therapy and imaging. In therapy, radiolabeled liposomes can effectively transport therapeutic radioactive agents directly to disease sites, allowing for precise and localized treatment. In imaging, radiolabeling enables non-invasive visualization and tracking of liposomes, providing valuable diagnostic information. In this study, we present a technique for surface radiolabeling of liposomes, achieved by introducing a chelating agent onto the liposome surface and optimizing radiolabeling conditions for desired radionuclides …

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Mar 2024 • Surfaces and Interfaces

Heteroatom co-doping (N, NS, NB) on carbon dots and their antibacterial and antioxidant properties

Arumugam Saravanan, Poushali Das, Moorthy Maruthapandi, Saurav Aryal, Shulamit Michaeli, Yitzhak Mastai, John HT Luong, Aharon Gedanken

The development of new nanoparticle-based antibiotics with biocompatible properties is an emerging advance in nanotechnology. This study advocated the development of carbon dots (CDs) doped with nitrogen, nitrogen with sulfur, and nitrogen with boron (N, NS, and NB-CDs). This led to changes in the properties of the CDs, both chemically and biologically. A facile hydrothermal technique was used to synthesize CDs and the formation of CDs was confirmed through various analytical techniques. The CDs had sizes ranging from 3.2–4.8 nm and ζ-potential values of +13 to 27 mV. The doped CDs exhibited moderate changes in fluorescence behaviors depending on the excitation wavelength (λex). The N- and NB-doped CDs were effective at eliminating gram-negative pathogens (E. coli and K. pneumoniae), with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 300 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal …

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Mar 2024 • Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems XVI, PC1286108, 2024

Saliva-based extraction-free molecular assay for rapid diagnostics of SARS-CoV-2

Michael Margulis, Hanan Rohana, Oran Erster, Michal Mandelboim, Asaf Biber, Eli Schwartz, Avi Peretz, Amos Danielli

The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the inability of diagnostic laboratories' testing capacity to keep up with the surging demand. The primary reasons were the lack of reagents (e.g., viral transport media and nucleic acid extraction kits) and the low throughput of the gold-standard molecular detection method (RT-qPCR). While the reagent shortages were eventually resolved, the limited throughput of the RT-qPCR remains a bottleneck for high-throughput testing applications even today. Here, we introduce a rapid saliva-based extraction-free molecular assay, which utilizes a non-invasive saliva sampling and extraction-free sample preparation, a fast endpoint RT-PCR and a high-throughput optical modulation biosensing (ht-OMBi) detection platform. We blindly tested 364 paired nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva samples from suspected SARS-CoV-2 cases in Israel. Compared with the gold standard swab …

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Mar 2024 • Quantum Sensing, Imaging, and Precision Metrology II 12912, 160-167, 2024

Quantum temporal optics devices

Moti Fridman

Quantum interferometers represent a powerful class of devices that exploit the principles of quantum mechanics to achieve highly sensitive measurements and precise detection capabilities. In classical interferometry, light waves or matter waves combine and interfere, resulting in constructive or destructive interference patterns that encode information about the system being studied. In the quantum realm, interferometers leverage the unique properties of quantum states, such as superposition and entanglement, to surpass the sensitivity limits imposed by classical physics. We developed a new class of quantum interferometers, namely, the temporal SU(1,1) interferometer. Here, we present the code for numerically comparing classical SU(2) interferometer, regular quantum SU(1,1) interferometer, and our temporal SU(1,1) interferometer.

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Mar 2024 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XXI …, 2024

Gold nanoparticles for safe delivery of cisplatin

Yoray Sharon, Menachem Motiei, Chen Tzror-Azankot, Tamar Sadan, Rachela Popovtzer, Eli Rosenbaum

Cisplatin (CP) is the primary standard treatment for bladder cancer. Nevertheless, CP has side effects, particularly nephrotoxicity. This limits the treatment of a notable portion of advanced bladder cancer patients with cisplatin. We have developed gold nanoparticles that conjugate CP (CP-AuNPs) for safer delivery to tumors. Here, we investigated the biodistribution of the CP-AuNP conjugates in a mouse model of bladder cancer, to characterize the distinct role of CPAuNP in delivering and releasing CP in tumor and tissues. Effect of the CP-AuNPs on weight and kidney was also investigated. This study can provide insights into the potential safety of CP-AuNP for bladder cancer treatment.

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Mar 2024 • High Contrast Metastructures XIII, PC1289711, 2024

Extreme metaphotonics with ultra high-index chalcogenide topological insulators

Tomer Lewi

In nanophotonic, small mode volumes, narrow resonance linewidths and field enhancements, fundamentally scales with refractive index values and are key for many implementations involving light-matter interactions. Topological insulators (TI) are a class of insulating materials that host topologically protected surface states, some of which exhibit very high permittivity values. In this talk, I will present my group’s latest results on chalcogenide metaphotonics. I start by discussing Chalcogenide Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 TIs nanostructures. Using polarized far-field and near field Nanospectroscopy we reveal that Bi2Se3 nanobeams exhibit mid-infrared resonant modes with 2π phase shifts across the resonance. We further demonstrate that Bi2Te3 metasurfaces exhibit deep-subwavelength resonant modes utilizing their record high index value peaking at n~11. Finally we discuss how the anomalous thermo-optic effect in …

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Mar 2024 • Circulation

Small Extracellular Vesicles From Infarcted and Failing Heart Accelerate Tumor Growth

Tal Caller, Itai Rotem, Olga Shaihov-Teper, Daria Lendengolts, Yeshai Schary, Ruty Shai, Efrat Glick-Saar, Dan Dominissini, Menachem Motiei, Idan Katzir, Rachela Popovtzer, Merav Nahmoud, Alex Boomgarden, Crislyn D’Souza-Schorey, Nili Naftali-Shani, Jonathan Leor

BACKGROUND Myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. However, the mechanism is complex and unclear. Here, we aimed to test our hypothesis that cardiac small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), particularly cardiac mesenchymal stromal cell–derived sEVs (cMSC-sEVs), contribute to the link between post-MI left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) and cancer. METHODS We purified and characterized sEVs from post-MI hearts and cultured cMSCs. Then, we analyzed cMSC-EV cargo and proneoplastic effects on several lines of cancer cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Next, we modeled heterotopic and orthotopic lung and breast cancer tumors in mice with post-MI LVD. We transferred cMSC-sEVs to assess sEV biodistribution and its effect on tumor growth. Finally, we tested the effects of sEV depletion and spironolactone treatment on cMSC-EV release …

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