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2023 • EPJ Web of Conferences

Colour-coded nanoscale calibration and optical quantification of axial fluorophore position

Ilya Olevsko-Arad, Moshe Feldberg, Martin Oheim, Adi Salomon

Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) has come of age, but a reliable and easy-to-use tool for calibrating evanescent-wave penetration depths is missing. We provide a test-sample for TIRF and other axial super-resolution microscopies for emitter axial calibration. Our originality is that nanometer(nm) distances along the microscope’s optical axis are color-encoded in the form of a multi-layered multi-colored transparent sandwich. Emitter layers are excited by the same laser but they emit in different colors. Layers are deposited in a controlled manner onto a glass substrate and protected with a non-fluorescent polymer. Decoding the penetration depth of the exciting evanescent field, by spectrally unmixing of multi-colored samples is presented as well. Our slide can serve as a test sample for quantifying TIRF, but also as an axial ruler for nm-axial distance measurements in single-molecule localization …

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2023 • Energy & Environmental Science

A practical perspective on the potential of rechargeable Mg batteries

J Alberto Blázquez, Rudi R Maça, Olatz Leonet, Eneko Azaceta, Ayan Mukherjee, Zhirong Zhao-Karger, Zhenyou Li, Aleksey Kovalevsky, Ana Fernández-Barquín, Aroa R Mainar, Piotr Jankowski, Laurin Rademacher, Sunita Dey, Siân E Dutton, Clare P Grey, Janina Drews, Joachim Häcker, Timo Danner, Arnulf Latz, Dane Sotta, M Rosa Palacin, Jean-Frédéric Martin, Juan Maria García Lastra, Maximilian Fichtner, Sumana Kundu, Alexander Kraytsberg, Yair Ein-Eli, Malachi Noked, Doron Aurbach

Emerging energy storage systems based on abundant and cost-effective materials are key to overcome the global energy and climate crisis of the 21st century. Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries (RMB), based on Earth-abundant magnesium, can provide a cheap and environmentally responsible alternative to the benchmark Li-ion technology, especially for large energy storage applications. Currently, RMB technology is the subject of intense research efforts at laboratory scale. However, these emerging approaches must be placed in a real-world perspective to ensure that they satisfy key technological requirements. In an attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory advancements and industrial development demands, herein, we report the first non-aqueous multilayer RMB pouch cell prototypes and propose a roadmap for a new advanced RMB chemistry. Through this work, we aim to show the great unrealized …

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2023 • Advanced Optical Materials

Characterization of Nanometric Thin Films with Far‐Field Light

Hodaya Klimovsky, Omer Shavit, Carine Julien, Ilya Olevsko, Mohamed Hamode, Yossi Abulafia, Hervé Suaudeau, Vincent Armand, Martin Oheim, Adi Salomon

The characterization of ultrathin transparent films is paramount for various optoelectronic materials, coatings, and photonics. However, characterizing such thin layers is difficult and it requires specialized clean‐room equipment and trained personnel. Here, a contact‐less, all‐optical method is introduced and validated for characterizing nanometric transparent films using far‐field optics. A series of nanometric, smooth, and homogeneous layered samples are fabricated first, alternating transparent spacer and fluorescent layers in a controlled manner. Fluorescence radiation pattern originating from the thin fluorophore layers is then recorded and analyzed and quantitative image analysis is used to perform in operando measurements of the refractive index, film homogeneity and to estimate axial fluorophore distances at a sub‐wavelength scale with a precision of a few of nanometers. The results compare favorably to …

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2023 • Journal of Materials Chemistry B

Controlled synthesis of multifunctional dome-shaped micro-and nano-structures via a robust physical route for biological applications

Ganit Indech, Lidor Geri, Chen Mordechai, Yarden Ben Moshe, Yitzhak Mastai, Orit Shefi, Amos Sharoni

Micro- and Nano-particles are elemental for many current and developing technologies. Specifically, these particles are being extensively used in biological studies and applications, including imaging, drug delivery and therapeutics. Recent advances have led to the development of multifunctional particles, which have the potential to further enhance their effectiveness, enabling novel applications. Therefore, many efforts are devoted to produce well-defined particles for specific needs. However, conventional fabrication methodologies utilized to develop particles are time consuming, making it extremely challenging to fine-tune properties of the particles for multifunctional applications. Herein, we present a simple and facile method to fabricate dome-shaped micron and nano particles by a robust physical route. The presented method enables to design particles with a vast range of materials, sizes and compositions …

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2023 • Advanced Functional Materials

Self‐Healing and‐Repair of Nanomechanical Damages in Lead Halide Perovskites

Santanu Parida, Sujit Kumar, Shiraz Cherf, Sigalit Aharon, David Cahen, Baran Eren

Recovery from damage in materials helps extend their useful lifetime and of devices that contain them. Given that the photodamages in HaP materials and based devices are shown to recover, the question arises if this also applies to mechanical damages, especially those that can occur at the nanometer scale, relevant also in view of efforts to develop flexible HaP‐based devices. Here, this question is addressed by poking HaP single crystal surfaces with an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip under both ultra‐high vacuum (UHV) and variably controlled ambient water vapor pressure conditions. Sequential in situ AFM scanning allowed real‐time imaging of the morphological changes at the damaged sites. Using methylammonium (MA) and cesium (Cs) variants for A‐site cations in lead bromide perovskites, the experiments show that nanomechanical damages on methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) crystals …

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2023 • Energy & Environmental Science

A practical perspective on the potential of rechargeable Mg batteries

J Alberto Blázquez, Rudi R Maça, Olatz Leonet, Eneko Azaceta, Ayan Mukherjee, Zhirong Zhao-Karger, Zhenyou Li, Aleksey Kovalevsky, Ana Fernández-Barquín, Aroa R Mainar, Piotr Jankowski, Laurin Rademacher, Sunita Dey, Siân E Dutton, Clare P Grey, Janina Drews, Joachim Häcker, Timo Danner, Arnulf Latz, Dane Sotta, M Rosa Palacin, Jean-Frédéric Martin, Juan Maria García Lastra, Maximilian Fichtner, Sumana Kundu, Alexander Kraytsberg, Yair Ein-Eli, Malachi Noked, Doron Aurbach

Emerging energy storage systems based on abundant and cost-effective materials are key to overcome the global energy and climate crisis of the 21st century. Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries (RMB), based on Earth-abundant magnesium, can provide a cheap and environmentally responsible alternative to the benchmark Li-ion technology, especially for large energy storage applications. Currently, RMB technology is the subject of intense research efforts at laboratory scale. However, these emerging approaches must be placed in a real-world perspective to ensure that they satisfy key technological requirements. In an attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory advancements and industrial development demands, herein, we report the first non-aqueous multilayer RMB pouch cell prototypes and propose a roadmap for a new advanced RMB chemistry. Through this work, we aim to show the great unrealized …

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2023 • Carbon Energy

Single‐atom Pt on carbon nanotubes for selective electrocatalysis

Samuel S Hardisty, Xiaoqian Lin, Anthony RJ Kucernak, David Zitoun

Utilizing supported single atoms as catalysts presents an opportunity to reduce the usage of critical raw materials such as platinum, which are essential for electrochemical reactions such as hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Herein, we describe the synthesis of a Pt single electrocatalyst inside single‐walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) via a redox reaction. Characterizations via electron microscopy, X‐ray photoelectron microscopy, and X‐ray absorption spectroscopy show the single‐atom nature of the Pt. The electrochemical behavior of the sample to hydrogen and oxygen was investigated using the advanced floating electrode technique, which minimizes mass transport limitations and gives a thorough insight into the activity of the electrocatalyst. The single‐atom samples showed higher HOR activity than state‐of‐the‐art 30% Pt/C while almost no oxygen reduction reaction activity in the proton exchange …

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2023 • EPJ Web of Conferences

Fast, large-field fluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging with a single-spinning disk two-photon microscope

Andreas Deeg, Federico Trigo, Doriane Hazart, Brigitte Delhomme, Tchyia Zar, Thomas Naiser, Christian Seebacher, Adi Salomon, Clément Ricard, Rainer Uhl, Martin Oheim

Confocal microscopes have been the workhorses of 3-D biological imaging, but they are slow, offer limited depth penetration and collect only ballistic photons. With their inefficient use of excitation photons they expose biological samples to an often intolerably high light burden. The speed limitation and photo-bleaching risk can be somewhat relaxed in a spinning-disk geometry, due to shorter pixel dwell times and rapid re-scans during image capture. Alternatively, light-sheet microscopes rapidly image large volumes of transparent or chemically cleared samples. Finally, with infrared excitation and efficient scattered-light collection, 2-photon microscopy allows deep-tissue imaging, but it remains slow. Here, we describe a new optical scheme that borrows the best from three different worlds: the speed and direct-view from a spinning-disk confocal, deep tissue-penetration and intrinsic optical sectioning from 2-photon …

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2023 • Advanced Materials Technologies

Biolistic Delivery of Photosensitizer‐Loaded Porous Si Carriers for Localized Photodynamic Therapy

Elina Haimov‐Talmoud, Michal Rosenberg, Sofia Arshavsky‐Graham, Eli Varon, Orit Shefi, Ester Segal

Among numerous approaches for treating cancer, clinically approved photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered a promising non‐invasive therapeutic strategy for solid tumors. While PDT has distinct advantages over conventional cancer treatments, systemic exposure to the photosensitizer and its stability are some of the limitations of clinical PDT. Herein, a therapeutic strategy for highly localized focal PDT is introduced based on direct biolistic delivery of photosensitizer‐loaded carriers to cancerous tumors. Degradable porous silicon microparticles (PSiMPs) are used as efficient carriers for the photosensitizer, meso‐tetrahydroxy‐phenylchlorin (mTHPC), and its conjugates with gold nanoparticles (AuNP‐mTHPC conjugates). The loaded PSiMP carriers are successfully bombarded using a pneumatic gene gun to breast cancer cells in vitro and into tumor xenografts in vivo, and subsequent uptake of the released …

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2023 • GigaScience

simAIRR: simulation of adaptive immune repertoires with realistic receptor sequence sharing for benchmarking of immune state prediction methods

Chakravarthi Kanduri, Lonneke Scheffer, Milena Pavlović, Knut Dagestad Rand, Maria Chernigovskaya, Oz Pirvandy, Gur Yaari, Victor Greiff, Geir K Sandve

Background Machine learning (ML) has gained significant attention for classifying immune states in adaptive immune receptor repertoires (AIRRs) to support the advancement of immunodiagnostics and therapeutics. Simulated data are crucial for the rigorous benchmarking of AIRR-ML methods. Existing approaches to generating synthetic benchmarking datasets result in the generation of naive repertoires missing the key feature of many shared receptor sequences (selected for common antigens) found in antigen-experienced repertoires. Results We demonstrate that a common approach to generating simulated AIRR benchmark datasets can introduce biases, which may be exploited for undesired shortcut learning by certain ML methods. To mitigate undesirable access to true signals in simulated AIRR datasets, we devised a simulation strategy (simAIRR) that constructs …

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2023 • Chemical Communications

An in-cell spin-labelling methodology provides structural information on cytoplasmic proteins in bacteria

Yulia Shenberger, Lada Gevorkyan Aiapetov, Melanie Hirsch, Lukas Hofmann, Sharon Ruthstein

EPR in-cell spin-labeling was applied to CueR in E. coli. The methodology employed a Cu(II)-NTA complexed with dHis. High resolved in-cell distance distributions were obtained revealing minor differences between in-vitro and in-cell data. This methodology allows to study structural changes of any protein in-cell, independent of size or cellular system

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2023 • Laser & Photonics Reviews

Ray engineering from chaos to order in 2D optical cavities

Chenni Xu, Li‐Gang Wang, Patrick Sebbah

Chaos, namely exponential sensitivity to initial conditions, is generally considered a nuisance, inasmuch as it prevents long‐term predictions in physical systems. Here, an easily accessible approach to undo deterministic chaos and tailor ray trajectories in arbitrary 2D optical billiards by introducing spatially varying refractive index therein is presented. A new refractive index landscape is obtained by a conformal mapping, which makes the trajectories of the chaotic billiard fully predictable and the billiard fully integrable. Moreover, trajectory rectification can be pushed a step further by relating chaotic billiards with non‐Euclidean geometries. Two examples are illustrated by projecting billiards built on a sphere as well as the deformed spacetime outside a Schwarzschild black hole, which respectively lead to all periodic orbits and spiraling trajectories remaining away from the boundaries of the transformed 2D billiards …

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2023 • Proc. of SPIE Vol

pH sensing, bioimaging, and Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using polyethyleneimine coated carbon dots and gold nanoparticles

Shweta Pawar, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

The unique fluorescent nanomaterials known as carbon dots (CDs) are highly resistant to photobleaching, have low toxicity, and are well soluble in water. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated CDs are a novel fluorophore with good biocompatibility and pH sensing ability. Here, p-phenylenediamine (p-PD) is used as a carbon source and hyperbranched PEI is used as a surface passivation agent in a simple, one-step hydrothermal synthesis process. The CDs optical characteristics are pH-responsive due to the presence of different amine groups on PEI, which is functional polycationic polymer. The limits of techniques based on fluorescence intensity can be overcome by fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), a very sensitive method for detecting a microenvironment. In this study, FLIM was used to measure pH with pH-sensitive CDs. These molecules are nontoxic to the cells, and the positively charged CDs have …

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2023 • Journal of Materials Chemistry A

Stabilizing Ni-rich high energy cathodes for advanced lithium-ion batteries: the case of LiNi 0.9 Co 0.1 O 2

Francis Amalraj Susai, Amreen Bano, Sandipan Maiti, Judith Grinblat, Arup Chakraborty, Hadar Sclar, Tatyana Kravchuk, Aleksandr Kondrakov, Maria Tkachev, Michael Talianker, Dan Thomas Major, Boris Markovsky, Doron Aurbach

Lithiated oxides like Li[NixCoyMnz]O2 (x + y + z = 1) with high nickel content (x ≥ 0.8) can possess high specific capacity ≥200 mA h g−1 and have attracted extensive attention as perspective cathode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we synthesized LiNi0.9Co0.1O2 (NC90) materials and studied their structural characteristics, electrochemical performance, and thermal behavior in Li-cells. We developed modified cationic-doped NC90 samples with greatly improved properties due to doping with Mo6+ and B3+ and dual doping via simultaneous modification with these dopants. The main results of the current study are significantly higher capacity retention, greatly reduced voltage hysteresis, and considerably decreased charge-transfer resistance of the Mo and Mo–B doped electrodes compared to the undoped ones upon prolonged cycling. We also revealed remarkable microstructural …

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2023 • Soft Matter

Shape transitions in a network model of active elastic shells

Ajoy Maji, Kinjal Dasbiswas, Yitzhak Rabin

Morphogenesis involves the transformation of initially simple shapes, such as multicellular spheroids, into more complex 3D shapes. These shape changes are governed by mechanical forces including molecular motor-generated forces as well as hydrostatic fluid pressure, both of which are actively regulated in living matter through mechano-chemical feedback. Inspired by autonomous, biophysical shape change, such as occurring in the model organism hydra, we introduce a minimal, active, elastic model featuring a network of springs in a globe-like spherical shell geometry. In this model there is coupling between activity and the shape of the shell: if the local curvature of a filament represented by a spring falls below a critical value, its elastic constant is actively changed. This results in deformation of the springs that changes the shape of the shell. By combining excitation of springs and pressure regulation, we …

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2023 • Nanoscale, 2023

Sonochemistry of molten metals

Vijay Bhooshan Kumar, Aharon Gedanken, I Porat Ze'ev

Ultrasonic irradiation of molten metals in liquid media causes dispersion of the metals into suspensions of micro- and nanoparticles that can be separated. This is applicable mainly to low-mp elemental metals or alloys, but higher mp elemental metals or alloys were also reported. Among metals, mercury and gallium exhibit especially-low melting points and are thus considered as liquid metals (LMs). Sonication of mercury in aqueous solutions of certain metal ions can cause simultaneous reduction of the ions and reactions between the metals. Gallium can be melted and sonicated in warm water, as well as in aqueous solutions of various solutes such as metal ions and organic compounds, which opened a wide window of interactions between the gallium particles and the solutes. Sonication of molten metals in organic liquids, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, forms carbon dots (C-dots) doped with …

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2023 • GigaScience

simAIRR: simulation of adaptive immune repertoires with realistic receptor sequence sharing for benchmarking of immune state prediction methods

Chakravarthi Kanduri, Lonneke Scheffer, Milena Pavlović, Knut Dagestad Rand, Maria Chernigovskaya, Oz Pirvandy, Gur Yaari, Victor Greiff, Geir K Sandve

Background Machine learning (ML) has gained significant attention for classifying immune states in adaptive immune receptor repertoires (AIRRs) to support the advancement of immunodiagnostics and therapeutics. Simulated data are crucial for the rigorous benchmarking of AIRR-ML methods. Existing approaches to generating synthetic benchmarking datasets result in the generation of naive repertoires missing the key feature of many shared receptor sequences (selected for common antigens) found in antigen-experienced repertoires. Results We demonstrate that a common approach to generating simulated AIRR benchmark datasets can introduce biases, which may be exploited for undesired shortcut learning by certain ML methods. To mitigate undesirable access to true signals in simulated AIRR datasets, we devised a simulation strategy (simAIRR) that constructs …

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2023 • Advanced Functional Materials

Self‐Healing and‐Repair of Nanomechanical Damages in Lead Halide Perovskites

Santanu Parida, Sujit Kumar, Shiraz Cherf, Sigalit Aharon, David Cahen, Baran Eren

Recovery from damage in materials helps extend their useful lifetime and of devices that contain them. Given that the photodamages in HaP materials and based devices are shown to recover, the question arises if this also applies to mechanical damages, especially those that can occur at the nanometer scale, relevant also in view of efforts to develop flexible HaP‐based devices. Here, this question is addressed by poking HaP single crystal surfaces with an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip under both ultra‐high vacuum (UHV) and variably controlled ambient water vapor pressure conditions. Sequential in situ AFM scanning allowed real‐time imaging of the morphological changes at the damaged sites. Using methylammonium (MA) and cesium (Cs) variants for A‐site cations in lead bromide perovskites, the experiments show that nanomechanical damages on methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) crystals …

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2023 • medRxiv

Supplementation with short-chain fatty acids and the prebiotic 2FL improves clinical outcome in PD

Tobias Hegelmaier, Duscha Alexander, Chrsitane Desel, Sarbina Fuchs, Michal Shapira, Qihao Shan, Gabriele Stangl, Frank Hirche, Stefan Kempa, Andras Maifeld, Lisa Marie Wuertele, Jana Peplinski, Diana Jauck, Claudia Dumitru, Svein Olaf Hustvedt, Ute Obermueller-Jevic, Nina Timmesfeld, Ralf Gold, Antonia Zapf, Ibrahim Erol sandalcioglu, Sanaz Mostaghim, Horst Przuntek, Eran Segal, Nissan Yissachar, Aiden Haghikia

Background Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with dysbiosis, proinflammatory gut microbiome, disruptions to intestinal barrier functions, and immunological imbalance. Microbiota-produced short-chain fatty acids promote gut barrier integrity and immune regulation, but their impact on PD pathology remains mostly unknown. Objectives To evaluate supplementation with short-chain fatty acids as an add-on intervention in PD. Methods In a randomized double-blind prospective study, 72 PD patients received short-chain fatty acids and/or the prebiotic fiber 2-fucosyllactose supplementation over 6 months. Results We observed improvement in motor and nonmotor symptoms, in addition to modulation of peripheral immunity and improved mitochondrial respiration in immunocytes. The supplementation had no effect on microbiome diversity or composition. Finally, multiobjective analysis and comprehensive immunophenotyping revealed parameters associated with an optimal response to short-chain fatty acids and/or 2-fucosyllactose supplementation. Conclusion Short-chain fatty acids ameliorate clinical symptoms in Parkinson disease patients and modulate mitochondrial function and peripheral immunity.

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2023 • Nanoscale 15 (17), 7625-7639, 2023

Sonochemistry of molten metals

Vijay Bhooshan Kumar, Aharon Gedanken, I Porat Ze'ev

Ultrasonic irradiation of molten metals in liquid media causes dispersion of the metals into suspensions of micro- and nanoparticles that can be separated. This is applicable mainly to low-mp elemental metals or alloys, but higher mp elemental metals or alloys were also reported. Among metals, mercury and gallium exhibit especially-low melting points and are thus considered as liquid metals (LMs). Sonication of mercury in aqueous solutions of certain metal ions can cause simultaneous reduction of the ions and reactions between the metals. Gallium can be melted and sonicated in warm water, as well as in aqueous solutions of various solutes such as metal ions and organic compounds, which opened a wide window of interactions between the gallium particles and the solutes. Sonication of molten metals in organic liquids, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, forms carbon dots (C-dots) doped with …

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2023 • Journal of Materials Chemistry A

Exploring the impact of lithium halide-based redox mediators in suppressing CO 2 evolution in Li–O 2 cells

Sri Harsha Akella, Muniyandi Bagavathi, Daniel Sharon, Capraz Ozgur, Malachi Noked

The realization of lithium–oxygen (Li–O2) batteries has been impeded by parasitic reactions that cause cell component degradation, often accompanied by the release of CO2 gas during oxidation reactions. The use of halide-based redox mediators (RMs) like LiBr and LiI has been proposed as a strategy to reduce overpotentials during oxygen evolution reactions and thus suppress the subsequent evolution of CO2. However, there is a scarcity of research examining the effectiveness of these RMs in the direct mitigation of parasitic reactions. In this study, we investigated the evolution of CO2 during the oxidation processes using an online electrochemical mass spectrometer. The results show that cells without RMs exhibited high overpotentials and significant CO2 evolution from the first charging cycle. In contrast, the addition of 50 mM LiI to the electrolyte resulted in a delay in CO2 evolution, observed only after …

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