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Mar 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2303.09107

Leggett-Garg-like Inequalities from a Correlation Matrix Construction

Dana Ben Porath, Eliahu Cohen

The Leggett-Garg Inequality (LGI) constrains, under certain fundamental assumptions, the correlations between measurements of a quantity Q at different times. Here we analyze the LGI, and propose similar but somewhat more elaborate inequalities, employing a technique that utilizes the mathematical properties of correlation matrices, which was recently proposed in the context of nonlocal correlations. We also find that this technique can be applied to inequalities that combine correlations between different times (as in LGI) and correlations between different locations (as in Bell inequalities). All the proposed bounds include additional correlations compared to the original ones and also lead to a particular form of complementarity. A possible experimental realization and some applications are briefly discussed.

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Mar 2023 • AI and Optical Data Sciences IV, PC1243805, 2023

Optical deep learning with nonlinear multimode signals

Yuval Tamir, Hamootal Duadi, Moti Fridman

A deep learning network requires high-performance computer systems for solving complex problems with millions of parameters. In our lab, we develop a fully optical machine learning system that is based on the nonlinear four wave mixing process in multimode fibers. We exploit the optical nonlinear interactions between waves for developing a deep learning system faster than electronic based systems. finally, we resort to quantum light for realizing quantum deep learning system, which can bring the deep learning techniques to the quantum field. In this talk, we will present details of our novel system and discuss our preliminary results.

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Mar 2023 • Energy Technology

Influence of the Halogen in Argyrodite Electrolytes on the Electrochemical Performance of All‐Solid‐State Lithium Batteries

Longlong Wang, Guy Rahamim, Kirankumar Vudutta, Nicole Leifer, Ran Elazari, Ilan Behar, Malachi Noked, David Zitoun

All‐solid‐state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) are considered as an alternative solution to lithium‐ion batteries, because of their safety and high theoretical energy density. Argyrodite‐based solid‐electrolytes (SEs), Li6PS5X (X = Cl, Cl0.5Br0.5 or Br), are promising candidates for ASSLBs. Most of the previous reports have used Li6PS5Cl as the default SE composition. Here, the electrochemical behavior of three different argyrodites with Cl− or Br−, or both, as the halogen is systematically studied. Using LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 as a model cathode, the behavior of these SEs in ASSLB cells is also studied. SEs containing Br show higher near‐room‐temperature ionic conductivity (>2 mS cm−1) and the critical current density (≥1 mA cm−2) during Li plating/stripping, and are stable up to 5 V versus Li/Li+. Li6PS5Br gives the best electrochemical performance in terms of C‐rate and long‐term cycling among the three …

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Mar 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2303.04787

Single-pair measurement of the Bell parameter

Salvatore Virzì, Enrico Rebufello, Francesco Atzori, Alessio Avella, Fabrizio Piacentini, Rudi Lussana, Iris Cusini, Francesca Madonini, Federica Villa, Marco Gramegna, Eliahu Cohen, Ivo Pietro Degiovanni, Marco Genovese

Bell inequalities are one of the cornerstones of quantum foundations, and fundamental tools for quantum technologies. Recently, the scientific community worldwide has put a lot of effort towards them, which culminated with loophole-free experiments. Nonetheless, none of the experimental tests so far was able to extract information on the full inequality from each entangled pair, since the wave function collapse forbids performing, on the same quantum state, all the measurements needed for evaluating the entire Bell parameter. We present here the first single-pair Bell inequality test, able to obtain a Bell parameter value for every entangled pair detected. This is made possible by exploiting sequential weak measurements, allowing to measure non-commuting observables in sequence on the same state, on each entangled particle. Such an approach not only grants unprecedented measurement capability, but also removes the need to choose between different measurement bases, intrinsically eliminating the freedom-of-choice loophole and stretching the concept of counterfactual-definiteness (since it allows measuring in the otherwise not-chosen bases). We also demonstrate how, after the Bell parameter measurement, the pair under test still presents a noteworthy amount of entanglement, providing evidence of the absence of (complete) wave function collapse and allowing to exploit this quantum resource for further protocols.

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Mar 2023 • Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids

Multiplex HDR for disease and correction modeling of SCID by CRISPR genome editing in human HSPCs

Ortal Iancu, Daniel Allen, Orli Knop, Yonathan Zehavi, Dor Breier, Adaya Arbiv, Atar Lev, Yu Nee Lee, Katia Beider, Arnon Nagler, Raz Somech, Ayal Hendel

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a group of disorders caused by mutations in genes involved in the process of lymphocyte maturation and function. CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of the patient’s own hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) ex vivo could provide a therapeutic alternative to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the current gold standard for treatment of SCID. To eliminate the need for scarce patient samples, we engineered genotypes in healthy donor (HD)-derived CD34+ HSPCs using CRISPR-Cas9/rAAV6 gene-editing, to model both SCID and the therapeutic outcomes of gene-editing therapies for SCID via multiplexed homology-directed repair (HDR). First, we developed a SCID disease model via biallelic knockout of genes critical to the development of lymphocytes; and second, we established a knockin/knockout strategy to develop a proof-of-concept single …

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Mar 2023 • Advanced Optical Materials 11 (5), 2201475, 2023

Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Well‐Defined and Disordered Plasmonic Systems: A Review

Racheli Ron, Tchiya Zar, Adi Salomon

Disordered metallic nanostructures have features that are not realized in well‐defined nanometallic counterparts, such as broadband light localization and inhomogeneous refraction index at the nanoscale. Disordered metal systems with a networked inner architecture have both particles and voids with subwavelength dimensions which are randomly 3D organized in space. These disordered structures are benefited from high surface area and damage stability, permit guest materials permeability, and can be achieved in large scales employing less costs and expertise. Their abundant nanosize gaps and sharp tips can interact with incident light over a broadband range to generate a rich pattern of hot‐spots and can therefore function as an artificial leaf, for example. Here, the linear and nonlinear optical properties of both well‐defined and disordered plasmonic structures are reviewed with a focus on largescale 3D …

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Mar 2023 • Energy Technology

Influence of the Halogen in Argyrodite Electrolytes on the Electrochemical Performance of All‐Solid‐State Lithium Batteries

Longlong Wang, Guy Rahamim, Kirankumar Vudutta, Nicole Leifer, Ran Elazari, Ilan Behar, Malachi Noked, David Zitoun

All‐solid‐state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) are considered as an alternative solution to lithium‐ion batteries, because of their safety and high theoretical energy density. Argyrodite‐based solid‐electrolytes (SEs), Li6PS5X (X = Cl, Cl0.5Br0.5 or Br), are promising candidates for ASSLBs. Most of the previous reports have used Li6PS5Cl as the default SE composition. Here, the electrochemical behavior of three different argyrodites with Cl− or Br−, or both, as the halogen is systematically studied. Using LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 as a model cathode, the behavior of these SEs in ASSLB cells is also studied. SEs containing Br show higher near‐room‐temperature ionic conductivity (>2 mS cm−1) and the critical current density (≥1 mA cm−2) during Li plating/stripping, and are stable up to 5 V versus Li/Li+. Li6PS5Br gives the best electrochemical performance in terms of C‐rate and long‐term cycling among the three …

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Mar 2023 • Advanced Materials Interfaces

Scanning SQUID Imaging of Reduced Superconductivity Due to the Effect of Chiral Molecule Islands Adsorbed on Nb

Meital Ozeri, TR Devidas, Hen Alpern, Eylon Persky, Anders V Bjorlig, Nir Sukenik, Shira Yochelis, Angelo Di Bernardo, Beena Kalisky, Oded Millo, Yossi Paltiel

Unconventional superconductivity was realized in systems comprising a monolayer of magnetic adatoms adsorbed on conventional superconductors, forming Shiba‐bands. Another approach to induce unconventional superconductivity and 2D Shiba‐bands was recently introduced, namely, by adsorbing chiral molecules (ChMs) on conventional superconductors, which act in a similar way to magnetic impurities as verified by conductance spectroscopy. However, the fundamental effect ChMs have on the strength of superconductivity has not yet been directly observed and mapped. In this work, local magnetic susceptometry is applied on heterostructures comprising islands of ChMs (α‐helix L‐polyalanine) monolayers adsorbed on Nb. It is found that the ChMs alter the superconducting landscape, resulting in spatially‐modulated weaker superconductivity. Surprisingly, the reduced diamagnetic response is located …

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Mar 2023 • Dynamics and Fluctuations in Biomedical Photonics XX, PC123780D, 2023

Optical super-resolved imaging

Zeev Zalevsky

Imaging systems, including human vision, have a limited capability to separate spatial features, and these can also only be extracted over a limited depth range. The limits are related to the effect of diffraction and caused by the finite dimensions of the imaging optics and the geometry of the sensor. In my talk I will present novel photonic approaches to exceed the normal resolution and depth of focus limitations and show how those concepts can be applied in practical applications such as in microscopy, biomedical sensing, and ophthalmic devices to correct visual deficiencies.

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Mar 2023 • Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems XV, PC1239706, 2023

High throughput optical modulation biosensing for highly sensitive and mass scale rapid detection of Covid-19 (Conference Presentation)

Shmuel Burg, Shira Roth, Meir Cohen, Shira Avivi-Mintz, Michael Margulis, Hanan Rohana, Avi Peretz, Amos Danielli

Rapid, highly sensitive, and high-throughput detection of biomarkers at low concentrations is invaluable for early diagnosis of various diseases. In many sensitive immunoassays the protocol is time consuming and requires a complicated and expensive detection system. Here, we demonstrate a high-throughput optical modulation biosensing (ht-OMB) system, which enables reading a 96-well plate within 10 minutes. Using the system, to detect human Interleukin-8, we demonstrated a limit of detection of 0.14 ng/L and a 4-log dynamic range. Testing 94 RNA extracts from 36 confirmed RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (C_t≤40) and 58 confirmed RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals resulted in 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity.

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Mar 2023 • Real-time Measurements, Rogue Phenomena, and Single-Shot Applications VIII …, 2023

Dynamics of modal self-cleaning

Yuval Tamir, Moti Fridman

Sending an ultrafast pulse in multimode fiber can lead to nonlinear interactions between the modes. When sending such a pulse in graded-index fibers there are cases where all the energy is transferring from the high-order modes into the lowest one. This effect is called modal self-cleaning. We developed a multimode time-lens, which measures the temporal and spatial dynamics of ultrafast signals in multimode fibers. With our system, we can detect the dynamics of each mode in time with high temporal resolution, and identify which mode is coupled to which and how the energy transfers between them. In this talk, We will present our measurement system in details and describe our novel results on modal self-cleaning. We will also comment on other multimode effects which our system can measure for the first time.

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Mar 2023 • 2023 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), 1-3, 2023

Incoherent Fiber-based Optical Neuromorphic Computing Circuit

Maya Yevnin, Alon Harel, Or Arbel-Arenfrid, Zeev Zalevsky, Eyal Cohen

We present novel photonic neuromorphic computing scheme working with incoherent light while capable implementing negative weighting for the neural network and obtaining reliable/accurate computing of the linear multiply-accumulate function necessary for neural networks applications.

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Mar 2023 • Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications XX …, 2023

Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore by frequency domain time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy

Gilad Yahav, Shweta Pawar, Yitzchak Weber, Bar Atuar, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Although single point time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy (FA) measurements are well established and routinely used for various applications in many laboratories, only a few reports described their extension into two-dimensional (2D) time-resolved FA imaging (TR-FAIM). The ability to perform TR-FAIM can offer cellular imaging based on the rotational correlation time (θ) that depends on the viscosity and dynamic properties of the tissues. We extended existing frequency domain (FD) fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging microscopy (FLIM) to FD TR-FAIM, which produces visual maps of θ. The proof of concept of the FD TR-FAIM was validated on 7 fluorescein solutions with increasing viscosities (achieved by increasing glycerol concentration between 0-80%). The studies were performed using images of θ as well as by characterizing the peak (mode) and the full width half maximum (FWHM) of its histograms (of …

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Mar 2023 • Proc. of SPIE Vol 12394, 1239408-1, 2023

pH sensing, bioimaging, and Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using polyethyleneimine coated carbon dots and gold nanoparticles

Shweta Pawar, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

The unique fluorescent nanomaterials known as carbon dots (CDs) are highly resistant to photobleaching, have low toxicity, and are well soluble in water. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated CDs are a novel fluorophore with good biocompatibility and pH sensing ability. Here, p-phenylenediamine (p-PD) is used as a carbon source and hyperbranched PEI is used as a surface passivation agent in a simple, one-step hydrothermal synthesis process. The CDs optical characteristics are pH-responsive due to the presence of different amine groups on PEI, which is functional polycationic polymer. The limits of techniques based on fluorescence intensity can be overcome by fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), a very sensitive method for detecting a microenvironment. In this study, FLIM was used to measure pH with pH-sensitive CDs. These molecules are nontoxic to the cells, and the positively charged CDs have …

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Mar 2023 • Journal of Hazardous Materials

Soil adsorption and transport of lead in the presence of perovskite solar cell-derived organic cations

Arindam Mallick, Rene D Mendez Lopez, Gilboa Arye, David Cahen, Iris Visoly-Fisher

Perovskite photovoltaics offer a highly efficient and low-cost solar energy harvesting technology. However, the presence of lead (Pb) cations in photovoltaic halide perovskite (HaPs) materials is concerning, and quantifying the environmental hazard of accidental Pb2+ leaching into the soil is crucial for assessing the sustainability of this technology. Pb2+ from inorganic salts was previously found to remain in the upper soil layers due to adsorption. However, Pb-HaPs contain additional organic and inorganic cations, and competitive cation adsorption may affect Pb2+ retention in soils. Therefore, we measured, analyzed by simulations and report the depths to which Pb2+ from HaPs penetrates into 3 types of agricultural soil. Most of the HaP-leached Pb2+ is found to be retained already in the first cm of the soil columns, and subsequent rain events do not induce Pb2+ penetration below the first few cm of soil surface …

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Mar 2023 • Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 106364, 2023

Sonochemistry of molten gallium

Vijay Bhooshan Kumar, Aharon Gedanken, Ze'ev Porat

This review article summarizes the comprehensive work that was done in our laboratory in recent years, as-well-as other reports, on the various aspects of sonochemistry of molten gallium. The low mp (29.8 °C) of gallium enables its melting in warm water, aqueous solutions and organic liquids. This opened a new research direction that focused on the chemical and physical properties of gallium particles that were formed in such media. It includes their interactions with water and with organic and inorganic solutes in aqueous solutions and with carbon nanoparticles. Formation of nanoparticles of liquid gallium alloys was also reported.

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Mar 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2303.00701

Time-symmetry and topology of the Aharonov-Bohm effect

Yakir Aharonov, Ismael L Paiva, Zohar Schwartzman-Nowik, Avshalom C Elitzur, Eliahu Cohen

The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect has been highly influential in fundamental and applied physics. Its topological nature commonly implies that an electron encircling a magnetic flux source in a field-free region must close the loop in order to generate an observable effect. In this Letter, we study a variant of the AB effect that apparently challenges this concept. The significance of weak values and nonlocal equations of motion is discussed as part of the analysis, shedding light on and connecting all these fundamental concepts.

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Mar 2023 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Zwitterists: Photo-patternable Polymer Zwitterions for Interfacial Dipole Doping of Monolayer Graphene

James Nicolas Pagaduan, Nicholas Hight-Huf, Yehiel Nagar, Le Zhou, Avdhoot Datar, Doron Naveh, Michael Barnes, Ashwin Ramasubramaniam, Reika Katsumata, Todd Emrick

K04. 00003: Zwitterists: Photo-patternable Polymer Zwitterions for Interfacial Dipole Doping of Monolayer Graphene*

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Feb 2023 • Physical Review A

Tracking nanoscale perturbation in active disordered media

Renu Yadav, Patrick Sebbah, Maruthi M Brundavanam

Disorder-induced feedback makes random lasers very susceptible to any changes in the scattering medium. The sensitivity of the lasing modes to perturbations in the disordered systems has been utilized to map the regions of perturbation. A tracking parameter that takes into account the cumulative effect of changes in the spatial distribution of the lasing modes of the system has been defined to locate the region in which a scatterer is displaced by a few nanometers. We show numerically that the precision of the method increases with the number of modes. The proposed method opens up the possibility of application of random lasers as a tool for monitoring locations of nanoscale displacement, which can be useful for single-particle detection and monitoring.

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Feb 2023 • Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery

Biomass-derived Carbon dots and their coated surface as a potential antimicrobial agent

R Blessy Pricilla, Moorthy Maruthapandi, Arulappan Durairaj, Ivo Kuritka, John HT Luong, Aharon Gedanken

Carbon dots (CDs) with an average diameter of 6.3 nm were synthesized from the medicinal seed extract of Syzygium cumini L. using one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. The prepared CDs exhibited excitation-dependent emission characteristics with photoluminescence (PL) emission maxima at an excitation of 340 nm. The CDs at 500 µg/mL displayed antimicrobial activities against four common pathogens. Both Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis were completely eradicated by CDs within 12 h, compared to 24 h for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The release of various oxygen species (ROS) was postulated to play a critical role in bacterial eradication. The CDs decorated on cotton fabric by ultrasonication also displayed good antibacterial activities against the above bacteria. The finding opens a plausible use of CDs in biomedical textiles with potent antimicrobial properties against both Gram …

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Feb 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2302.00705

Quantum circuits measuring weak values and Kirkwood-Dirac quasiprobability distributions, with applications

Rafael Wagner, Zohar Schwartzman-Nowik, Ismael L Paiva, Amit Te'eni, Antonio Ruiz-Molero, Rui Soares Barbosa, Eliahu Cohen, Ernesto F Galvão

Weak values and Kirkwood--Dirac (KD) quasiprobability distributions have been independently associated with both foundational issues in quantum theory and advantages in quantum metrology. We propose simple quantum circuits to measure weak values, KD distributions, and density matrix spectra without the need for post-selection. This is achieved by measuring unitary-invariant, relational properties of quantum states, as functions of Bargmann invariants. Our circuits also enable direct experimental implementation of various applications of KD distributions, such as out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOCs) and the quantum Fisher information in post-selected parameter estimation, among others. This results in a unified view of nonclassicality in all those tasks. In particular, we discuss how negativity and imaginarity of Bargmann invariants relate to set coherence.

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