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Jul 2021 • Pharmaceuticals

Tumor-Targeted Fluorescent Proteinoid Nanocapsules Encapsulating Synergistic Drugs for Personalized Cancer Therapy

Ella Itzhaki, Elad Hadad, Neta Moskovits, Salomon M Stemmer, Shlomo Margel

Personalized cancer treatment based on specific mutations offers targeted therapy and is preferred over “standard” chemotherapy. Proteinoid polymers produced by thermal step-growth polymerization of amino acids may form nanocapsules (NCs) that encapsulate drugs overcoming miscibility problems and allowing passive targeted delivery with reduced side effects. The arginine-glycine-glutamic acid (RGD) sequence is known for its preferential attraction to αvβ3 integrin, which is highly expressed on neovascular endothelial cells that support tumor growth. Here, tumor-targeted RGD-based proteinoid NCs entrapping a synergistic combination of Palbociclib (Pal) and Alpelisib (Alp) were synthesized by self-assembly to induce the reduction of tumor cell growth in different types of cancers. The diameters of the hollow and drug encapsulating poly (RGD) NCs were 34±5 and 22±3 nm, respectively; thereby, their drug targeted efficiency is due to both passive and active targeting. The encapsulation yield of Pal and Alp was 70 and 90%, respectively. In vitro experiments with A549, MCF7 and HCT116 human cancer cells demonstrate a synergistic effect of Pal and Alp, controlled release and dose dependence. Preliminary results in a 3D tumor spheroid model with cells derived from patient-derived xenografts of colon cancer illustrate disassembly of spheroids, indicating that the NCs have therapeutic potential. View Full-Text

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Jul 2021 • Biology

A Gut-Ex-Vivo System to Study Gut Inflammation Associated to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Mara Gagliardi, Romina Monzani, Nausicaa Clemente, Luca Fusaro, Valentina Saverio, Giovanna Grieco, Elżbieta Pańczyszyn, Nissan Yissachar, Francesca Boccafoschi, Marco Corazzari

Simple Summary Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a complex and multifactorial systemic disease of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by chronic inflammation, thus resulting in tissue damage and, occasionally, in cancer development. Although the precise origin is still elusive, it is widely considered a disease of modern society, caused by a complex interaction between environment, genetic, immune system, and gut microflora (microbiota). Potentially affected by all the above-mentioned variables, which interplay are highly heterogeneous, the disease appears to be patient-specific. The latter phenomenon, together with the uncertain origin, also contributes to the lack of optimal clinical treatment of these patients. Therefore, the development of appropriate models is crucial to push the research forward and to define new valuable therapeutic approaches. Although tissue biopsies and/or animal models represent the best models to study IBD onset, progression, and clinical interventions, they are both affected by limitations such as invasiveness, cost- and time-consuming, and ethical issues such as animal suffering. Here we propose a novel approach based on the cultivation of mouse tissues (colon) in an ex vivo microfluidic device (Gut-Ex-Vivo System, GEVS) to study IBD. We demonstrate that explanted mouse tissues cultivated in our GEVS can be appropriately stimulated to recapitulate the onset of the disease, in a time- and cost- effective manner. Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex, chronic, and dysregulated inflammatory condition which etiology is still largely unknown. Its prognosis …

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Jul 2021 • Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology

GOLD NANOPARTICLES REFLECTANCE DISCRIMINATE BENIGN FROM MALIGNANT SALIVARY GLAND NEOPLASMS

S Sudri, I Allon, I Abu El-Naaj, D Fixler, A Hirshberg

BackgroundNanoparticle-based contrast agents have been used as an imaging tool for selectively detecting cancerous processes. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to be dysregulated in malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGTs) and can serve as an ideal target for nanoparticle-based contrast agents using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) bio-conjugated to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies.ObjectiveTo evaluate the detection sensitivity of reflection measurements of anti-EGFR conjugated gold nanoparticles (C-GNPs) in discriminating benign tumors from MSGT.MethodsTissue sections of 37 cases were investigate. Nineteen cases of MSGT and 9 cases of benign tumors and 9 normal salivary glands were incubated with C-GNPs and the reflectance spectrum was measured using hyperspectral microscopy.ResultsA significant trend was found to correlate the severity of the lesions (Cuzick's test for …

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Jul 2021 • Photonics

Comparison of THz-QCL Designs Supporting Clean N-Level Systems

Nathalie Lander Gower, Silvia Piperno, Asaf Albo

Three different Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser designs supporting clean n-level systems were analyzed using nonequilibrium Green’s functions. In clean n-level systems, most of the electrons occupy the active laser levels, with thermally activated leakage channels being suppressed almost entirely up to room temperature. Simulations of the three designs, namely a resonant phonon design, a two-well design, and a split-well direct-phonon design were investigated. The results from the simulations indicated that the two-well design would perform best overall, in terms of variations in current density, interface roughness, and ionized impurity scattering. We conclude that future research aiming to improve the temperature performance of such laser designs should be based on a two-well design.

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Jul 2021 • IEEE Photonics Journal

Effect of Spatial Modulated Light on Position of Self-Calibration Point

Idit Feder, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

In optical sensing, the differentiation between absorption and scattering poses a challenge when dealing with a physiological medium. We have shown that for extracting absorption-based parameters it is optimal to measure at the iso-path length (IPL) point. The IPL position is dependent on the diameter of the medium. In this paper, we will demonstrate how beam shaping can help match the light pattern, so the IPL point remains in the same position and distance from the light source. Hence, the location of the detector will remain constant for different mediums, such as different fingers. A spatial frequency of 0.4 mm −1 , in the case of a 15mm diameter cylindrical phantoms, shifts the IPL point's position by 40 degrees on the phantom's surface. Moreover, the spatial modulation yields an optical signature from different depths, which could improve the extraction of optical properties from tissue depth using our method.

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Jul 2021 • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

Enhancement of Structural, Electrochemical, and Thermal Properties of High-Energy Density Ni-Rich LiNi0.85Co0.1Mn0.05O2 Cathode Materials for Li-Ion …

Yehonatan Levartovsky, Arup Chakraborty, Sooraj Kunnikuruvan, Sandipan Maiti, Judith Grinblat, Michael Talianker, Dan Thomas Major, Doron Aurbach


Jul 2021 • Cellulose 28 (18), 11275-11285, 2021

Effective degradation of cellulose by Microwave irradiation in alkaline solution

Lama Jabareen, Moorthy Maruthapandi, Arumugam Saravanan, Aharon Gedanken

The utilization of lignocellulosic biomass is effective to produce chemicals and fuels, which are of importance for the establishment of a sustainable society. The conversion of cellulose, which is the main component of the lignocellulosic biomass, into signi cant chemicals that can be further converted to different chemicals or fuels in the subsequent step, under gentle conditions is a promising route. Organic acids such as acetic acid, glycolic acid and formic acid are signi cant chemicals are examples of such products. A novel method to producing important platform chemicals from Micro-crystalline cellulose was developed. Micro-crystalline cellulose was degraded as a result of an oxidation with potassium chlorate by microwave radiation, in a one-pot procedure, e cient reaction conditions such as short reaction time and full conversion of the cellulose were identi ed. The reaction products have been analyzed by 1H, 13C NMR, XPS, TGA and XRD.

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Jun 2021 • Nature communications

Non-universal current flow near the metal-insulator transition in an oxide interface

Eylon Persky, Naor Vardi, Ana Mafalda RVL Monteiro, Thierry C van Thiel, Hyeok Yoon, Yanwu Xie, Benoît Fauqué, Andrea D Caviglia, Harold Y Hwang, Kamran Behnia, Jonathan Ruhman, Beena Kalisky

In systems near phase transitions, macroscopic properties often follow algebraic scaling laws, determined by the dimensionality and the underlying symmetries of the system. The emergence of such universal scaling implies that microscopic details are irrelevant. Here, we locally investigate the scaling properties of the metal-insulator transition at the LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 interface. We show that, by changing the dimensionality and the symmetries of the electronic system, coupling between structural and electronic properties prevents the universal behavior near the transition. By imaging the current flow in the system, we reveal that structural domain boundaries modify the filamentary flow close to the transition point, preventing a fractal with the expected universal dimension from forming.

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Jun 2021 • Physical Review B

Quantum phases of a weakly disordered Josephson ladder

Eyal Walach, Efrat Shimshoni

The interplay of interactions and disorder in low-dimensional superconductors supports the formation of multiple quantum phases as possible instabilities of the superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) at a singular quantum critical point. We explore a one-dimensional model which exhibits such a variety of phases in the strongly quantum fluctuations regime. Specifically, we study the effect of weak disorder on a two-leg Josephson ladder with comparable Josephson and charging energies (E J∼ E C). An additional key feature of our model is the requirement of perfect Z 2 symmetry, respected by all parameters including the disorder. Using a perturbative renormalization-group (RG) analysis, we derive the phase diagram and identify at least one intermediate phase between a full-fledged superconductor and a disorder-dominated insulator. Most prominently, for repulsive interactions on the rungs we identify two …

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Jun 2021 • Physical Review A

Efimov scenario for overlapping narrow Feshbach resonances

Yaakov Yudkin, Lev Khaykovich

While Efimov physics in ultracold atoms is usually modeled with an isolated Feshbach resonance, many real world resonances appear in close vicinity to each other and are therefore overlapping. Here we derive a realistic model based on the mutual coupling of an open channel and two closed molecular channels while neglecting short-range physics as permitted by the narrow character of the considered resonances. The model is applied to three distinct scenarios with experimental relevance. We show that the effect of overlapping resonances is manifested most strikingly at a narrow resonance in whose vicinity there is a slightly narrower one. In this system the Efimov ground state extends not only over the scattering length zero crossing between the two resonances but also over the pole of the second resonance to finally meet the dissociation threshold below it. In the opposite scenario, when a narrow …

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Jun 2021 • Physical Review A

Efimov scenario for overlapping narrow Feshbach resonances

Yaakov Yudkin, Lev Khaykovich


Jun 2021 • Advances in Optics and Photonics 13 (2), 242-352, 2021

Integrated photonics on thin-film lithium niobate

Di Zhu, Linbo Shao, Mengjie Yu, Rebecca Cheng, Boris Desiatov, CJ Xin, Yaowen Hu, Jeffrey Holzgrafe, Soumya Ghosh, Amirhassan Shams-Ansari, Eric Puma, Neil Sinclair, Christian Reimer, Mian Zhang, Marko Lončar

Lithium niobate (LN), an outstanding and versatile material, has influenced our daily life for decades—from enabling high-speed optical communications that form the backbone of the Internet to realizing radio-frequency filtering used in our cell phones. This half-century-old material is currently embracing a revolution in thin-film LN integrated photonics. The successes of manufacturing wafer-scale, high-quality thin films of LN-on-insulator (LNOI) and breakthroughs in nanofabrication techniques have made high-performance integrated nanophotonic components possible. With rapid development in the past few years, some of these thin-film LN devices, such as optical modulators and nonlinear wavelength converters, have already outperformed their legacy counterparts realized in bulk LN crystals. Furthermore, the nanophotonic integration has enabled ultra-low-loss resonators in LN, which has unlocked many …

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Jun 2021 • Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

A comprehensive study on the combustion kinetic modeling of typical electronic plastic waste—television set (TV) plastic shell

Qiyu Luo, Zhitong Yao, Wei Qi, Jianyuan Sun, Aharon Gedanken, Xinyang Chen, Yuhang Sun, Jie Liu, Shaodan Xu, Weihong Wu

Electronic waste is the fastest growing waste stream and one of the most significant constituents is electronic plastics. In this study, the combustion kinetic of typical electronic plastic waste—television set (TV) plastic shell—was investigated using two basic kinetic methods. The reaction mechanism and kinetic compensation effect were probed as well. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that its degradation process can be divided into four stages, namely, reaction initiation stage (20–300 °C), major reaction stage (300–450 °C), minor reaction stage (450–600 °C), and reaction cessation stage (600–1,000 °C). The activation energy (E) were calculated and indicated that, the kinetic parameters from six model-free methods gradually decreased with α increasing from 0.1 to 0.35, and then slightly increased. The Flynn--Wall--Ozawa (FWO) method was more reliable and E values decreased from 155.0 to 147 …

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Jun 2021 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Efimov Spectrum takes a Turn

Yaakov Yudkin, Roy Elbaz, Lev Khaykovich

The interaction strength-dependence of a molecule's binding energy discloses crucial information about the system's interaction potential. In general, a bound state features a plethora of bendings, turns and avoided crossings. Contrarily, universal few-body bound states are insensitive to short-range details of the potential, given that their wave function extends far beyond the characteristic interaction range. Here we use refined, recently proposed few-body spectroscopy [1] to create a coherent superposition of two such universal bound states: Feshbach dimers and Efimov trimers. In an interferometer-like experiment we measure the Efimov binding energy relative to that of the dimer in the theoretically controversial and experimentally demanding regime where the first excited trimer supposedly merges with the dimer-atom continuum. Our results show that the Efimov trimer does not live up to its universal promise [2 …

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Jun 2021 • Small, 2100817, 2021

3D Printing‐Enabled Nanoparticle Alignment: A Review of Mechanisms and Applications

Weiheng Xu, Sayli Jambhulkar, Dharneedar Ravichandran, Yuxiang Zhu, Mounika Kakarla, Qiong Nian, Bruno Azeredo, Xiangfan Chen, Kailong Jin, Brent Vernon, David G Lott, Jeffrey L Cornella, Orit Shefi, Guillaume Miquelard‐Garnier, Yang Yang, Kenan Song

3D printing (additive manufacturing (AM)) has enormous potential for rapid tooling and mass production due to its design flexibility and significant reduction of the timeline from design to manufacturing. The current state‐of‐the‐art in 3D printing focuses on material manufacturability and engineering applications. However, there still exists the bottleneck of low printing resolution and processing rates, especially when nanomaterials need tailorable orders at different scales. An interesting phenomenon is the preferential alignment of nanoparticles that enhance material properties. Therefore, this review emphasizes the landscape of nanoparticle alignment in the context of 3D printing. Herein, a brief overview of 3D printing is provided, followed by a comprehensive summary of the 3D printing‐enabled nanoparticle alignment in well‐established and in‐house customized 3D printing mechanisms that can lead to selective …

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Jun 2021 • Journal of Visualized Experiments: Jove

An Intestinal Gut Organ Culture System for Analyzing Host-Microbiota Interactions

Shalhevet Azriel, Hadar Bootz, Alon Shemesh, Sivan Amidror, Nissan Yissachar

The structure of the gut tissue facilitates close and mutualistic interactions between the host and the gut microbiota. These cross-talks are crucial for maintaining local and systemic homeostasis; changes to gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) associate with a wide array of human diseases. Methods for dissecting host-microbiota interactions encompass an inherent tradeoff among preservation of physiological tissue structure (when using in vivo animal models) and the level of control over the experiment factors (as in simple in vitro cell culture systems). To address this tradeoff, Yissachar et al. recently developed an intestinal organ culture system. The system preserves a naive colon tissue construction and cellular mechanisms and it also permits tight experimental control, facilitating experimentations that cannot be readily performed in vivo. It is optimal for dissecting short-term responses of various gut components (such as epithelial, immunological and neuronal elements) to luminal perturbations (including anaerobic or aerobic microbes, whole microbiota samples from mice or humans, drugs and metabolites). Here, we present a detailed description of an optimized protocol for organ culture of multiple gut fragments using a custom-made gut culture device. Host responses to luminal perturbations can be visualized by immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections or whole-mount tissue fragments, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), or time-lapse imaging. This system supports a wide array of readouts, including next-generation sequencing, flow cytometry, and various cellular and biochemical assays. Overall, this three-dimensional organ …

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Jun 2021 • ACS Energy Letters

Influences of Cations’ Solvation on Charge Storage Performance in Polyimide Anodes for Aqueous Multivalent Ion Batteries

Amey Nimkar, Fyodor Malchick, Bar Gavriel, Meital Turgeman, Gil Bergman, Tianju Fan, Shaul Bublil, Reut Cohen, Michal Weitman, Netanel Shpigel, Mikhael D Levi, Doron Aurbach

Among the examined organic electrodes for aqueous mono and multivalent ions batteries, polyimide is considered a promising candidate because of its high capacity and good cyclability in different electrolyte solutions. While most of the studies so far were focused on the energetic performance of polyimide anodes, much less is known about their charge storage mechanism and particularly how such electrodes are affected by the solvation properties of the inserted cations. Using in situ EQCM-D, a direct assessment of the cationic fluxes and their hydration shells inserted/extracted to/from PI electrodes upon potential application was performed for a large variety of mono and multivalent cations. Our observations demonstrated a pronounced withdrawal of water molecules from the polymeric electrodes during insertion of chaotropic cations and significantly less water withdrawal upon insertion of kosmotropic cations …

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Jun 2021 • Applied Physics Letters

Perspective on remote photonic bio-sensing and diagnosis

Nisan Ozana, Zeev Zalevsky

In this Perspective Letter, we discuss the field of remote photonic bio-sensing and diagnosis while focusing on sensing involving spatial analysis of temporally varied defocused secondary speckle patterns. Collecting secondary speckle patterns that were back-reflected from an inspected tissue while properly defocusing the imaging lens allows us to measure nano-vibrations occurring in the tissue. The nano-vibration signal can serve as the common denominator for simultaneous estimation of many bio-medical parameters related to vital bio-signs, hematology, and hemodynamics. This can provide a powerful tool for comprehensive medical diagnosis.

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Jun 2021 • Optics Express

Polarization dynamics of ultrafast solitons

Avi Klein, Sara Meir, Hamootal Duadi, Arjunan Govindarajan, Moti Fridman

We study the polarization dynamics of ultrafast solitons in mode-locked fiber lasers. We find that when a stable soliton is generated, its state of polarization shifts toward a stable state, and when the soliton is generated with excess power levels it experiences relaxation oscillations in its intensity and timing. On the other hand, when a soliton is generated in an unstable state of polarization, it either decays in intensity until it disappears, or its temporal width decreases until it explodes into several solitons, and then it disappears. We also found that when two solitons are simultaneously generated close to each other, they attract each other until they collide and merge into a single soliton. Although these two solitons are generated with different states-of-polarization, they shift their state of polarization closer to each other until the polarization coincides when they collide. We support our findings by numerical calculations of …

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Jun 2021 • Journal of Solid State Chemistry

Alumina thin coat on pre-charged soft carbon anode reduces electrolyte breakdown and maintains sodiation sites active in Na-ion battery–Insights from NMR measurements

Shaul Bublil, Nicole Leifer, Raju Nanda, Yuval Elias, Miryam Fayena-Greenstein, Doron Aurbach, Gil Goobes

Atomic deposition of a thin layer of alumina on amorphous carbon materials was recently established to improve their electrochemical properties as anodes in sodium-ion batteries. It is shown that the highest performance for these materials can be achieved by pre-sodiation of the electrode before coating it. The basis for the enhanced performance is illuminated by 13C and 23Na MAS NMR analysis showing that this specific procedure diminishes parasitic reactions and preserves reversible access to active sodiation sites.

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Jun 2021 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2106.08982

Augmenting the sensing performance of entangled photon pairs through asymmetry

Yoad Michael, Isaac Jonas, Leon Bello, Mallachi-Ellia Meller, Eliahu Cohen, Michael Rosenbluh, Avi Pe'er


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