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May 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2305.04888

Phase diagram of the quantum Hall state in bilayer graphene

Udit Khanna, Ke Huang, Ganpathy Murthy, HA Fertig, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Jun Zhu, Efrat Shimshoni

Bilayer graphene exhibits a rich phase diagram in the quantum Hall regime, arising from a multitude of internal degrees of freedom, including spin, valley, and orbital indices. The variety of fractional quantum Hall states between filling factors suggests, among other things, a quantum phase transition between valley-unpolarized and polarized states at a perpendicular electric field . We find the behavior of with changes markedly as is reduced. At , may even vanish when is sufficiently small. We present a theoretical model for lattice-scale interactions which explains these observations; surprisingly, both repulsive and attractive components in the interactions are required. Within this model we analyze the nature of the state as a function of the magnetic and electric fields, and predict that valley-coherence may emerge for in the high regime. This suggests the system supports Kekule bond-ordering, which could in principle be verified via STM measurements.

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May 2023 • The Journal of Immunology

Flairr-seq: A method for single-molecule resolution of near full-length antibody H chain repertoires

Easton E Ford, David Tieri, Oscar L Rodriguez, Nancy J Francoeur, Juan Soto, Justin T Kos, Ayelet Peres, William S Gibson, Catherine A Silver, Gintaras Deikus, Elizabeth Hudson, Cassandra R Woolley, Noam Beckmann, Alexander Charney, Thomas C Mitchell, Gur Yaari, Robert P Sebra, Corey T Watson, Melissa L Smith

Current Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire sequencing (AIRR-seq) using short-read sequencing strategies resolve expressed Ab transcripts with limited resolution of the C region. In this article, we present the near-full-length AIRR-seq (FLAIRR-seq) method that uses targeted amplification by 5′ RACE, combined with single-molecule, real-time sequencing to generate highly accurate (99.99%) human Ab H chain transcripts. FLAIRR-seq was benchmarked by comparing H chain V (IGHV), D (IGHD), and J (IGHJ) gene usage, complementarity-determining region 3 length, and somatic hypermutation to matched datasets generated with standard 5′ RACE AIRR-seq using short-read sequencing and full-length isoform sequencing. Together, these data demonstrate robust FLAIRR-seq performance using RNA samples derived from PBMCs, purified B cells, and whole blood, which recapitulated results generated by …

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May 2023 • Scientific Reports

2D tunable all-solid-state random laser in the visible

Bhupesh Kumar, Ran Homri, Patrick Sebbah

A two-dimensional (2D) solid-state random laser emitting in the visible is demonstrated, in which optical feedback is provided by a controlled disordered arrangement of air-holes in a dye-doped polymer film. We find an optimal scatterer density for which threshold is minimum and scattering is the strongest. We show that the laser emission can be red-shifted by either decreasing scatterer density or increasing pump area. We show that spatial coherence is easily controlled by varying pump area. Such a 2D random laser provides with a compact on-chip tunable laser source and a unique platform to explore non-Hermitian photonics in the visible.

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May 2023 • Scientific Reports

2D tunable all-solid-state random laser in the visible

Bhupesh Kumar, Ran Homri, Patrick Sebbah

A two-dimensional (2D) solid-state random laser emitting in the visible is demonstrated, in which optical feedback is provided by a controlled disordered arrangement of air-holes in a dye-doped polymer film. We find an optimal scatterer density for which threshold is minimum and scattering is the strongest. We show that the laser emission can be red-shifted by either decreasing scatterer density or increasing pump area. We show that spatial coherence is easily controlled by varying pump area. Such a 2D random laser provides with a compact on-chip tunable laser source and a unique platform to explore non-Hermitian photonics in the visible.

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May 2023 • CLEO: Applications and Technology, AM4Q. 7, 2023

High-resolution Imaging with Scattered X-ray Radiation

A Ben Yehuda, O Sefi, E Cohen, S Shwartz

We demonstrate ghost imaging with scattered x-ray radiation for the first time and show that its spatial resolution is significantly higher than the resolution of standard present-day methods that rely on x-ray scattering.

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May 2023 • Physical Review Applied

Hyperuniform disordered parametric loudspeaker array

Kun Tang, Yuqi Wang, Shaobo Wang, Da Gao, Haojie Li, Xindong Liang, Patrick Sebbah, Yibin Li, Jin Zhang, Junhui Shi

A steerable parametric loudspeaker array is known for its directivity and narrow beam width. However, it often suffers from the grating lobes due to periodic array distributions. Here we propose the array configuration of hyperuniform disorder, which is short-range random while correlated at large scales, as a promising alternative distribution of acoustic antennas in phased arrays. Angle-resolved measurements reveal that the proposed array suppresses grating lobes and maintains a minimal radiation region in the vicinity of the main lobe for the primary frequency waves. These distinctive emission features benefit the secondary frequency wave in canceling the grating lobes regardless of the frequencies of the primary waves. Besides, the hyperuniform disordered array is duplicatable, which facilitates extra-large array design without any additional computational efforts.

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May 2023 • Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, 1-72, 2023

Human Herpesviruses: Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Other Malignancies

Ronit Sarid, Daniela Dünn-Kittenplon, Maria Luisa Calabrò

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), formally designated the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the causative agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD). KSHV also has been linked to another pathological condition with many features in common with MCD, named KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) and with a number of other rare lymphoproliferative conditions. KSHV infection is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and among some Amerindian and Melanesian populations, and diffuse in the Mediterranean area and in parts of South America. KSHV is less prevalent in Northern Europe, North America, and most of Asia. KSHV is transmitted via nonsexual routes during childhood in regions with intermediate and high seroprevalence, and mainly via sexual contact during adulthood in countries …

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May 2023 • Journal of Biomedical Optics

Imaging the rotational mobility of carbon dot-gold nanoparticle conjugates using frequency domain wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy

Gilad Yahav, Shweta Pawar, Yitzchak Weber, Bar Atuar, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

SignificanceWide-field measurements of time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy (TR-FA) provide pixel-by-pixel information about the rotational mobility of fluorophores, reflecting changes in the local microviscosity and other factors influencing the fluorophore’s diffusional motion. These features offer promising potential in many research fields, including cellular imaging and biochemical sensing, as demonstrated by previous works. Nevertheless, θ imaging is still rarely investigated in general and in carbon dots (CDs) in particular.AimTo extend existing frequency domain (FD) fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging microscopy (FLIM) to FD TR-FA imaging (TR-FAIM), which produces visual maps of the FLT and θ, together with the steady-state images of fluorescence intensity (FI) and FA (r).

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May 2023 • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity

Energy Storing and Fault Current Limiting in a Unified Superconducting Magnetic Device

Y Nikulshin, A Kafri, Y Yeshurun, S Wolfus

This work describes a novel concept for unifying Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and an inductive-type Fault Current Limiter (FCL). A single superconducting coil is used both as an energy source for the operation of the SMES and as the field source for saturating the magnetic cores in the FCL. A possible geometry model for the implementation of this concept is suggested and a test case in an 11 kV, 10 MVA network is described for a fully, and 50% charged SMES states. Results show that the Saturated Cores FCL exhibits low insertion impedance and high limiting ratio in both scenarios. The unified SMES-FCL device saves major resources by making the superconducting coil a dual-purpose source, thus opening the door for an easier and efficient implementation of SMES and FCL technologies.

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May 2023 • PNAS Nexus

Experimentally probing anomalous time evolution of a single photon

Ryo Okamoto, Eliahu Cohen

In quantum mechanics, a quantum system is irreversibly collapsed by a projective measurement. Hence, delicately probing the time evolution of a quantum system holds the key to understanding curious phenomena. Here we experimentally explore an anomalous time evolution, where, illustratively, a particle disappears from a box and emerges in a different box, with a certain moment in which it can be found in neither of them. In this experiment, we directly probe this curious time evolution of a single photon by measuring up to triple-operator sequential weak values using a novel probeless scheme. The naive interpretation provided by single-operator weak values seems to imply the “disappearance” and “re-appearance” of a photon as theoretically predicted. However, double- and triple-operator sequential weak values, representing temporal correlations between the aforementioned values, show that spatial …

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May 2023 • PNAS Nexus

Experimentally probing anomalous time evolution of a single photon

Ryo Okamoto, Eliahu Cohen

In quantum mechanics, a quantum system is irreversibly collapsed by a projective measurement. Hence, delicately probing the time evolution of a quantum system holds the key to understanding curious phenomena. Here, we experimentally explore an anomalous time evolution, where, illustratively, a particle disappears from a box and emerges in a different box, with a certain moment in which it can be found in neither of them. In this experiment, we directly probe this curious time evolution of a single photon by measuring up to triple-operator sequential weak values (SWVs) using a novel probeless scheme. The naive interpretation provided by single-operator weak values (WVs) seems to imply the “disappearance” and “re-appearance” of a photon as theoretically predicted. However, double- and triple-operator SWVs, representing temporal correlations between the aforementioned values, show that spatial …

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May 2023 • Physical Review B

Electrostatic modulation of the lateral carrier density profile in field effect devices with nonlinear dielectrics

Eylon Persky, Hyeok Yoon, Yanwu Xie, Harold Y Hwang, Jonathan Ruhman, Beena Kalisky

The properties of two-dimensional (2D) electronic systems are often effectively controlled using electrostatic gating. The geometry of such field effect devices influences the effectiveness of the gate and the carrier density profile in the 2D device. Here, we analyze the gate-induced spatial variations in the lateral carrier density in patterned LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 devices. We model the electrostatics of the 2D interface using the Thomas-Fermi approximation and compute the gate-induced charge distribution at the interface. We show that the electric field lines generated by the gate are focused at the edges of the device, causing an increased depletion near its edges. This effect is accentuated in LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 due to the large, nonlinear dielectric constant of the substrate, and the large distance between the gate electrode and the interface. We experimentally demonstrate one consequence of this effect by directly imaging …

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May 2023 • NATURE PHYSICS, 2023

A multilayer superconductor acts as an interdependent network

Ivan Bonamassa, Aviad Frydman


May 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2205.08563

Majorana-Weyl cones in ferroelectric superconductors

Hennadii Yerzhakov, Roni Ilan, Efrat Shimshoni, Jonathan Ruhman

Topological superconductors are predicted to exhibit outstanding phenomena, including non-abelian anyon excitations, heat-carrying edge states, and topological nodes in the Bogoliubov spectra. Nonetheless, and despite major experimental efforts, we are still lacking unambiguous signatures of such exotic phenomena. In this context, the recent discovery of coexisting superconductivity and ferroelectricity in lightly doped and ultra clean SrTiO opens new opportunities. Indeed, a promising route to engineer topological superconductivity is the combination of strong spin-orbit coupling and inversion-symmetry breaking. Here we study a three-dimensional parabolic band minimum with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, whose axis is aligned by the direction of a ferroelectric moment. We show that all of the aforementioned phenomena naturally emerge in this model when a magnetic field is applied. Above a critical Zeeman field, Majorana-Weyl cones emerge regardless of the electronic density. These cones manifest themselves as Majorana arcs states appearing on surfaces and tetragonal domain walls. Rotating the magnetic field with respect to the direction of the ferroelectric moment tilts the Majorana-Weyl cones, eventually driving them into the type-II state with Bogoliubov Fermi surfaces. We then consider the consequences of the orbital magnetic field. First, the single vortex is found to be surrounded by a topological halo, and is characterized by two Majorana zero modes: One localized in the vortex core and the other on the boundary of the topological halo. For a finite density of vortices forming close enough to the upper critical field, these halos …

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May 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2305.12468

High-resolution computed tomography with scattered x-ray radiation and a single pixel detector

A Ben Yehuda, O Sefi, Y Klein, RH Shukrun, H Schwartz, E Cohen, S Shwartz

X-ray imaging is a prevalent technique for non-invasively visualizing the interior of the human body and opaque instruments. In most commercial x-ray modalities, an image is formed by measuring the x-rays that pass through the object of interest. However, despite the potential of scattered radiation to provide additional information about the object, it is often disregarded due to its inherent tendency to cause blurring. Consequently, conventional imaging modalities do not measure or utilize these valuable data. In contrast, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a high-resolution technique for x-ray computed tomography (CT) that measures scattered radiation by exploiting computational ghost imaging (CGI). We show that our method can provide sub-200 {\mu}m resolution, exceeding the capabilities of most existing x-ray imaging modalities. Our research reveals a promising technique for incorporating scattered radiation data in CT scans to improve image resolution and minimize radiation exposure for patients. The findings of our study suggest that our technique could represent a significant advancement in the fields of medical and industrial imaging, with the potential to enhance the accuracy and safety of diagnostic imaging procedures.

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May 2023 • Journal of Biomedical Optics

Imaging the rotational mobility of carbon dot-gold nanoparticle conjugates using frequency domain wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy

Gilad Yahav, Shweta Pawar, Yitzchak Weber, Bar Atuar, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

SignificanceWide-field measurements of time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy (TR-FA) provide pixel-by-pixel information about the rotational mobility of fluorophores, reflecting changes in the local microviscosity and other factors influencing the fluorophore’s diffusional motion. These features offer promising potential in many research fields, including cellular imaging and biochemical sensing, as demonstrated by previous works. Nevertheless, θ imaging is still rarely investigated in general and in carbon dots (CDs) in particular.AimTo extend existing frequency domain (FD) fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging microscopy (FLIM) to FD TR-FA imaging (TR-FAIM), which produces visual maps of the FLT and θ, together with the steady-state images of fluorescence intensity (FI) and FA (r).ApproachThe proof of concept of the combined FD FLIM/ FD TR-FAIM was validated on seven fluorescein solutions with increasing …

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May 2023 • CLEO: Fundamental Science, FF1D. 7, 2023

Extreme Metaphotonics with Ultra High-Index Topological Insulators

Sukanta Nandi, Danveer Singh, Shany Zrihan Cohen, Tomer Lewi

We experimentally measure the complex dielectric constant of Bi 2 Se 3 and Bi 2 Te 3 topological insulators, revealing record high refractive index values peaking at n≈ 11. We further demonstrate deep-subwavelength metasurfaces with unit cell sizes smaller than λ/10, that simultaneously support large magnetic and electric field enhancements.

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May 2023 • Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces

A green formulation for superhydrophobic coatings based on Pickering emulsion templating for anti-biofilm applications

Raz Cohen, Karthik Ananth Mani, Madina Primatova, Gila Jacobi, Einat Zelinger, Eduard Belausov, Elazar Fallik, Ehud Banin, Guy Mechrez

This study reports significant steps toward developing anti-biofilm surfaces based on superhydrophobic properties that meet the complex demands of today's food and medical regulations. It presents inverse Pickering emulsions of water in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) stabilized by hydrophobic silica (R202) as a possible food-grade coating formulation and describes its significant passive anti-biofilm properties. The final coatings are formed by applying the emulsions on the target surface, followed by evaporation to form a rough layer. Analysis shows that the final coatings exhibited a Contact Angle (CA) of up to 155° and a Roll-off Angle (RA) lower than 1° on the polypropylene (PP) surface, along with a relatively high light transition. Dissolving polycaprolactone (PCL) into the continuous phase enhanced the average CA and coating uniformity but hindered the anti-biofilm activity and light transmission. Scanning …

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May 2023 • Journal of Functional Biomaterials

Engineered Cross-Linked Silane with Urea Polymer Thin Durable Coatings onto Polymeric Films for Controlled Antiviral Release of Activated Chlorine and Essential Oils

Elisheva Sasson, Omer Agazani, Eyal Malka, Meital Reches, Shlomo Margel

In March 2020, the World Health Organization announced a pandemic attributed to SARS-CoV-2, a novel beta-coronavirus, which spread widely from China. As a result, the need for antiviral surfaces has increased significantly. Here, the preparation and characterization of new antiviral coatings on polycarbonate (PC) for controlled release of activated chlorine (Cl+) and thymol separately and combined are described. Thin coatings were prepared by polymerization of 1-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] urea (TMSPU) in ethanol/water basic solution by modified Stöber polymerization, followed by spreading the formed dispersion onto surface-oxidized PC film using a Mayer rod with appropriate thickness. Activated Cl-releasing coating was prepared by chlorination of the PC/SiO2-urea film with NaOCl through the urea amide groups to form a Cl-amine derivatized coating. Thymol releasing coating was prepared by linking thymol to TMSPU or its polymer via hydrogen bonds between thymol hydroxyl and urea amide groups. The activity towards T4 bacteriophage and canine coronavirus (CCV) was measured. PC/SiO2-urea-thymol enhanced bacteriophage persistence, while PC/SiO2-urea-Cl reduced its amount by 84%. Temperature-dependent release is presented. Surprisingly, the combination of thymol and chlorine had an improved antiviral activity, reducing the amount of both viruses by four orders of magnitude, indicating synergistic activity. For CCV, coating with only thymol was inactive, while SiO2-urea-Cl reduced it below a detectable level.

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May 2023 • Physical Review A

High-spectral-resolution absorption measurements with free-electron lasers using ghost spectroscopy

Yishai Klein, Alok K Tripathi, Edward Strizhevsky, Flavio Capotondi, Dario De Angelis, Luca Giannessi, Matteo Pancaldi, Emanuele Pedersoli, Kevin C Prince, Or Sefi, Young Yong Kim, Ivan A Vartanyants, Sharon Shwartz

We demonstrate a simple and robust high-resolution ghost spectroscopy approach for x-ray and extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy at free-electron laser sources. To retrieve the sample response, our approach requires only an online spectrometer before the sample and a downstream bucket detector. We validate the method by measuring the absorption spectrum of silicon, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride membranes in the vicinity of the silicon L 2, 3 edge and by comparing the results with standard techniques for absorption measurements. Moreover, we show that ghost spectroscopy allows the high-resolution reconstruction of the sample spectral response to optical pumps using a coarse energy scan with self-amplified spontaneous emission radiation.

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May 2023 • Bioengineering & Translational Medicine

Micelle encapsulation zinc‐doped copper oxide nanocomposites reverse Olaparib resistance in ovarian cancer by disrupting homologous recombination repair

Jingyan Yi, Xin Luo, Jinshan Xing, Aharon Gedanken, Xiukun Lin, Chunxiang Zhang, Gan Qiao

Micelle Encapsulation Zinc‐doped copper oxide nanocomposites (MEnZn‐CuO NPs) is a novel doped metal nanomaterial prepared by our group based on Zinc doped copper oxide nanocomposites (Zn‐CuO NPs) using non‐micellar beam. Compared with Zn‐CuO NPs, MEnZn‐CuO NPs have uniform nanoproperties and high stability. In this study, we explored the anticancer effects of MEnZn‐CuO NPs on human ovarian cancer cells. In addition to affecting cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis and autophagy, MEnZn‐CuO NPs have a greater potential for clinical application by inducing HR repair defects in ovarian cancer cells in combination with poly (ADP‐ribose) polymerase inhibitors for lethal effects.

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