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Sep 2023 • Electrochimica Acta

Iron doped cobalt nickel layered double hydroxide supported on nickel foam as a robust electrocatalyst for highly efficient water oxidation in alkaline sea water

Akanksha Gupta, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Aharon Gedanken

The seawater electrolysis is an economically favorable approach for water splitting application because seawater is one of the plentiful abundant natural resources on our earth. In water splitting pathway, the anodic half-cell reaction from seawater stills a challenging task due to anodic corrosion and the competitive chloride oxidation process. In the current study, we prepared flower-shaped porous nanorods of iron doped cobalt nickel layered double hydroxide supported on nickel foam (Fe0.05 CoNi LDH/NF), which require very less oxygen evolution reaction (OER) overpotential in 1M KOH (212 mV) and alkaline seawater (287 mV) to deliver 10 mAcm−2 current density and exhibited remarkable 14 h durability. At the same time, post treated sample reveals the better OER activity after chronopotentiometry analysis, because of superior conductivity and corrosion-resistance of the electrocatalyst. The doping of Fe …

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Sep 2023 • Nucleic Acids Research

IGHV allele similarity clustering improves genotype inference from adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing data

Ayelet Peres, William D Lees, Oscar L Rodriguez, Noah Y Lee, Pazit Polak, Ronen Hope, Meirav Kedmi, Andrew M Collins, Mats Ohlin, Steven H Kleinstein, Corey T Watson, Gur Yaari

In adaptive immune receptor repertoire analysis, determining the germline variable (V) allele associated with each T- and B-cell receptor sequence is a crucial step. This process is highly impacted by allele annotations. Aligning sequences, assigning them to specific germline alleles, and inferring individual genotypes are challenging when the repertoire is highly mutated, or sequence reads do not cover the whole V region. Here, we propose an alternative naming scheme for the V alleles, as well as a novel method to infer individual genotypes. We demonstrate the strengths of the two by comparing their outcomes to other genotype inference methods. We validate the genotype approach with independent genomic long-read data. The naming scheme is compatible with current annotation tools and pipelines. Analysis results can be converted from the proposed naming scheme to the nomenclature determined …

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Sep 2023 • Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Enhancement of the E12g and A1g Raman modes and layer identification of 2H‐WS2 nanosheets with metal coatings

Bharathi Rajeswaran, Rajashree Konar, Rena Yitzhari, Gilbert Daniel Nessim, Yaakov Raphael Tischler

Raman spectroscopy in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) helps determine their structural information and layer dependency. Because it is non‐destructive and fast, it is an archetypal spectroscopic technique to investigate the structure and defects in TMDCs. In our earlier study, we used a metal‐dielectric coating to enhance Raman signal of WS2 because the Raman Spectra measured from WS2 coated on the standard Si/SiO2 was significantly lower. This metal‐dielectric coating allowed access to the otherwise unavailable E12g and A1g modes of WS2. In this study, we compare the Raman spectra of WS2 on a Si/SiO2 to that of metal layers (Au [200 nm] and Al [200 nm]). A significant enhancement in the Raman signal of 2‐3L WS2 is observed for both the Au and Al coatings. Although 200 nm Au coating enhances the Raman Signal better than the 10 nm Au coating, it does not resolve the other …

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Sep 2023 • Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)

Is “Water in Salt” Electrolytes the Ultimate Solution? Achieving High Stability of Organic Anodes in Diluted Electrolyte Solutions Via a Wise Anions Selection

Amey Nimkar, Khorsed Alam, Gil Bergman, Mikhael D Levi, Dan Thomas Major, Netanel Shpigel, Doron Aurbach

The introduction of the water‐in‐salt (WIS) concept, using highly concentrated electrolyte solutions to prevent water splitting and widen the electrochemical stability window, has greatly influenced modern aqueous batteries. The successful implementation of these electrolyte solutions in many electrochemical systems shifts the focus from diluted to WIS electrolyte solutions. Considering the high costs and the tendency of these nearly saturated solutions to crystallize, this trend can be carefully re‐evaluated. Herein we show that the stability of organic electrodes comprising the active material perylene‐3,4,9,10‐tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), is strongly influenced by the solvation character of the anions rather than the concentration of the electrolyte solution. Even though the charging process of PTCDA involves solely insertion of cations (i.e., principal counter‐ions), surprisingly, the dominant factor influencing its …

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Sep 2023 • ACS Applied Optical Materials

Optical Memory Based on Scattering from Gold Nanoparticles

Tal Raviv, Nadav Shabairou, Ariel Roitman, Abhijit Sanjeev, Vismay Trivedi, Moshe Sinvani, Zeev Zalevsky

Increasing speeds of fiber-optics-based telecommunications, along with a large bandwidth of data processed in data centers, have focused attention on high-speed and bandwidth optical digital information processing. Optical processing requires high-density, high-speed, and low-power optical memory that can be integrated easily with planar semiconductor technology. The concept of optical memory has lent a novel perspective to optical domain data storage. We present our approach to creating nonvolatile optical memory based on the scattering field from gold nanoparticles. In our approach, data storage is based on the fabrication of gold nanoparticles in different spatial configurations. Reading of the stored data is achieved by analyzing the scattering image from each configuration.

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Sep 2023 • Physical Review E

Controls that expedite first-passage times in disordered systems

Marc Höll, Alon Nissan, Brian Berkowitz, Eli Barkai

First-passage time statistics in disordered systems exhibiting scale invariance are studied widely. In particular, long trapping times in energy or entropic traps are fat-tailed distributed, which slow the overall transport process. We study the statistical properties of the first-passage time of biased processes in different models, and we employ the big-jump principle that shows the dominance of the maximum trapping time on the first-passage time. We demonstrate that the removal of this maximum significantly expedites transport. As the disorder increases, the system enters a phase where the removal shows a dramatic effect. Our results show how we may speed up transport in strongly disordered systems exploiting scale invariance. In contrast to the disordered systems studied here, the removal principle has essentially no effect in homogeneous systems; this indicates that improving the conductance of a poorly …

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Sep 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2309.13126

Stretched-exponential relaxation in weakly-confined Brownian systems through large deviation theory

Lucianno Defaveri, Eli Barkai, David A Kessler

Stretched-exponential relaxation is a widely observed phenomenon found in glassy systems. It was previously modeled with non-Markovian dynamics reflecting a memory effect. Here, we study a Brownian particle under the influence of a confining, albeit weak, potential field that grows with distance as a sub-linear power law. We find that for this memoryless model, observables display stretched-exponential relaxation. The probability density function of the system is studied using a rate function ansatz. We obtain analytically the stretched-exponential exponent along with an anomalous power-law scaling of length with time. The rate function exhibits a point of nonanalyticity, indicating a dynamical phase transition. In particular, the rate function is double-valued both to the left and right of this point, leading to four different rate functions, depending on the choice of initial conditions and symmetry.

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Sep 2023 • Nature Energy

Designing phosphazene-derivative electrolyte matrices to enable high-voltage lithium metal batteries for extreme working conditions

Yuefeng Meng, Dong Zhou, Ruliang Liu, Yao Tian, Yifu Gao, Yao Wang, Bing Sun, Feiyu Kang, Michel Armand, Baohua Li, Guoxiu Wang, Doron Aurbach

The current high-energy lithium metal batteries are limited by their safety and lifespan owing to the lack of suitable electrolyte solutions. Here we report a synergy of fluorinated co-solvent and gelation treatment by a butenoxycyclotriphosphazene (BCPN) monomer, which facilitates the use of ether-based electrolyte solutions for high-energy lithium metal batteries. We show that the safety risks of fire and electrolyte leakage are eliminated by the fluorinated co-solvent and fireproof polymeric matrices. The compatibility with high-energy cathodes is realized by a well-tailored Li+ solvation sheath, along with BCPN-derived protective surface films developed on the cathodes. Our Li | |LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 cells reach high-capacity retention, superior low-temperature performance, good cyclability under high pressure and steady power supply under abusive conditions. Our electrolyte design concept provides a …

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Sep 2023 • Journal of Bacteriology 205 (10), e00166-23, 2023

The biofilm community resurfaces: new findings and post-pandemic progress

Jennifer L Greenwich, Derek Fleming, Ehud Banin, Susanne Häussler, Birthe V Kjellerup, Karin Sauer, Karen L Visick, Clay Fuqua

The ninth American Society for Microbiology Conference on Biofilms was convened in-person on 13–17 November 2022 in Charlotte, NC. As the first of these conferences since prior to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the energy among the participants of the conference was clear, and the meeting was a tremendous success. The mixture of >330 oral and poster presentations resoundingly embodied the vitality of biofilm research across a wide range of topics and multiple scientific disciplines. Special activities, including a pre-conference symposium for early career researchers, further enhanced the attendee experience. As a general theme, the conference was deliberately structured to provide high levels of participation and engagement among early career scientists.

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Sep 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2309.13126

Stretched-exponential relaxation in weakly-confined Brownian systems through large deviation theory

Lucianno Defaveri, Eli Barkai, David A Kessler

Stretched-exponential relaxation is a widely observed phenomenon found in glassy systems. It was previously modeled with non-Markovian dynamics reflecting a memory effect. Here, we study a Brownian particle under the influence of a confining, albeit weak, potential field that grows with distance as a sub-linear power law. We find that for this memoryless model, observables display stretched-exponential relaxation. The probability density function of the system is studied using a rate function ansatz. We obtain analytically the stretched-exponential exponent along with an anomalous power-law scaling of length with time. The rate function exhibits a point of nonanalyticity, indicating a dynamical phase transition. In particular, the rate function is double-valued both to the left and right of this point, leading to four different rate functions, depending on the choice of initial conditions and symmetry.

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Sep 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2109.04237

Study of entanglement via a multi-agent dynamical quantum game

Bar Y Peled, Amit Te'eni, Eliahu Cohen, Avishy Carmi

At both conceptual and applied levels, quantum physics provides new opportunities as well as fundamental limitations. We hypothetically ask whether quantum games inspired by population dynamics can benefit from unique features of quantum mechanics such as entanglement and nonlocality. For doing so we extend quantum game theory and demonstrate that in certain models mimicking ecological systems where several predators feed on the same prey, the strength of quantum entanglement between the various species has a profound effect on the asymptotic behavior of the system. For example, if there are sufficiently many predator species who are all equally correlated with their prey, they are all driven to extinction. Our results are derived in two ways: by analyzing the asymptotic dynamics of the system, and also by modeling the system as a quantum correlation network. The latter approach enables us to …

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Sep 2023 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

The Effect of Titania Additives on the Performance of PEO-Based Solid Sodium Batteries: Bulk and Interfacial Aspects

Gayathri peta, hadas Alon-Yehezkel, Nagaprasad Reddy Samala, Shaul Bublil, Yuval Elias, Ilya Grinberg, Miryam Fayena-Greenstein, Doron Aurbach

Nanometric fillers are known to affect the electrochemical performance of polymer electrolytes. Here, nanowires and nanotubes of TiO2 with the same crystal structure are compared as additives to poly(ethylene oxide) based electrolytes for solid state sodium batteries. Electrochemical studies of symmetric cells with blocking and non-blocking electrodes examined the effects of the additive shapes on the bulk electrolyte and Na-electrolyte interface. Impedance spectroscopy was used as a major electroanalytical tool. To obtain a full perspective, all-solid-state batteries were evaluated. In galvanostatic measurements the filler shape effect is most noticeable at a high current density. TiO2 nanotubes improve the solid electrolyte behavior considerably more than titania nanowires. This effect is related mainly to the interface of the polymeric matrix with the electrodes.

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Sep 2023 • Journal of The Electrochemical Society

The Effect of Chlorides on the Performance of DME/Mg [B (HFIP) 4] 2 Solutions for Rechargeable Mg Batteries

Ben Dlugatch, Janina Drews, Ran Attias, Bar Gavriel, Adar Ambar, Timo Danner, Arnulf Latz, Doron Aurbach

One of the major issues in developing electrolyte solutions for rechargeable magnesium batteries is understanding the positive effect of chloride anions on Mg deposition-dissolution processes on the anode side, as well as intercalation-deintercalation of Mg 2+ ions on the cathode side. Our previous results suggested that Cl− ions are adsorbed on the surface of Mg anodes and Chevrel phase Mg x Mo 6 S 8 cathodes. This creates a surface add-layer that reduces the activation energy for the interfacial Mg ions transportation and related charge transfer, as well as promotes the transport of Mg 2+ from the solution phase to the Mg anode surface and into the cathodes' host materials. Here, this work further examines the effect of adding chlorides to the state-of-the-art Mg [B (HFIP) 4] 2/DME electrolyte solution, specifically focusing on reversible magnesium deposition, as well as the performance of Mg cells with …

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Sep 2023 • American Physical Society

Colloquium: Anomalous statistics of laser-cooled atoms in dissipative optical lattices

Gadi Afek, Nir Davidson, David A Kessler, Eli Barkai

Diffusion occurs in numerous physical systems throughout nature, drawing its generality from the universality of the central limit theorem. Approximately a century ago it was realized that an extension to this type of dynamics can be obtained in the form of “anomalous” diffusion, where distributions are allowed to have heavy power-law tails. Owing to a unique feature of its momentum-dependent dissipative friction force, laser-cooled atomic ensembles can be used as a test bed for such dynamics. The interplay between laser cooling and anomalous dynamics bears deep predictive implications for fundamental concepts in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical physics. The high degree of control available in cold-atom experiments allows for the parameters of the friction to be tuned, revealing transitions in the dynamical properties of the system. Rare events in both the momentum and spatial distributions are …

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Sep 2023 • Journal of Power Sources 579, 233312, 2023

Lead-acid batteries and lead–carbon hybrid systems: A review

Naresh Vangapally, Tirupathi Rao Penki, Yuval Elias, Sadananda Muduli, Satyanarayana Maddukuri, Shalom Luski, Doron Aurbach, Surendra Kumar Martha

Lead-acid systems dominate the global market owing to simple technology, easy fabrication, availability, and mature recycling processes. However, the sulfation of negative lead electrodes in lead-acid batteries limits its performance to less than 1000 cycles in heavy-duty applications. Incorporating activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, graphite, and other allotropes of carbon and compositing carbon with metal oxides into the negative active material significantly improves the overall health of lead-acid batteries. Carbons play a vital role in advancing the properties of lead-acid batteries for various applications, including deep depth of discharge cycling, partial state-of-charge, and high-rate partial state-of-charge cycling. Therefore, lead-carbon hybrid batteries and supercapacitor systems have been developed to enhance energy-power density and cycle life. This review article provides an overview of lead-acid …

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Sep 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2309.05577

Periodically driven open quantum systems with vibronic interaction: Resonance effects and vibrationally mediated decoupling

Jakob Bätge, Yu Wang, Amikam Levy, Wenjie Dou, Michael Thoss

Periodic driving and Floquet engineering have emerged as invaluable tools for controlling and uncovering novel phenomena in quantum systems. In this study, we adopt these methods to manipulate nonequilibrium processes within electronic-vibronic open quantum systems. Through resonance mechanisms and by focusing on the limit-cycle dynamics and quantum thermodynamic properties, we illustrate the intricate interplay between the driving field and vibronic states and its overall influence on the electronic system. Specifically, we observe an effective decoupling of the electronic system from the periodic driving at specific frequencies, a phenomenon that is mediated by the vibrational mode interaction. Additionally, we engineer the driving field to obtain a partial removal of the Franck-Condon blockade. These insights hold promise for efficient charge current control. Our results are obtained from numerically exact calculations of the hierarchical equations of motion and further analyzed by a time-periodic master equation approach.

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Sep 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2209.11760

Dynamic cloaking of a diamond-shaped hole in elastic plate

Kun Tang, Eitam Luz, David Amram, Luna Kadysz, Sebastien Guenneau, Patrick Sebbah

Invisibility cloaks for flexural waves have been mostly examined in the continuous-wave regime, while invisibility is likely to deteriorate for short pulses. Here, we propose the practical realization of a unidirectional invisibility cloak for flexural waves based on an area-preserving coordinate transformation. Time-resolved experiments reveal how the invisibility cloak deviates a pulsed plane-wave from its initial trajectory, and how the initial wavefront perfectly recombines behind the cloak, leaving the diamond-shaped hole invisible, notwithstanding the appearance of a forerunner. Three-dimensional full-elasticity simulations support our experimental observations.

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Sep 2023 • ACS Catalysis

Ultra-Pure Nanoporous Gold Films for Electrocatalysis

Hyunah Kwon, Hannah-Noa Barad, Alex Ricardo Silva Olaya, Mariana Alarcón-Correa, Kersten Hahn, Gunther Richter, Gunther Wittstock, Peer Fischer

Nanoporous gold (Au) films are self-supported structures that possess a large surface area and extraordinary catalytic activity. Generally, nanoporous gold is obtained by solution-based dealloying where the less noble metal, often silver (Ag), is etched out. However, the residual amounts of the sacrificial metal are not well controlled, the impure samples show restructuring, and the residual metal prevents the study of the catalytic role of Au alone. Here, we fabricate impurity-free nanoporous gold films by a plasma-enabled dry synthetic route. The scheme does not include sacrificial metals or solution processing and is much more general. It is used to obtain self-supported ultra-pure nanoporous gold films with controllable pore sizes. The impurity-free nanoporous gold films possess highly curved ligaments, are remarkably robust, and stable over hundreds of electrochemical cycles. Furthermore, they contain many …

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Sep 2023 • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B

Measuring and understanding the nanomechanical properties of halide perovskites and their correlation to structure—A perspective

Irit Rosenhek-Goldian, David Cahen, Sidney R Cohen

The class of materials termed halide perovskites has experienced a meteoric rise in popularity due to their potential for photovoltaic and related applications, rivaling the well-established silicon devices within a few short years of development. These materials are characterized by several intriguing properties, among them their mechanical behavior. The study of their response to stress is essential for proper device development, while being of fundamental scientific interest in its own right. In this perspective, we highlight the key concerns surrounding this topic, critically analyzing the measurement techniques and considering the challenges in the current level of understanding.

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Sep 2023 • Diagnostics

PTOLEMI: Personalized Cancer Treatment through Machine Learning-Enabled Image Analysis of Microfluidic Assays

Bernard Moerdler, Matan Krasner, Elazar Orenbuch, Avi Grad, Benjamin Friedman, Eliezer Graber, Efrat Barbiro-Michaely, Doron Gerber

Contemporary personalized cancer diagnostic approaches encounter multiple challenges. The presence of cellular and molecular heterogeneity in patient samples introduces complexities to analysis protocols. Conventional analyses are manual, reliant on expert personnel, time-intensive, and financially burdensome. The copious data amassed for subsequent analysis strains the system, obstructing real-time diagnostics at the “point of care” and impeding prompt intervention. This study introduces PTOLEMI: Python-based Tensor Oncological Locator Examining Microfluidic Instruments. PTOLEMI stands out as a specialized system designed for high-throughput image analysis, particularly in the realm of microfluidic assays. Utilizing a blend of machine learning algorithms, PTOLEMI can process large datasets rapidly and with high accuracy, making it feasible for point-of-care diagnostics. Furthermore, its advanced analytics capabilities facilitate a more granular understanding of cellular dynamics, thereby allowing for more targeted and effective treatment options. Leveraging cutting-edge AI algorithms, PTOLEMI rapidly and accurately discriminates between cell viability and distinct cell types within biopsy samples. The diagnostic process becomes automated, swift, precise, and resource-efficient, rendering it well-suited for point-of-care requisites. By employing PTOLEMI alongside a microfluidic cell culture chip, physicians can attain personalized diagnostic and therapeutic insights. This paper elucidates the evolution of PTOLEMI and showcases its prowess in analyzing cancer patient samples within a microfluidic apparatus. While the integration of …

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Sep 2023 • Electrochimica Acta

Simplified FTacV model to quantify the electrochemically active site density in PGM-free ORR catalysts

Ariel Friedman, Rifael Z Snitkoff-Sol, Hilah C Honig, Lior Elbaz

The development of platinum group metal-free catalysts is considered the most prominent path for reducing the cost of low-temperature fuel cells (LTFC). Despite the great advancement in the field, its further progress is currently limited by the ability to understand and mitigate the catalysts’ degradation mechanisms, which up to recent years was limited by the lack of activity descriptors. Recent work showed that this could be solved using Fourier-transformed alternating current voltammetry that enables to deconvolute Faradaic currents arising from the redox reaction of the active sites from the capacitive currents, and by that accurately measure the electrochemically active site density of these catalysts in situ fuel cells. However, the analysis of the results can be complex, requiring simulation software for accurate parameter extraction. Herein, a simplified analysis of Fourier-transformed alternating current voltammetry is …

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