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Jun 2023 • Materials Today Chemistry

Thin coating of silica/polystyrene core-shell nano/microparticles with hierarchical morphology onto polymeric films for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces

S Hayne, S Margel

A novel coating process applied directly onto polymeric films offers a long-term alternative to short-term surface treatment of low surface energy polymers. In this paper, we report (i) an improved synthesis of a coating of raspberry-like particles directly onto polymeric surfaces and (ii) a novel method to obtain films with out-of-the ordinary superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties. Inspired by the ‘lotus effect’ observed in nature, superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated by combining dual-scale hierarchical coatings with low surface energy fluoroalkanes. Raspberry-like core-shell microparticles (MPs) composed of polystyrene (PS) core coated with silica (SiO2) shell (SiO2/PS) were synthesized by in situ dispersion polymerization of styrene directly on the surface of corona-treated polypropylene films. The PS MPs covered surface was then coated with SiO2 nano/microparticles (N/MPs) forming a hierarchical …

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Jun 2023 • Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

RNA editing of mutations causing inherited retinal diseases using the cellular deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzyme

Dror Sharon, Nina Schneider, Johanna Valensi, Ricky Steinberg, Amit Eylon, Eyal Banin, Erez Levanon, Shay Ben-Aroya

Purpose: Single nucleotide editing can be performed at the RNA level using the human deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzyme and can serve as a tool for gene therapy of inherited diseases, including inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). ADAR-based RNA editing requires the delivery of an efficient guideRNA (gRNA) that is designed to recruit the endogenously expressed ADAR enzyme to a mutated RNA. Our aim is to design and test gRNAs that induce targeted ADAR editing for relatively common IRD-causing mutations including nonsense, missense, and splice-site mutations.Methods: A yeast model was used to identify candidate gRNAs for nonsense mutations by measuring yeast survival and percent editing using next generation sequencing (NGS). A fluorescence-expressing plasmid reporter system was used in HeLa cells overexpressing either ADAR1/2. The cells were transfected by a plasmid that includes …

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Jun 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2306.00528

Neuronal Cell Type Classification using Deep Learning

Ofek Ophir, Orit Shefi, Ofir Lindenbaum

The brain is likely the most complex organ, given the variety of functions it controls, the number of cells it comprises, and their corresponding diversity. Studying and identifying neurons, the brain's primary building blocks, is a crucial milestone and essential for understanding brain function in health and disease. Recent developments in machine learning have provided advanced abilities for classifying neurons. However, these methods remain black boxes with no explainability and reasoning. This paper aims to provide a robust and explainable deep-learning framework to classify neurons based on their electrophysiological activity. Our analysis is performed on data provided by the Allen Cell Types database containing a survey of biological features derived from single-cell recordings of mice and humans. First, we classify neuronal cell types of mice data to identify excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Then, neurons are categorized to their broad types in humans using domain adaptation from mice data. Lastly, neurons are classified into sub-types based on transgenic mouse lines using deep neural networks in an explainable fashion. We show state-of-the-art results in a dendrite-type classification of excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons and transgenic mouse lines classification. The model is also inherently interpretable, revealing the correlations between neuronal types and their electrophysiological properties.

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Jun 2023 • Physical Review Letters

Ultrafast Temporal SU (1, 1) Interferometer

Sara Meir, Yuval Tamir, Hamootal Duadi, Eliahu Cohen, Moti Fridman

Interferometers are highly sensitive to phase differences and are utilized in numerous schemes. Of special interest is the quantum SU (1, 1) interferometer which is able to improve the sensitivity of classical interferometers. We theoretically develop and experimentally demonstrate a temporal SU (1, 1) interferometer based on two time lenses in a 4 f configuration. This temporal SU (1, 1) interferometer has a high temporal resolution, imposes interference on both time and spectral domains, and is sensitive to the phase derivative which is important for detecting ultrafast phase changes. Therefore, this interferometer can be utilized for temporal mode encoding, imaging, and studying the ultrafast temporal structure of quantum light.

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Jun 2023 • Bulletin of the American Physical Society

Understanding Multichannel nature of Efimov physics with ultracold 7Li atoms

Jose P D'Incao, Yaakov Yudkin, Paul Julienne, Lev Khaykovich

We present our current understanding of various aspects of Efimov physics originating from the complex multichannel hyperfine structure which further help us to understand puzzling 7Li experimental observations. Our results indicates that spin-exchange for 7Li atoms play an important role in the determination of Efimov resonances along with the narrow character of its Feshbach resonances. We show that the structure of three-body potentials is strongly dependent on the resonance width giving further insights to other atomic species.

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Jun 2023 • Molecular Cell, 2023

Spatial and temporal organization of the genome: Current state and future aims of the 4D nucleome project

Job Dekker, Frank Alber, Sarah Aufmkolk, Brian J Beliveau, Benoit G Bruneau, Andrew S Belmont, Lacramioara Bintu, Alistair Boettiger, Riccardo Calandrelli, Christine M Disteche, David M Gilbert, Thomas Gregor, Anders S Hansen, Bo Huang, Danwei Huangfu, Reza Kalhor, Christina S Leslie, Wenbo Li, Yun Li, Jian Ma, William S Noble, Peter J Park, Jennifer E Phillips-Cremins, Katherine S Pollard, Susanne M Rafelski, Bing Ren, Yijun Ruan, Yaron Shav-Tal, Yin Shen, Jay Shendure, Xiaokun Shu, Caterina Strambio-De-Castillia, Anastassiia Vertii, Huaiying Zhang, Sheng Zhong

The four-dimensional nucleome (4DN) consortium studies the architecture of the genome and the nucleus in space and time. We summarize progress by the consortium and highlight the development of technologies for (1) mapping genome folding and identifying roles of nuclear components and bodies, proteins, and RNA, (2) characterizing nuclear organization with time or single-cell resolution, and (3) imaging of nuclear organization. With these tools, the consortium has provided over 2,000 public datasets. Integrative computational models based on these data are starting to reveal connections between genome structure and function. We then present a forward-looking perspective and outline current aims to (1) delineate dynamics of nuclear architecture at different timescales, from minutes to weeks as cells differentiate, in populations and in single cells, (2) characterize cis-determinants and trans-modulators of …

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Jun 2023 • ACS Omega

Detecting Contaminants in Water Based on Full Scattering Profiles within the Single Scattering Regime

Alon Tzroya, Shoshana Erblich, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Clean water is essential for maintaining human health. To ensure clean water, it is important to use sensitive detection methods that can identify contaminants in real time. Most techniques do not rely on optical properties and require calibrating the system for each level of contamination. Therefore, we suggest a new technique to measure water contamination using the full scattering profile, which is the angular intensity distribution. From this, we extracted the iso-pathlength (IPL) point which minimizes the effects of scattering. The IPL point is an angle where the intensity values remain constant for different scattering coefficients while the absorption coefficient is set. The absorption coefficient does not affect the IPL point but only attenuates its intensity. In this paper, we show the appearance of the IPL in single scattering regimes for small concentrations of Intralipid. We extracted a unique point for each sample diameter …

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Jun 2023 • Journal of hazardous materials

Soil adsorption and transport of lead in the presence of perovskite solar cell-derived organic cations

Arindam Mallick, Rene D Mendez Lopez, Gilboa Arye, David Cahen, Iris Visoly-Fisher

Perovskite photovoltaics offer a highly efficient and low-cost solar energy harvesting technology. However, the presence of lead (Pb) cations in photovoltaic halide perovskite (HaPs) materials is concerning, and quantifying the environmental hazard of accidental Pb2+ leaching into the soil is crucial for assessing the sustainability of this technology. Pb2+ from inorganic salts was previously found to remain in the upper soil layers due to adsorption. However, Pb-HaPs contain additional organic and inorganic cations, and competitive cation adsorption may affect Pb2+ retention in soils. Therefore, we measured, analyzed by simulations and report the depths to which Pb2+ from HaPs penetrates into 3 types of agricultural soil. Most of the HaP-leached Pb2+ is found to be retained already in the first cm of the soil columns, and subsequent rain events do not induce Pb2+ penetration below the first few cm of soil surface …

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Jun 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2306.13368

Subwavelength pulse focusing and perfect absorption in the Maxwell fisheye

Gautier Lefebvre, Marc Dubois, Younes Achaoui, Ros Kiri, Mathias Fink, Sébastien Guenneau, Patrick Sebbah

Maxwell's fisheye is a paradigm for an absolute optical instrument with a refractive index deduced from the stereographic projection of a sphere on a plane. We investigate experimentally the dynamics of flexural waves in a thin plate with a thickness varying according to the Maxwell fisheye index profile and a clamped boundary. We demonstrate subwavelength focusing and temporal pulse compression at the image point. This is achieved by introducing a sink emitting a cancelling signal optimally shaped using a time-reversal procedure. Perfect absorption and outward going wave cancellation at the focus point are demonstrated. The time evolution of the kinetic energy stored inside the cavity reveals that the sink absorbs energy out of the plate ten times faster than the natural decay rate.

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Jun 2023 • ImmunoInformatics

AIRR community curation and standardised representation for immunoglobulin and T cell receptor germline sets

William D Lees, Scott Christley, Ayelet Peres, Justin T Kos, Brian Corrie, Duncan Ralph, Felix Breden, Lindsay G Cowell, Gur Yaari, Martin Corcoran, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam, Mats Ohlin, Andrew M Collins, Corey T Watson, Christian E Busse, The AIRR Community

Analysis of an individual's immunoglobulin or T cell receptor gene repertoire can provide important insights into immune function. High-quality analysis of adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing data depends upon accurate and relatively complete germline sets, but current sets are known to be incomplete. Established processes for the review and systematic naming of receptor germline genes and alleles require specific evidence and data types, but the discovery landscape is rapidly changing. To exploit the potential of emerging data, and to provide the field with improved state-of-the-art germline sets, an intermediate approach is needed that will allow the rapid publication of consolidated sets derived from these emerging sources. These sets must use a consistent naming scheme and allow refinement and consolidation into genes as new information emerges. Name changes should be minimised, but …

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Jun 2023 • Molecular cell, 2023

Spatial and temporal organization of the genome: Current state and future aims of the 4D nucleome project

Job Dekker, Frank Alber, Sarah Aufmkolk, Brian J Beliveau, Benoit G Bruneau, Andrew S Belmont, Lacramioara Bintu, Alistair Boettiger, Riccardo Calandrelli, Christine M Disteche, David M Gilbert, Thomas Gregor, Anders S Hansen, Bo Huang, Danwei Huangfu, Reza Kalhor, Christina S Leslie, Wenbo Li, Yun Li, Jian Ma, William S Noble, Peter J Park, Jennifer E Phillips-Cremins, Katherine S Pollard, Susanne M Rafelski, Bing Ren, Yijun Ruan, Yaron Shav-Tal, Yin Shen, Jay Shendure, Xiaokun Shu, Caterina Strambio-De-Castillia, Anastassiia Vertii, Huaiying Zhang, Sheng Zhong

The four-dimensional nucleome (4DN) consortium studies the architecture of the genome and the nucleus in space and time. We summarize progress by the consortium and highlight the development of technologies for (1) mapping genome folding and identifying roles of nuclear components and bodies, proteins, and RNA, (2) characterizing nuclear organization with time or single-cell resolution, and (3) imaging of nuclear organization. With these tools, the consortium has provided over 2,000 public datasets. Integrative computational models based on these data are starting to reveal connections between genome structure and function. We then present a forward-looking perspective and outline current aims to (1) delineate dynamics of nuclear architecture at different timescales, from minutes to weeks as cells differentiate, in populations and in single cells, (2) characterize cis-determinants and trans-modulators of …

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Jun 2023 • Physical Review B

Free electron laser stochastic spectroscopy revealing silicon bond softening dynamics

Dario De Angelis, Emiliano Principi, Filippo Bencivenga, Daniele Fausti, Laura Foglia, Yishay Klein, Michele Manfredda, Riccardo Mincigrucci, Angela Montanaro, Emanuele Pedersoli, Jacopo Stefano Pelli Cresi, Giovanni Perosa, Kevin C Prince, Elia Razzoli, Sharon Shwartz, Alberto Simoncig, Simone Spampinati, Cristian Svetina, Jakub Szlachetko, Alok Tripathi, Ivan A Vartanyants, Marco Zangrando, Flavio Capotondi

Time-resolved x-ray emission/absorption spectroscopy (Tr-XES/XAS) is an informative experimental tool sensitive to electronic dynamics in materials, widely exploited in diverse research fields. Typically, Tr-XES/XAS requires x-ray pulses with both a narrow bandwidth and subpicosecond pulse duration, a combination that in principle finds its optimum with Fourier transform-limited pulses. In this work, we explore an alternative experimental approach, capable of simultaneously retrieving information about unoccupied (XAS) and occupied (XES) states from the stochastic fluctuations of broadband extreme ultraviolet pulses of a free electron laser. We used this method, in combination with singular-value decomposition and Tikhonov regularization procedures, to determine the XAS/XES response from a crystalline silicon sample at the L 2, 3 edge, with an energy resolution of a few tens of meV. Finally, we combined this …

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Jun 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2306.13621

Ergodic properties of Brownian motion under stochastic resetting

Eli Barkai, Rosa Flaquer-Galmes, Vicenç Méndez

We study ergodic properties of one-dimensional Brownian motion with resetting. Using generic classes of statistics of times between resets, we find respectively for thin/fat tailed distributions, the normalized/non-normalised invariant density of this process. The former case corresponds to known results in the resetting literature and the latter to infinite ergodic theory. Two types of ergodic transitions are found in this system. The first is when the mean waiting time between resets diverges, when standard ergodic theory switches to infinite ergodic theory. The second is when the mean of the square root of time between resets diverges and the properties of the invariant density are drastically modified. We then find a fractional integral equation describing the density of particles. This finite time tool is particularly useful close to the ergodic transition where convergence to asymptotic limits is logarithmically slow. Our study implies rich ergodic behaviors for this non-equilibrium process which should hold far beyond the case of Brownian motion analyzed here.

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Jun 2023 • Preprints, 2023

Isothermal Titration Calorimetry: The Heat of Dilution, Racemization, and What Lies In Between

Matan Oliel, Yitzhak Mastai

Chiral interactions play a crucial role in both chemistry and biology. Understanding the behavior of chiral molecules and their interactions with other molecules is essential, and chiral interactions in solutions are particularly important for studying chiral compounds. Chirality influences the physical and chemical properties of molecules, including solubility, reactivity, and biological activity. In this work, we used Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), a powerful technique for studying molecular interactions, including chiral interactions in solutions. We conducted a series of ITC measurements to investigate the heat of dilution and the heat of racemization of several amino acids (Asn, His, Ser, Ala, Met, and Phe). We also performed ITC measurements under different solute concentrations and temperatures to examine the effects of these parameters on chiral interactions, as well as the heat of dilution and racemization. The results of our measurements indicated that the heat of dilution, specifically the interactions between the solvent (water) and solute (chiral molecules), had a significant impact compared to the chiral interactions in the solution, which were found to be negligible. This suggests that the interactions between chiral molecules and the solvent play a more dominant role in determining the overall behavior and properties of the system. By studying chiral interactions in solutions, we can gain valuable insights into the behavior of chiral compounds, which can have implications in various fields, including drug design, chemical synthesis, and biological processes.

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May 2023 • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

Topotactic, Vapor-Phase, In Situ Monitored Formation of Ultrathin, Phase-Pure 2D-on-3D Halide Perovskite Surfaces

Sujit Kumar, Vinayaka H Damle, Tatyana Bendikov, Anat Itzhak, Michael Elbaum, Katya Rechav, Lothar Houben, Yaakov Tischler, David Cahen

Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites, HaPs, can provide chemical stability to three-dimensional (3D) HaP surfaces, protecting them from exposure to ambient species and from reacting with contacting layers. Both actions occur with 2D HaPs, with the general stoichiometry R2PbI4 (R: long or bulky organic amine) covering the 3D ones. Adding such covering films can also boost power conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic cells by passivating surface/interface trap states. For maximum benefit, we need conformal ultrathin and phase-pure (n = 1) 2D layers to enable efficient tunneling of photogenerated charge carriers through the 2D film barrier. Conformal coverage of ultrathin (<10 nm) R2PbI4 layers on 3D perovskites is challenging with spin coating; even more so is its upscaling for larger-area devices. We report on vapor-phase cation exchange of the 3D surface with the R2PbI4 molecules and real-time in situ …

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May 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2305.16017

Experimental Evidence for Defect Tolerance in Pb-Halide Perovskites

Naga Prathibha Jasti, Igal Levine, Yishay Feldman, Sigalit Aharon, David Cahen

The term defect tolerance (DT) is used often to rationalize the exceptional optoelectronic properties of Halide Perovskites, HaPs, and their devices. Even though DT lacked direct experimental evidence, it became fact in the field. DT in semiconductors implies tolerance to structural defects without the electrical and optical effects (e.g., traps), associated with such defects. We present first direct experimental evidence for DT in Pb HaPs by comparing the structural quality of 2D, 2D_3D, and 3D Pb HaP crystals with their optoelectronic characteristics using high sensitivity methods. Importantly, we get information from the material bulk, because we sample at least a few 100 nm, up to several micrometer, from the sample surface, which allows assessing intrinsic bulk (and not only surface) properties of HaPs. The results point to DT in 3D, to a lesser extent in 2D_3D, but not in 2D Pb HaPs. We ascribe such dimension dependent DT to the higher number of (near)neighboring species, available to compensate for structural defect effects in the 3D than in the 2D HaP crystals. Overall, our data provide an experimental basis to rationalize DT in Pb HaPs. These experiments and findings can guide the search for, and design of other materials with DT.

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May 2023 • NATURE PHYSICS, 2023

A multilayer superconductor acts as an interdependent network

Ivan Bonamassa, Aviad Frydman


May 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2305.12468

High-resolution computed tomography with scattered x-ray radiation and a single pixel detector

A Ben Yehuda, O Sefi, Y Klein, RH Shukrun, H Schwartz, E Cohen, S Shwartz

X-ray imaging is a prevalent technique for non-invasively visualizing the interior of the human body and opaque instruments. In most commercial x-ray modalities, an image is formed by measuring the x-rays that pass through the object of interest. However, despite the potential of scattered radiation to provide additional information about the object, it is often disregarded due to its inherent tendency to cause blurring. Consequently, conventional imaging modalities do not measure or utilize these valuable data. In contrast, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a high-resolution technique for x-ray computed tomography (CT) that measures scattered radiation by exploiting computational ghost imaging (CGI). We show that our method can provide sub-200 {\mu}m resolution, exceeding the capabilities of most existing x-ray imaging modalities. Our research reveals a promising technique for incorporating scattered radiation data in CT scans to improve image resolution and minimize radiation exposure for patients. The findings of our study suggest that our technique could represent a significant advancement in the fields of medical and industrial imaging, with the potential to enhance the accuracy and safety of diagnostic imaging procedures.

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May 2023 • Advanced Energy Materials

Ion Flux Regulation through PTFE Nanospheres Impregnated in Glass Fiber Separators for Long‐Lived Lithium and Sodium Metal Batteries

Yajie Liu, Zhixin Tai, Ido Rozen, Zhipeng Yu, Ziyu Lu, Alec P LaGrow, Oleksandr Bondarchuk, Qingqing Chen, Gil Goobes, Yi Li, Lifeng Liu

Practical implementation of alkali metal batteries currently still faces formidable challenges because of the dendrite growth upon continuous charge/discharge processes and the associated unstable solid–electrolyte interphase. Herein, it is reported that dendrites can be fundamentally mitigated in lithium and sodium metal batteries by regulating the Li+ and Na+ flux using a glass fiber (GF) separator impregnated with polytetrafluoroethylene nanospheres (PTFE‐NSs), which results in homogeneous deposition of Li and Na during charging. The COMSOL Multiphysics simulations reveal that the introduction of negatively charged PTFE‐NSs into the GF separator enhances the local electric field near the anode, thereby boosting the transfer of cations. It is demonstrated that Li//Li and Na//Na symmetric cells utilising a PTFE‐GF separator show outstanding cycle stability of 1245 and 2750 h, respectively, at 0.5 mA cm−2 …

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May 2023 • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity

Energy Storing and Fault Current Limiting in a Unified Superconducting Magnetic Device

Y Nikulshin, A Kafri, Y Yeshurun, S Wolfus

This work describes a novel concept for unifying Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and an inductive-type Fault Current Limiter (FCL). A single superconducting coil is used both as an energy source for the operation of the SMES and as the field source for saturating the magnetic cores in the FCL. A possible geometry model for the implementation of this concept is suggested and a test case in an 11 kV, 10 MVA network is described for a fully, and 50% charged SMES states. Results show that the Saturated Cores FCL exhibits low insertion impedance and high limiting ratio in both scenarios. The unified SMES-FCL device saves major resources by making the superconducting coil a dual-purpose source, thus opening the door for an easier and efficient implementation of SMES and FCL technologies.

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May 2023 • ACS applied materials & interfaces

Topotactic, Vapor-Phase, In Situ Monitored Formation of Ultrathin, Phase-Pure 2D-on-3D Halide Perovskite Surfaces

Sujit Kumar, Vinayaka H Damle, Tatyana Bendikov, Anat Itzhak, Michael Elbaum, Katya Rechav, Lothar Houben, Yaakov Tischler, David Cahen

Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites, HaPs, can provide chemical stability to three-dimensional (3D) HaP surfaces, protecting them from exposure to ambient species and from reacting with contacting layers. Both actions occur with 2D HaPs, with the general stoichiometry R2PbI4 (R: long or bulky organic amine) covering the 3D ones. Adding such covering films can also boost power conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic cells by passivating surface/interface trap states. For maximum benefit, we need conformal ultrathin and phase-pure (n = 1) 2D layers to enable efficient tunneling of photogenerated charge carriers through the 2D film barrier. Conformal coverage of ultrathin (<10 nm) R2PbI4 layers on 3D perovskites is challenging with spin coating; even more so is its upscaling for larger-area devices. We report on vapor-phase cation exchange of the 3D surface with the R2PbI4 molecules and real-time in situ …

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