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Sep 2023 • Electrochimica Acta

Advanced impedance analysis of direct quinone fuel cells using distribution of relaxation times

Yan Yurko, Lior Elbaz

The need for new, reliable, and sustainable energy sources led to the development of new types of fuel cells. Fuel cells that rely on liquid hydrogen carriers may be the ultimate solution to the expensive hydrogen logistics issues. In this category, direct quinone fuel cells (DQFCs) are a promising new technology that solves many of the issues of traditional fuel cells. As a new technology, DQFCs need to be studied thoroughly to reach their full potential. Here, we use a distribution of relaxation times (DRT) analysis to analyze the impedance data of DQFCs, to gain a better understanding of the system. We systematically changed the operating parameters and attributed the changes in the DRT spectra to the physical processes they correspond to. The four main peaks observed in the DRT measurements were assigned to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), quinone diffusion resistance, proton diffusion in the membrane …

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Sep 2023 • Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Enhancement of the E12g and A1g Raman modes and layer identification of 2H‐WS2 nanosheets with metal coatings

Bharathi Rajeswaran, Rajashree Konar, Rena Yitzhari, Gilbert Daniel Nessim, Yaakov Raphael Tischler

Raman spectroscopy in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) helps determine their structural information and layer dependency. Because it is non‐destructive and fast, it is an archetypal spectroscopic technique to investigate the structure and defects in TMDCs. In our earlier study, we used a metal‐dielectric coating to enhance Raman signal of WS2 because the Raman Spectra measured from WS2 coated on the standard Si/SiO2 was significantly lower. This metal‐dielectric coating allowed access to the otherwise unavailable E12g and A1g modes of WS2. In this study, we compare the Raman spectra of WS2 on a Si/SiO2 to that of metal layers (Au [200 nm] and Al [200 nm]). A significant enhancement in the Raman signal of 2‐3L WS2 is observed for both the Au and Al coatings. Although 200 nm Au coating enhances the Raman Signal better than the 10 nm Au coating, it does not resolve the other …

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Sep 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2109.04237

Study of entanglement via a multi-agent dynamical quantum game

Bar Y Peled, Amit Te'eni, Eliahu Cohen, Avishy Carmi

At both conceptual and applied levels, quantum physics provides new opportunities as well as fundamental limitations. We hypothetically ask whether quantum games inspired by population dynamics can benefit from unique features of quantum mechanics such as entanglement and nonlocality. For doing so we extend quantum game theory and demonstrate that in certain models mimicking ecological systems where several predators feed on the same prey, the strength of quantum entanglement between the various species has a profound effect on the asymptotic behavior of the system. For example, if there are sufficiently many predator species who are all equally correlated with their prey, they are all driven to extinction. Our results are derived in two ways: by analyzing the asymptotic dynamics of the system, and also by modeling the system as a quantum correlation network. The latter approach enables us to …

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Sep 2023 • Joule

Stabilized Li-S batteries with anti-solvent-tamed quasi-solid-state reaction

Yatao Liu, Linhan Xu, Yongquan Yu, MengXue He, Han Zhang, Yanqun Tang, Feng Xiong, Song Gao, Aijun Li, Jianhui Wang, Shenzhen Xu, Doron Aurbach, Ruqiang Zou, Quanquan Pang

The transition from dissolution-precipitation to quasi-solid-state sulfur reaction promises restricted polysulfide shuttle and lean electrolyte operation of Li-S batteries but incurs poor reaction kinetics. We here demonstrate that structural reorganization of sparingly solvating electrolytes (SSEs)—which is uniquely afforded by using low-density and low-cost aromatic anti-solvents—is vital for taming the quasi-solid-state sulfur reaction. Aromatic anti-solvents disrupt the interconnected structure of concentrated tetrahydrofuran (THF) electrolyte, uniquely creating subdomains that act to dissolve elemental sulfur, thus accelerating its consumption and re-formation while maintaining ultralow polysulfides solubility. The altered subdomains further result in robust solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on lithium metal. As a result, the Li-S cell with a 3 mgsulfur cm−2 sulfur cathode can cycle steadily for ∼160 cycles with a lean …

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Sep 2023 • Scientific Reports

Near-field projection optical microscope (NPOM) as a new approach to nanoscale super-resolved imaging

Abhijit Sanjeev, David Glukhov, Rinsa Salahudeen Rafeeka, Avi Karsenty, Zeev Zalevsky

A new super-resolution method, entitled Near-field Projection Optical Microscopy (NPOM), is presented. This novel technique enables the imaging of nanoscale objects without the need for surface scanning, as is usually required in existing methods such as NSOM (near-field scanning optical microscope). The main advantage of the proposed concept, besides the elimination of the need for a mechanical scanning mechanism, is that the full field of regard/view is imaged simultaneously and not point-by-point as in scanning-based techniques. Furthermore, by using compressed sensing, the number of projected patterns needed to decompose the spatial information of the inspected object can be made smaller than the obtainable points of spatial resolution. In addition to the development of mathematical formalism, this paper presents the results of a series of complementary numerical tests, using various objects and …

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Sep 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2309.13197

X-ray Parametric Down Conversion at the APS Synchrotron

NJ Hartley, D Hodge, T Buckway, R Camacho, P Chow, E Christie, A Gleason, S Glenzer, A Halavanau, AM Hardy, C Recker, S Sheehan, S Shwartz, H Tarvin, M Ware, J Wunschel, Y Xiao, RL Sandberg, G Walker

We present measurements of X-ray Parametric Down Conversion at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron facility. We use an incoming pump beam at 22 keV to observe the simultaneous, elastic emission of down-converted photon pairs generated in a diamond crystal. The pairs are detected using high count rate silicon drift detectors with low noise. Production by down-conversion is confirmed by measuring time-energy correlations in the detector signal, where photon pairs within an energy window ranging from 10 to 12 keV are only observed at short time differences. By systematically varying the crystal misalignment and detector positions, we obtain results that are consistent with the constant total of the down-converted signal.

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Sep 2023 • Nature Communications

Bacterial cell-size changes resulting from altering the relative expression of Min proteins

Harsh Vashistha, Joanna Jammal-Touma, Kulveer Singh, Yitzhak Rabin, Hanna Salman

The timing of cell division, and thus cell size in bacteria, is determined in part by the accumulation dynamics of the protein FtsZ, which forms the septal ring. FtsZ localization depends on membrane-associated Min proteins, which inhibit FtsZ binding to the cell pole membrane. Changes in the relative concentrations of Min proteins can disrupt FtsZ binding to the membrane, which in turn can delay cell division until a certain cell size is reached, in which the dynamics of Min proteins frees the cell membrane long enough to allow FtsZ ring formation. Here, we study the effect of Min proteins relative expression on the dynamics of FtsZ ring formation and cell size in individual Escherichia coli bacteria. Upon inducing overexpression of minE, cell size increases gradually to a new steady-state value. Concurrently, the time required to initiate FtsZ ring formation grows as the size approaches the new steady-state, at which point …

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Sep 2023 • Electrochimica Acta

Iron doped cobalt nickel layered double hydroxide supported on nickel foam as a robust electrocatalyst for highly efficient water oxidation in alkaline sea water

Akanksha Gupta, Hari Krishna Sadhanala, Aharon Gedanken

The seawater electrolysis is an economically favorable approach for water splitting application because seawater is one of the plentiful abundant natural resources on our earth. In water splitting pathway, the anodic half-cell reaction from seawater stills a challenging task due to anodic corrosion and the competitive chloride oxidation process. In the current study, we prepared flower-shaped porous nanorods of iron doped cobalt nickel layered double hydroxide supported on nickel foam (Fe0.05 CoNi LDH/NF), which require very less oxygen evolution reaction (OER) overpotential in 1M KOH (212 mV) and alkaline seawater (287 mV) to deliver 10 mAcm−2 current density and exhibited remarkable 14 h durability. At the same time, post treated sample reveals the better OER activity after chronopotentiometry analysis, because of superior conductivity and corrosion-resistance of the electrocatalyst. The doping of Fe …

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Sep 2023 • Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Enhancement of the E12g and A1g Raman modes and layer identification of 2H‐WS2 nanosheets with metal coatings

Bharathi Rajeswaran, Rajashree Konar, Rena Yitzhari, Gilbert Daniel Nessim, Yaakov Raphael Tischler

Raman spectroscopy in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) helps determine their structural information and layer dependency. Because it is non‐destructive and fast, it is an archetypal spectroscopic technique to investigate the structure and defects in TMDCs. In our earlier study, we used a metal‐dielectric coating to enhance Raman signal of WS2 because the Raman Spectra measured from WS2 coated on the standard Si/SiO2 was significantly lower. This metal‐dielectric coating allowed access to the otherwise unavailable E12g and A1g modes of WS2. In this study, we compare the Raman spectra of WS2 on a Si/SiO2 to that of metal layers (Au [200 nm] and Al [200 nm]). A significant enhancement in the Raman signal of 2‐3L WS2 is observed for both the Au and Al coatings. Although 200 nm Au coating enhances the Raman Signal better than the 10 nm Au coating, it does not resolve the other …

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Aug 2023 • Applied Physics Letters

Two-well injector direct-phonon terahertz quantum cascade lasers

Nathalie Lander Gower, Shiran Levy, Silvia Piperno, Sadhvikas J Addamane, John L Reno, Asaf Albo

We present an experimental study on a terahertz quantum cascade laser (THz QCL) design that combines both two-well injector and directphonon scattering schemes, ie, a so-called two-well injector direct-phonon design. As a result of the two-well injector direct-phonon scheme presented here, the lasers benefit from both a direct phonon scattering scheme for the lower laser level depopulation and a setback for the doping profile that reduces the overlap of the doped region with active laser states. Additionally, our design also has efficient isolation of the active laser levels from excited and continuum states as indicated by negative differential resistance behavior all the way up to room temperature. This scheme serves as a good platform for improving the temperature performance of THz QCLs as indicated by the encouraging temperature performance results of the device with a relatively high doping level of 7.56 Â …

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Aug 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2308.07587

Broadband, Single wavelength, Continuous Spectral Control in a Polymer-Based Solid-State Random Laser

Bhupesh Kumar, Sebastian Schulz, Patrick Sebbah

In this paper, we present a study on partially pumped, single wavelength random lasing with tunability controlled by temperature in a solid-state random laser based on DCM (4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran) doped PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) dye. By carefully shaping the spatial profile of the pump, we achieve low-threshold, single-mode random lasing with excellent rejection of side lobes. Notably, we observe that varying the temperature induces changes in the refractive index of the PMMA-DCM layer, resulting in a blue-shift of the lasing wavelength. Moreover, we demonstrate continuous tunability of the lasing wavelength over an impressive bandwidth of 8 nm.

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Aug 2023 • Neuro-Oncology Advances

SYST-24 PROPOFOL EXERTS ANTI-TUMOR EFFECTS IN GLIOMA AND THE TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT VIA NON-CODING RNAS AND SECRETED EXOSOMES

Donald Penning, Simona Cazacu, Raphael Nizar, Cunli Xiang, Hodaya Goldstein, Matan Krasner, Efrat Barbiro-Michaely, Doron Gerber, Gila Kazimirsky, Lisa Rogers, Stephan Brown, Chaya Brodie

BACKGROUND Glioblastoma (GBM), is the most common primary brain tumor. GBM contains a small subpopulation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are implicated in tumor recurrence and treatment resistance and therefore represent important therapeutic targets. Recent clinical studies suggest propofol impacts subsequent tumor response to treatments and patient prognosis. The effects of propofol on patient derived GSCs alone and in combination with radiation and temozolomide, (TMZ) have not been reported. Objectives: The molecular mechanisms underlying propofol’s anti-tumor effects on GSCs and its effect on cellular communication with microglia was studied. Using GSC spheroids, differentiated glioma and tumor cells on a microfluid chip, effects of propofol alone and together with radiation and TMZ on the self-renewal and stemness of GSCs, their mesenchymal transit and the …

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Aug 2023 • Journal of Biological Engineering

Optimizing the fabrication of a 3D high-resolution implant for neural stimulation

Gal Shpun, Nairouz Farah, Yoav Chemla, Amos Markus, Tamar Azrad Leibovitch, Erel Lasnoy, Doron Gerber, Zeev Zalevsky, Yossi Mandel

BackgroundTissue-integrated micro-electronic devices for neural stimulation hold great potential in restoring the functionality of degenerated organs, specifically, retinal prostheses, which are aimed at vision restoration. The fabrication process of 3D polymer-metal devices with high resolution and a high aspect-ratio (AR) is very complex and faces many challenges that impair its functionality.ApproachHere we describe the optimization of the fabrication process of a bio-functionalized 3D high-resolution 1mm circular subretinal implant composed of SU-8 polymer integrated with dense gold microelectrodes (23μm pitch) passivated with 3D micro-well-like structures (20μm diameter, 3μm resolution). The main challenges were overcome by step-by-step planning and optimization while utilizing a two-step bi-layer lift-off process; bio-functionalization was carried out by N2 plasma treatment and the addition of a bio …

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Aug 2023 • ACS Catalysis

Ultra-Pure Nanoporous Gold Films for Electrocatalysis

Hyunah Kwon, Hannah-Noa Barad, Alex Ricardo Silva Olaya, Mariana Alarcón-Correa, Kersten Hahn, Gunther Richter, Gunther Wittstock, Peer Fischer

Nanoporous gold (Au) films are self-supported structures that possess a large surface area and extraordinary catalytic activity. Generally, nanoporous gold is obtained by solution-based dealloying where the less noble metal, often silver (Ag), is etched out. However, the residual amounts of the sacrificial metal are not well controlled, the impure samples show restructuring, and the residual metal prevents the study of the catalytic role of Au alone. Here, we fabricate impurity-free nanoporous gold films by a plasma-enabled dry synthetic route. The scheme does not include sacrificial metals or solution processing and is much more general. It is used to obtain self-supported ultra-pure nanoporous gold films with controllable pore sizes. The impurity-free nanoporous gold films possess highly curved ligaments, are remarkably robust, and stable over hundreds of electrochemical cycles. Furthermore, they contain many …

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Aug 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2208.12303

Soft aperture spatial filtering: 1.5 W in a single spatial mode from a highly multi-mode laser diode in an external cavity

Mallachi-Elia Meller, Idan Parshani, Leon Bello, David Goldovsky, Amir Kahana, Avi Pe'er

Broad area laser diodes are attractive for the high optical power they can produce. Unfortunately, this high power normally comes at the cost of severely reduced spatial coherence since the wide area of the semiconductor wave-guide is inherently spatially multi-mode (in the slow axis). We demonstrate a method to majorly improve the spatial coherence of a high-power broad-area diode laser by placing it in an external cavity that is mode selective. We design the cavity, such that the diode aperture acts as its own spatial filter, obviating the need for an intra-cavity slit-filter, and optimally utilizing the entire gain medium. We demonstrate this soft filtering method using wide diodes of and widths and compare its power-efficiency to the standard approach of hard-filtering with a slit. We obtain high-gain operation in a pure single-mode, demonstrating up to CW power at with high beam quality.

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Aug 2023 • Physica C: Superconductivity and its Applications

K. Alex Müller–Memories from a great scientist

Yosi Yeshurun

This article describes the effect of Alex Muller's discoveries on my own career and memories of him during his visit to Bar-Ilan University where he received an honorary doctorate.

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Aug 2023 • 3rd International Conference on Aerogels for Biomedical and Environmental Applications

Plasmonic Based Sensor for Quantification of Chemical Pollutants in Water and its Improvement by Machine Learning

MOHAMED HAMODE, MARIA SHEHADEH, OMER KASPI, BRURIA RUBIN, DAVID ZITOUN, ADI SALOMON

Chemical pollutants in drinking water can have many sources, such as pharmaceutical waste, agricultural runoff, and industrial discharges1, 2, 3. The development of a reliable, sensitive, and handheld sensor for the detection of a mixture of contaminants is important, both for human health and the environment. Herein, we show the development of a plasmonic sensor for Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and colorimetry measurements. Two types of plasmonic surfaces which enhance the electromagnetic field are presented here;(i) Well-defined cavities milled in silver substrates which are covered with 5 nm of SiO2 for stability.(ii) A scalable metallic-like aerogel network with large surface area, for increasing the sensitivity of our measurements. Three different families of analytes were studied, which can be found in drinking water: Piperidine and its derivatives (Pharmaceutical waste), Dioxins & Polychlorinated biphenyls, Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances, each of which is toxic, both to the environment and humans health, even at a low concentration of 30 mg/Kg (3* 10-4M). Those

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Aug 2023 • Journal of Energy Chemistry, 2023

Molybdenum disulfide as hydrogen evolution catalyst: From atomistic to materials structure and electrocatalytic performance

Mohsin Muhyuddin, Giorgio Tseberlidis, Maurizio Acciarri, Oran Lori, Massimiliano D'Arienzo, Massimiliano Cavallini, Plamen Atanassov, Lior Elbaz, Alessandro Lavacchi, Carlo Santoro

Hydrogen production via water electrolysis defines the novel energy vector for achieving a sustainable society. However, the true progress of the given technology is hindered by the sluggish and complex hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) occurring at the cathodic side of the system where overpriced and scarce Pt-based electrocatalysts are usually employed. Therefore, efficient platinum group metals (PGMs)-free electrocatalysts to carry out HER with accelerated kinetics are urgently demanded. In this scenario, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) owing to efficacious structural attributes and optimum hydrogen-binding free energy (ΔGH*) is emerging as a reliable alternative to PGMs. However, the performance of MoS2-based electrocatalysts is still far away from the benchmark performance. The HER activity of MoS2 can be improved by engineering the structural parameters i.e., doping, defects inducement, modulating …

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Aug 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2308.06237

The reshape of three-body interactions: Observation of the survival of an Efimov state in the atom-dimer continuum

Yaakov Yudkin, Roy Elbaz, José P D'Incao, Paul S Julienne, Lev Khaykovich

Efimov states are exotic and counterintuitive three-body quantum states that emerge in the vicinity of two-atom Feshbach resonances. These states exhibit remarkable characteristics as their large spatial extent and extremely weak binding energies following an infinite geometric series, and exist even when interactions are not strong enough to bind two atoms. Efimov states are universal and produce observable effects at critical values of the interaction strength across the two-body resonance when approaching their threshold for dissociation into the different types of three-body continua. In particular, as the strength of the interaction is decreased, an Efimov state merges into the atom-dimer threshold and eventually dissociates into an unbound atom-dimer pair. Here we explore this critical point using refined coherent few-body spectroscopy in Li atoms near a narrow two-body Feshbach resonance. Contrary to the expectation set by universality, we find that the Li Efimov trimer does not immediately dissociate when passing the threshold, and survives as a metastable state embedded in the atom-dimer continuum. We identify this behavior with a novel phenomena related to the emergence of a repulsive interaction in the atom-dimer channel which reshapes the three-body interactions in systems characterized by narrow Feshbach resonances. Our results shed new light on the nature of Li Efimov states and provide a new path to understand various puzzling phenomena observed here, as well as in other previous experimental studies.

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Aug 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2308.09777

High-Index Topological Insulator Resonant Nanostructures from Bismuth Selenide

Sukanta Nandi, Shany Z Cohen, Danveer Singh, Michal Poplinger, Pilkhaz Nanikashvili, Doron Naveh, Tomer Lewi

Topological insulators (TIs) are a class of materials characterized by an insulting bulk and high mobility topologically protected surface states, making them promising candidates for future optoelectronic and quantum devices. Although their electronic and transport properties have been extensively studied, their optical properties and prospective photonic capabilities have not been fully uncovered. Here, we use a combination of far-field and near-field nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy, to study CVD grown Bi2Se3 nanobeams (NBs). We first extract the mid-infrared (MIR) optical constants of Bi2Se3, revealing refractive index values as high as n ~6.4, and demonstrate that the NBs support Mie-resonances across the MIR. Local near-field reflection phase mapping reveals domains of various phase shifts, providing information on the local optical properties of the NBs. We experimentally measure up to 2{\pi} phase-shift across the resonance, in excellent agreement with FDTD simulations. This work highlights the potential of TI Bi2Se3 for quantum circuitry, non-linear generation, high-Q metaphotonics, and IR photodetection.

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Aug 2023 • Optica Open, 2023

Broadband Continuous Spectral Control of a Single Wavelength Polymer-Based Solid-State Random Laser

Bhupesh Kumar, Sebastian Schulz, Patrick Sebbah

We demonstrate temperature-controlled spectral tunability of a partially-pumped single-wavelength random laser in a solid-state random laser based on DCM (4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran) doped PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) dye. By carefully shaping the spatial profile of the pump, we first achieve low-threshold, single-mode random lasing with excellent side lobes rejection. Notably, we show how temperature-induced changes in the refractive index of the PMMA-DCM layer result in a blue-shift of this single lasing mode. Continuous tunability of the lasing wavelength is demonstrated over a 8nm-wide bandwidth.

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