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Jul 2023 • 2023 23rd International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 1-4, 2023

Microwave-Based Remote Bio-Sensing behind Walls

Ohad Meshulam, Nisan Ozana, Dan Scheffer, Shlomo Zach, Zeev Zalevsky

In this paper a novel method for microwave based remote sensing of vital signs behind walls is presented. The method is based on temporal spatial analysis of back scattered microwave signals. The use of non-optical electromagnetic radiation enables monitoring from larger distances and behind objects in contrast to similar concepts in optics. Further, such use of non-optical radiation omits the need for direct line of sight between the monitoring system and the target and enables monitoring through walls or other barriers. Micro-vibrations due to breathing and heart pulsation affect the reflection of microwaves and cause the self-interference random patterns (i.e. speckle patterns) to vary in time and space. By using this approach, the temporal change of the speckle patterns due to changes in vital signs can be tracked behind walls. In this paper we present a system in WiFi frequencies band consisting of two radio …

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Jul 2023 • Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces

A green formulation for superhydrophobic coatings based on Pickering emulsion templating for anti-biofilm applications

Raz Cohen, Karthik Ananth Mani, Madina Pirmatova, Gila Jacobi, Einat Zelinger, Eduard Belausov, Elazar Fallik, Ehud Banin, Guy Mechrez

This study reports significant steps toward developing anti-biofilm surfaces based on superhydrophobic properties that meet the complex demands of today's food and medical regulations. It presents inverse Pickering emulsions of water in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) stabilized by hydrophobic silica (R202) as a possible food-grade coating formulation and describes its significant passive anti-biofilm properties. The final coatings are formed by applying the emulsions on the target surface, followed by evaporation to form a rough layer. Analysis shows that the final coatings exhibited a Contact Angle (CA) of up to 155° and a Roll-off Angle (RA) lower than 1° on the polypropylene (PP) surface, along with a relatively high light transition. Dissolving polycaprolactone (PCL) into the continuous phase enhanced the average CA and coating uniformity but hindered the anti-biofilm activity and light transmission. Scanning …

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Jul 2023 • Electrochimica Acta

First isolation of solvated MgCl+ species as the sole cations in electrolyte solutions for rechargeable Mg batteries

Ananya Maddegalla, Yogendra Kumar, Sankalpita Chakrabarty, Yuri Glagovsky, Bruria Schmerling, Natalia Fridman, Michal Afri, Hagit Aviv, Doron Aurbach, Ayan Mukherjee, Dmitry Bravo-Zhivotovskii, Malachi Noked

Synthesis of complex magnesium cations in ethereal solutions, is receiving a lot of attention due to their potential utilization in rechargeable magnesium batteries (RMB). The simplest complex cation, namely, solvated MgCl+, was hypothesized and reported as the most important cation in nonaqueous magnesium electrolyte solutions chemistry. However, such ions have never been isolated as the only cationic species in ethereal solutions developed for RMB. In this study, we report on successful isolation of the pure electrolyte MgCl(THF)5+ - PhAlCl3−, and on the electrochemical behavior of it in ethereal solutions. The structure of this compound was proved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman, and NMR spectroscopies. The novel MgCl(THF)5PhAlCl3/THF electrolyte solutions exhibit reversible Mg deposition/dissolution processes with anodic stability up to 2.7 V. The application of electrochemical cleaning pre …

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Jul 2023 • Progress in materials science, 101166, 2023

Doped MXenes—a new paradigm in 2D systems: synthesis, properties and applications

Avishek Dey, Silvia Varagnolo, Nicholas P Power, Naresh Vangapally, Yuval Elias, Lois Damptey, Bright N Jaato, Saianand Gopalan, Zahra Golrokhi, Prashant Sonar, Vimalnath Selvaraj, Doron Aurbach, Satheesh Krishnamurthy

Since 2011, 2D transition metal carbides, carbonitrides and nitrides known as MXenes have gained huge attention due to their attractive chemical and electronic properties. The diverse functionalities of MXenes make them a promising candidate for multitude of applications. Recently, doping MXene with metallic and non-metallic elements has emerged as an exciting new approach to endow new properties to this 2D systems, opening a new paradigm of theoretical and experimental studies. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview on the recent progress in this emerging field of doped MXenes. We compare the different doping strategies; techniques used for their characterization and discuss the enhanced properties. The distinct advantages of doping in applications such as electrocatalysis, energy storage, photovoltaics, electronics, photonics, environmental remediation, sensors, and biomedical …

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Jul 2023 • The Journal of Chemical Physics

Temperature-dependence of the chirality-induced spin selectivity effect—Experiments and theory

Seif Alwan, Subhajit Sarkar, Amos Sharoni, Yonatan Dubi

The temperature-dependence of the chirality-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect can be used to discriminate between different theoretical proposals for the mechanism of the CISS effect. Here, we briefly review key experimental results and discuss the effect of temperature in different models for the CISS effect. We then focus on the recently suggested spinterface mechanism and describe the different possible effects temperature can have within this model. Finally, we analyze in detail recent experimental results presented in the work of Qian et al.[Nature 606, 902–908 (2022)] and demonstrate that, contrary to the original interpretation by the authors, these data actually indicate that the CISS effect increases with decreasing temperature. Finally, we show how the spinterface model can accurately reproduce these experimental results.

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Jul 2023 • APL Photonics

Opto-mechanical fiber sensing with optical and acoustic cladding modes

Avi Zadok, Elad Zehavi, Alon Bernstein

Optical fibers are an excellent sensor platform. However, the detection and analysis of media outside the cladding and coating of standard fibers represent a long-standing challenge: light that is guided in the single optical core mode does not reach these media. Cladding modes help work around this difficulty, as their transverse profiles span the entire cross-section of the fiber cladding and reach its outer boundary. In this tutorial, we introduce and discuss in detail two recent advances in optical fiber sensors that make use of cladding modes. Both concepts share optomechanics as a common underlying theme. First, we describe a spatially continuous distributed analysis using the optical cladding modes of the fiber. Light is coupled to these modes using Brillouin dynamic gratings, which are index perturbations associated with acoustic waves in the core that are stimulated by light. Unlike permanent gratings, which …

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Jul 2023 • Electrochimica Acta

Structure-performance relations for carbons in Zn-air battery cathodes with non-alkaline electrolytes

Roman R Kapaev, Amit Ohayon, Masato Sonoo, Jonathan Tzadikov, Menny Shalom, Malachi Noked

Rechargeable Zn-air batteries (RZABs) with non-alkaline electrolytes are a promising type of energy storage devices that potentially combine low cost, high energy density and safety. However, cathode materials for these devices remain poorly developed. We present a systematic study of how structure of carbons affects their performance as cathode scaffolds in non-alkaline RZABs. Ten commercially available types of carbon are characterized and tested in Zn-air battery cathodes with 1 M Zn(OAc)2 or ZnSO4 solutions in H2O as electrolytes. At a low current density (0.1 mA cm−2), there is a roughly linear dependence between the roundtrip energy efficiency and the logarithm of BET surface area, and this dependence is relevant across materials with different morphology and graphitization degree. Lower overpotentials at the initial cycles are observed for cathodes that are more hydrophilic. At higher currents (1 mA …

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Jul 2023 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2307.01874

Non-relativistic spatiotemporal quantum reference frames

Michael Suleymanov, Ismael L Paiva, Eliahu Cohen

Quantum reference frames have attracted renewed interest recently, as their exploration is relevant and instructive in many areas of quantum theory. Among the different types, position and time reference frames have captivated special attention. Here, we introduce and analyze a non-relativistic framework in which each system contains an internal clock, in addition to its external (spatial) degree of freedom and, hence, can be used as a spatiotemporal quantum reference frame. Among other applications of this framework, we show that even in simple scenarios with no interactions, the relative uncertainty between clocks affects the relative spatial spread of the systems.

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Jul 2023 • Fuel

Design of three-dimensional hexagonal petal-like nickel-copper cobaltite//luffa sponge-derived activated carbon electrode materials for high-performance solid-state supercapattery

Sengodan Prabhu, Moorthy Maruthapandi, Arulappan Durairaj, S Arun Kumar, John HT Luong, Rajendran Ramesh, Aharon Gedanken

Three-dimensional porous nanostructured materials are considered superior materials for energy storage applications due to their high storage capability. A nickel copper-cobalt oxide (NCC) composite with a uniform 3-D porous nanostructure (positive electrode materials) and luffa sponge-derived activated carbon (LPAC) with honeycomb-like structure (negative electrode materials) were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal and chemical method. A sample of the nickel-copper cobalt oxide-5 (NCC-5) nanocomposite reached a high specific capacitance of 1048 F/g at the current density of 0.5 A/g. The NCC-5 nanocomposite sample shows a retention capacity of 93 % after 10,000 charge and discharge cycles with 95 % of Coulombic efficiency (CE). The LPAC illustrates a remarkable specific capacitance of 909 F/g at 1 A/g of current density, compared to the best literature value of 400 F/g. The full-cell NCC-5//LPAC …

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Jul 2023 • Nanomaterials

Probing Polarity and pH Sensitivity of Carbon Dots in Escherichia coli through Time-Resolved Fluorescence Analyses

Gilad Yahav, Shweta Pawar, Anat Lipovsky, Akanksha Gupta, Aharon Gedanken, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Intracellular monitoring of pH and polarity is crucial for understanding cellular processes and functions. This study employed pH- and polarity-sensitive nanomaterials such as carbon dots (CDs) for the intracellular sensing of pH, polarity, and viscosity using integrated time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy (FA) imaging (TR-FAIM) and fluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging microscopy (FLIM), thereby enabling comprehensive characterization. The functional groups on the surface of CDs exhibit sensitivity to changes in the microenvironment, leading to variations in fluorescence intensity (FI) and FLT according to pH and polarity. The FLT of CDs in aqueous solution changed gradually from 6.38 ± 0.05 ns to 8.03 ± 0.21 ns within a pH range of 2–8. Interestingly, a complex relationship of FI and FLT was observed during measurements of CDs with decreasing polarity. However, the FA and rotational correlation time (θ) increased from 0.062 ± 0.019 to 0.112 ± 0.023 and from 0.49 ± 0.03 ns to 2.01 ± 0.27 ns, respectively. This increase in FA and θ was attributed to the higher viscosity accompanying the decrease in polarity. Furthermore, CDs were found to bind to three locations in Escherichia coli: the cell wall, inner membrane, and cytoplasm, enabling intracellular characterization using FI and FA decay imaging. FLT provided insights into cytoplasmic pH (7.67 ± 0.48), which agreed with previous works, as well as the decrease in polarity in the cell wall and inner membrane. The CD aggregation was suspected in certain areas based on FA, and the θ provided information on cytoplasmic heterogeneity due to the aggregation and/or interactions with …

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Jul 2023

High-resolution computed tomography with scattered X-ray radiation and a single pixel detector

Sharon Shwartz, Adi Ban Yehuda, Or Sefi, Yishay Klein, Rachel Shukrun, Hila Schwartz, Eliahu Cohen

X-ray imaging is a prevalent technique for non-invasively visualizing the interior of the human body and opaque instruments. In most commercial X-ray modalities, an image is formed by measuring the X-rays that pass through the object of interest. However, despite the potential of scattered radiation to provide additional information about the object, it is often disregarded due to its inherent tendency to cause blurring. Consequently, conventional imaging modalities do not measure or utilize these valuable data. In contrast, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a high-resolution technique for X-ray computed tomography (CT) that measures scattered radiation by exploiting computational ghost imaging (CGI). We show that our method can provide sub-200 µm resolution, exceeding the capabilities of most existing X-ray imaging modalities. Our research reveals a promising technique for incorporating scattered radiation data in CT scans to improve image resolution and minimize radiation exposure for patients. The findings of our study suggest that our technique could represent a significant advancement in the fields of medical and industrial imaging, with the potential to enhance the accuracy and safety of diagnostic imaging procedures.

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Jul 2023 • Applied Physics Letters

Flexible planar Hall effect sensor with sub-200 pT resolution

Hariharan Nhalil, Daniel Lahav, Moty Schultz, Shai Amrusi, Asaf Grosz, Lior Klein

Flexible sensors are important for applications, such as wearable medical devices, soft robotics, and more, as they can easily conform to soft and irregularly shaped surfaces. This study presents elliptical planar Hall effect magnetic sensors fabricated on a polyamide tape with an equivalent magnetic noise (EMN) better than 200 pT/ffiffiffiffiffiffi Hz p. The sensor is characterized in flat and bent states with a bent radius of 10 mm. An EMN of 200 and 400 pT/ffiffiffiffiffiffi Hz p in flat and bent states, respectively, is achieved at a frequency of 100 Hz. The remarkable EMN combined with a simple, low-cost fabrication process makes these sensors a promising candidate for flexible electronics.

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Jul 2023 • Cells

Propofol inhibits glioma stem cell growth and migration and their interaction with microglia via BDNF-AS and extracellular vesicles

Rephael Nizar, Simona Cazacu, Cunli Xiang, Matan Krasner, Efrat Barbiro-Michaely, Doron Gerber, Jonathan Schwartz, Iris Fried, Shira Yuval, Aharon Brodie, Gila Kazimirsky, Naama Amos, Ron Unger, Stephen Brown, Lisa Rogers, Donald H Penning, Chaya Brodie


Jul 2023 • APL Photonics

Opto-mechanical fiber sensing with optical and acoustic cladding modes

Avi Zadok, Elad Zehavi, Alon Bernstein

Optical fibers are an excellent sensor platform. However, the detection and analysis of media outside the cladding and coating of standard fibers represent a long-standing challenge: light that is guided in the single optical core mode does not reach these media. Cladding modes help work around this difficulty, as their transverse profiles span the entire cross-section of the fiber cladding and reach its outer boundary. In this tutorial, we introduce and discuss in detail two recent advances in optical fiber sensors that make use of cladding modes. Both concepts share optomechanics as a common underlying theme. First, we describe a spatially continuous distributed analysis using the optical cladding modes of the fiber. Light is coupled to these modes using Brillouin dynamic gratings, which are index perturbations associated with acoustic waves in the core that are stimulated by light. Unlike permanent gratings, which …

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Jul 2023 • Nature Communications

A sodium-ion-conducted asymmetric electrolyzer to lower the operation voltage for direct seawater electrolysis

Hao Shi, Tanyuan Wang, Jianyun Liu, Weiwei Chen, Shenzhou Li, Jiashun Liang, Shuxia Liu, Xuan Liu, Zhao Cai, Chao Wang, Dong Su, Yunhui Huang, Lior Elbaz, Qing Li

Hydrogen produced from neutral seawater electrolysis faces many challenges including high energy consumption, the corrosion/side reactions caused by Cl-, and the blockage of active sites by Ca2+/Mg2+ precipitates. Herein, we design a pH-asymmetric electrolyzer with a Na+ exchange membrane for direct seawater electrolysis, which can simultaneously prevent Cl- corrosion and Ca2+/Mg2+ precipitation and harvest the chemical potentials between the different electrolytes to reduce the required voltage. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations reveal that water dissociation can be promoted with a catalyst based on atomically dispersed Pt anchored to Ni-Fe-P nanowires with a reduced energy barrier (by 0.26 eV), thus accelerating the hydrogen evolution kinetics in seawater. Consequently, the asymmetric electrolyzer exhibits current densities of 10 mA cm−2 and 100 mA cm …

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Jul 2023 • Physical Review B

Proximitized insulators from disordered superconductors

Moshe Haim, David Dentelski, Aviad Frydman

We present an experimental study of bilayers of a disordered Ag metal layer close to the metal-insulator transition and an indium-oxide film which is on the insulating side of the superconductor insulator transition. Our results show that superconducting fluctuations within the indium-oxide film, that proximitize the underlying metal layer, induce insulating rather than superconducting behavior. This is ascribed to suppression of density of states (due to the superconducting energy gap) for quasiparticles in the proximitized regions. Our results present a manifestation of the proximity effect phenomenon and provide important insight into the nature of the insulating phase of the disorder driven superconductor insulator transition.

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Jul 2023 • Laser & Photonics Reviews

Deep-Subwavelength Resonant Meta-Optics Enabled by Ultra-High Index Topological Insulators

Singh, D., Nandi, S., Fleger, Y., Cohen, S. Z., Lewi, T.

In nanophotonics, small mode volumes, high‐quality factor resonances, and large field enhancements without metals fundamentally scale with the refractive index and are key for many implementations involving light‐matter interactions. Topological insulators (TIs) are a class of insulating materials that host topologically protected surface states, some of which exhibit extraordinarily high permittivity values. Here, the optical properties of TI bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) single crystals are studied. It is found that both the bulk and surface states contribute to the extremely large optical constants, with the real part of the refractive index peaking at n ≈ 11. Utilizing these ultra‐high index values, it is demonstrated that Bi2Te3 metasurfaces are capable of squeezing light in deep‐subwavelength structures, with the fundamental magnetic dipole (MD) resonance confined in unit cell sizes smaller than λ/10. It is further shown that …

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Jul 2023 • Cells

Propofol Inhibits Glioma Stem Cell Growth and Migration and Their Interaction with Microglia via BDNF-AS and Extracellular Vesicles

Rephael Nizar, Simona Cazacu, Cunli Xiang, Matan Krasner, Efrat Barbiro-Michaely, Doron Gerber, Jonathan Schwartz, Iris Fried, Shira Yuval, Aharon Brodie, Gila Kazimirsky, Naama Amos, Ron Unger, Stephen Brown, Lisa Rogers, Donald H Penning, Chaya Brodie

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. GBM contains a small subpopulation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that are implicated in treatment resistance, tumor infiltration, and recurrence, and are thereby considered important therapeutic targets. Recent clinical studies have suggested that the choice of general anesthetic (GA), particularly propofol, during tumor resection, affects subsequent tumor response to treatments and patient prognosis. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying propofol’s anti-tumor effects on GSCs and their interaction with microglia cells. Propofol exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the self-renewal, expression of mesenchymal markers, and migration of GSCs and sensitized them to both temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation. At higher concentrations, propofol induced a large degree of cell death, as demonstrated using microfluid chip technology. Propofol increased the expression of the lncRNA BDNF-AS, which acts as a tumor suppressor in GBM, and silencing of this lncRNA partially abrogated propofol’s effects. Propofol also inhibited the pro-tumorigenic GSC-microglia crosstalk via extracellular vesicles (EVs) and delivery of BDNF-AS. In conclusion, propofol exerted anti-tumor effects on GSCs, sensitized these cells to radiation and TMZ, and inhibited their pro-tumorigenic interactions with microglia via transfer of BDNF-AS by EVs.

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Jul 2023 • Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 126, 101885-101885, 2023

Remembering Shimon Vega: Special issue on solid-state and DNP NMR.

G Goobes, PK Madhu, A Goldbourt

This special issue is dedicated to the memory of Shimon Vega (1943–2021) with contributions from former students, postdocs, and other close colleagues. Shimon had seminal contributions in magnetic resonance, including in the areas of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), solid-state NMR, and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). While dedicating a major effort to the development of NMR theory, he always made direct connections to experiments and relevant applications and was a gifted educator and teacher. The content of this special issue is a manifestation of these various facets in his personality.Matysik highlights, in his paper, the educational spirit of Shimon by describing the “Vega diagrams”; block representations of Hamiltonians and density matrices with pathways directing the reader to the relevant physics. On the theoretical side, the work of Sajith et al. extracts effective Hamiltonians and key …

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Jul 2023 • Progress in Materials Science, 101166, 2023

Doped MXenes—A new paradigm in 2D systems: Synthesis, properties and applications

Avishek Dey, Silvia Varagnolo, Nicholas P Power, Naresh Vangapally, Yuval Elias, Lois Damptey, Bright N Jaato, Saianand Gopalan, Zahra Golrokhi, Prashant Sonar, Vimalnath Selvaraj, Doron Aurbach, Satheesh Krishnamurthy

Since 2011, 2D transition metal carbides, carbonitrides and nitrides known as MXenes have gained huge attention due to their attractive chemical and electronic properties. The diverse functionalities of MXenes make them a promising candidate for multitude of applications. Recently, doping MXene with metallic and non-metallic elements has emerged as an exciting new approach to endow new properties to this 2D systems, opening a new paradigm of theoretical and experimental studies. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview on the recent progress in this emerging field of doped MXenes. We compare the different doping strategies; techniques used for their characterization and discuss the enhanced properties. The distinct advantages of doping in applications such as electrocatalysis, energy storage, photovoltaics, electronics, photonics, environmental remediation, sensors, and biomedical …

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Jul 2023 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Metal Nanoparticle/Photosystem I Protein Hybrids Coupled to Microantenna Afford Biologically and Electronically Controlled Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance: Implications for …

Itai Carmeli, Ibrahim Tanriover, Tirupathi Malavath, Chanoch Carmeli, Moshik Cohen, Yossi Abulafia, Olga Girshevitz, Shachar Richter, Koray Aydin, Zeev Zalevsky

Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) holds great promise for the next generation of fast nanoscale optoelectronic devices, as silicon-based electronic devices approach fundamental speed and scaling limitations. However, in order to fully exploit the potential of plasmonics, devices and material systems capable of actively controlling and manipulating plasmonic response are essential. Here, we demonstrate active control of the electric field distribution of a microantenna by coupling LSPRs to a photosynthetic protein with outstanding optoelectronic properties and a long-range and efficient exciton transfer ability. The hybrid biosolid state active platform is able to tune and modulate the optical activity of a microplasmonic antenna via the interaction of the bioactive material with plasmon oscillations occurring in the antennae. In addition, we demonstrate that the effect of the coupling can be further enhanced …

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