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Nov 2021 • Journal of the American Chemical Society 143 (50), 21161-21176, 2021

High Energy Density Rechargeable Batteries Based on Li Metal Anodes. The Role of Unique Surface Chemistry Developed in Solutions Containing Fluorinated Organic Co-solvents

Doron Aurbach, Elena Markevich, Gregory Salitra

To date, lithium ion batteries are considered as a leading energy storage and conversion technology, ensuring a combination of high energy and power densities and prolonged cycle life. A critical point for elaboration of high energy density secondary Li batteries is the use of high specific capacity positive and negative electrodes. Among anode materials, Li metal anodes are considerably superior due to having the highest theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh g–1) and lowest negative redox potential (−3.040 V vs a standard hydrogen electrode). Combination of Li metal anodes with Li[NiCoM]O2-layered cathodes with a high stable specific capacity of about 200 up to 250 mAh g–1 is particularly attractive. The development of advanced electrolyte solutions which ensure effective passivation of the electrodes’ surfaces is of critical importance. Considerable efforts have been focused on fluorinated organic co …

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Nov 2021 • Batteries & Supercaps

Molecular Layer Deposition of Alucone Thin Film on LiCoO2 to Enable High Voltage Operation

Ortal Lidor‐Shalev, Nicole Leifer, Michal Ejgenberg, Hagit Aviv, Ilana Perelshtein, Gil Goobes, Malachi Noked

Extracting the theoretically high capacity of LiCoO2 (LCO) is desirable for enhancing the energy density of currently used lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs) for portable devices. The bottleneck for exhibiting the high capacity is associated with the limited cut‐off positive voltages beyond which degradation of electrode/electrolyte takes place. In this work, we apply hybrid organic‐inorganic alucone thin film grown directly on LCO by a molecular layer deposition (MLD) method, using sequential exposure to Al‐based and organic‐based precursors. The alucone thin films enabled the high voltage operation of the LCO cathode (>4.5 V), acting as a protection layer. Electrochemical studies proved that alucone coated LCO show enhanced electrochemical performances with improved cycling stability and enhanced specific capacity, relative to uncoated LCO. Amongst the studied films, 10 nm ethylene glycol/Al coated LCO have …

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Nov 2021 • ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering

Phase-Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of Bulk and Exfoliated Defect-Controlled Flakes of Layered Copper Sulfides under Simulated Solar Light

Madina Telkhozhayeva, Rajashree Konar, Ronit Lavi, Eti Teblum, Bibhudatta Malik, Sharon Ruthstein, Elisa Moretti, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Sunlight-driven photocatalysis is an environmentally friendly approach to solve ecological issues. The development of simple yet sufficiently stable photocatalytic materials capable of responding to the full-spectrum light remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate the phase transformations of bulk copper sulfides from digenite (Cu9S5) to djurleite (Cu1.97S) and low chalcocite (Cu2S) by the reactive thermal annealing during ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition, followed by their top-down exfoliation. Using multiple techniques, we confirm that monoclinic Cu2S is primarily formed at higher temperatures or greater reaction times and using a reducing atmosphere. We measured the average thickness to be approximately 4 nm for the exfoliated flakes with relatively large lateral sizes of up to 10 μm. We tested the three phases of bulk copper sulfides and their exfoliated forms as photocatalysts for dye degradation …

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Nov 2021 • Elsevier BV, 2021

Double gas treatment

S Maiti, H Sclar, J Grinblat, M Talianker, M Tkachev, M Tsubery, X Wu, M Noked, B Markovsky, D Aurbach

Herein, a systematic surface modification approach via double gas (SO2 and NH3) treatment at elevated temperatures is described, aimed to achieve a stable electrochemical performance of Li and Mn-rich NCM cathode materials of a typical composition 0.33Li2MnO3·0.67LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 (HE-NCM). Partial surface reduction of Mn4+ and the formation of a modified interface comprising Li-ions conductive nano-sized Li2SO4/Li2SO3 phases are established. Li-coin cells’ prolonged cycling performance demonstrated significantly improved capacity retention (∼2.2 times higher than untreated cathode materials) for the double-gas-treated cathodes after 400 cycles at a 1.0 C rate. Stable discharge potential and lower voltage hysteresis during cycling were also achieved through the double gas treatment. Comparative electrochemical studies in full-pouch cells [vs. Graphite anodes] also demonstrated considerably …

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Nov 2021 • ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering

Phase-Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of Bulk and Exfoliated Defect-Controlled Flakes of Layered Copper Sulfides under Simulated Solar Light

Madina Telkhozhayeva, Rajashree Konar, Ronit Lavi, Eti Teblum, Bibhudatta Malik, Sharon Ruthstein, Elisa Moretti, Gilbert Daniel Nessim

Sunlight-driven photocatalysis is an environmentally friendly approach to solve ecological issues. The development of simple yet sufficiently stable photocatalytic materials capable of responding to the full-spectrum light remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate the phase transformations of bulk copper sulfides from digenite (Cu9S5) to djurleite (Cu1.97S) and low chalcocite (Cu2S) by the reactive thermal annealing during ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition, followed by their top-down exfoliation. Using multiple techniques, we confirm that monoclinic Cu2S is primarily formed at higher temperatures or greater reaction times and using a reducing atmosphere. We measured the average thickness to be approximately 4 nm for the exfoliated flakes with relatively large lateral sizes of up to 10 μm. We tested the three phases of bulk copper sulfides and their exfoliated forms as photocatalysts for dye degradation …

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Nov 2021 • European Polymer Journal 142, 110145, 2021

Microspheres of biomolecules/macromolecules for enantioseparation applications

Amruta Mutalikdesai, Sudhakar Pagidi, Alfred Hassner, Aharon Gedanken

This review summarizes the recent advances in the enantioselective separation of small molecules using biomolecules/macromolecules built up by natural inherent chiral moieties. Although different kinds of chiral selectors are known to date, the microspheres based on biomolecules have received paramount importance in view of their green synthesis, selective and sensitive separation of enantiomers from the racemic mixture. Direct separation of enantiomers devoid of using high-performance liquid chromatography adds to the elegance of this approach. We have covered the preparation of various biomolecules spheres by different methods. The enantiomeric separation of amino acids, drugs and other racemates and the underlying plausible mechanism is discussed.

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Nov 2021 • Optics Communications

Digital micromirror device based ptychographic phase microscopy

Juanjuan Zheng, Kai Wen, Zhaolin Gao, Zeev Zalevsky, Peng Gao

In this paper, ptychographic phase microscopy (PPM) with digital illumination addressing via a digital micromirror device (DMD) was demonstrated. A moving circular pattern is sequentially lighted up by a DMD and projected on the sample for illumination stepping, and a CCD camera records the generated diffraction patterns. Then, the quantitative phase distribution of the sample can be reconstructed from the diffraction patterns by using an iterative algorithm. Compared with conventional PPM approaches, this method has a fundamentally enhanced imaging speed due to the usage of the digital scan to replace the conventional mechanical scan. Furthermore, parallelized illumination strategy, which loads multiple pupils to DMD simultaneously, is used to further improve the imaging speed to 0.8 s per phase image. We envisage that this method will contribute to high-contrast, quantitative phase imaging of …

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Nov 2021 • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

Evaluation of Mg[B(HFIP)4]2-Based Electrolyte Solutions for Rechargeable Mg Batteries

Ben Dlugatch, Meera Mohankumar, Ran Attias, Balasubramoniam Murali Krishna, Yuval Elias, Yosef Gofer, David Zitoun, Doron Aurbach

One of the greatest challenges toward rechargeable magnesium batteries is the development of noncorrosive electrolyte solutions with high anodic stability that can support reversible Mg deposition/dissolution. In the last few years, magnesium electrolyte solutions based on Cl-free fluorinated alkoxyborates were investigated for Mg batteries due to their high anodic stability and ionic conductivity and the possibility of reversible deposition/dissolution in ethereal solvents. Here, the electrochemical performance of Mg[B(hexafluoroisopropanol)4]2/dimethoxyethane (Mg[B(HFIP)4]2/DME) solutions was examined. These electrolyte solutions require a special “conditioning” pretreatment that removes undesirable active moieties. Such a process was developed and explored, and basic scientific issues related to the mechanism by which it affects Mg deposition/dissolution were addressed. The chemical changes that occur …

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Nov 2021 • ACS Applied Nano Materials

Polydopamine Nanoparticles Containing a Cisplatin Analog for Anticancer Treatment and Diagnostics

Gil Yeroslavsky, Michal Richman, Asaf Gertler, Haim Y Cohen, Menachem Motiei, Rachela Popovtzer, Hugo E Gottlieb, Shai Rahimipour

Cancer is a leading cause of death with rates expected to grow with life expectancy. Among leading treatments, cisplatin, widely used to combat cancer, suffers from low stability and selectivity. Here, we covalently conjugated an analog of cisplatin to biocompatible polydopamine nanoparticles (PDA-NPs) to increase both properties. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy studies suggest that the platinum-conjugated PDA particles (Pt–PDA-NPs) are monodispersed and spherical with a diameter of about 200 nm with platinum atoms mostly in the shell. Particles were also characterized with inductively coupled plasma mass atomic emission spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the localization and amount of Pt atoms. The chelated metal did not leach from the conjugated particles under normal physiological conditions, while it was released …

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Nov 2021 • Energy Storage Materials

Boron doped Ni-rich LiNi0. 85Co0. 10Mn0. 05O2 cathode materials studied by structural analysis, solid state NMR, computational modeling, and electrochemical performance

Susai Francis Amalraj, Ravikumar Raman, Arup Chakraborty, Nicole Leifer, Raju Nanda, Sooraj Kunnikuruvan, Tatyana Kravchuk, Judith Grinblat, Vladimir Ezersky, Rong Sun, Francis Leonard Deepak, Christoph Erk, Xiaohan Wu, Sandipan Maiti, Hadar Sclar, Gil Goobes, Dan Thomas Major, Michael Talianker, Boris Markovsky, Doron Aurbach

This work is part of ongoing and systematic investigations by our groups on the synthesis, electrochemical behavior, structural investigations, and computational modeling of the Ni-rich materials Li[NixCoyMnz]O2 (x+y+z=1; x≥0.8) for advanced lithium-ion batteries. This study focuses on the LiNi0.85Co0.10Mn0.05O2 (NCM85) material and its improvement upon doping with B3+ cations. The data demonstrate the substantial improvement of the doped electrodes in terms of cycling performance, lower voltage hysteresis and reduced self-discharge upon high temperature storage. The electronic structure of the undoped and B-doped material was modelled using density functional theory (DFT), which identified interstitial positions as the preferential location of the dopant. DFT models were also used to shed light on the influence of boron on surface segregation, surface stability, and oxygen binding energy in NCM85 …

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Nov 2021 • 2021 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Antennas, Communications …, 2021

Multiple return analysis for noncoherent pulse compression of periodic coded waveforms

Itzik Cohen, Nadav Levanon, Avi Zadok

Recently proposed direct-detection laser range finders transmit low power, periodic, unipolar (ON-OFF) coded signal, instead of the commonly used strong narrow single pulse. The combination of non-coherent pulse compression (NCPC) and appropriate binary sequences produces a sidelobe-free periodic delay response. The continuous wave (CW) nature of the signal results in overlaps between returns from multiple targets. When envelope detected, the overlaps can create intermodulation that may hurt the sidelobe-free range response. The paper studies the effect of different sequence types and different envelope detector response profiles and suggests measures to mitigate the influence of multiple targets by calibration of envelope detector.

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Nov 2021 • Nanotechnology

Nanopatterning of oxide 2-dimensional electron systems using low-temperature ion milling

Maria D'Antuono, Alexey Kalaboukhov, Roberta Caruso, Shai Wissberg, Sapir Weitz Sobelman, Beena Kalisky, Giovanni Ausanio, Marco Salluzzo, Daniela Stornaiuolo

We present a "top-down" patterning technique based on ion milling performed at low- temperature, for the realization of oxide two-dimensional electron system (2DES) devices with dimensions down to 160 nm. Using electrical transport and scanning SQUID measurements we demonstrate that the low-temperature ion milling process does not damage the 2DES properties nor creates oxygen vacancies-related conducting paths in the STO substrate. As opposed to other procedures used to realize oxide 2DES devices, the one we propose gives lateral access to the 2DES along the in-plane directions, finally opening the way to coupling with other materials, including superconductors.

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Nov 2021 • Journal of the American Chemical Society

High Energy Density Rechargeable Batteries Based on Li Metal Anodes. The Role of Unique Surface Chemistry Developed in Solutions Containing Fluorinated Organic Co-solvents

Doron Aurbach, Elena Markevich, Gregory Salitra

To date, lithium ion batteries are considered as a leading energy storage and conversion technology, ensuring a combination of high energy and power densities and prolonged cycle life. A critical point for elaboration of high energy density secondary Li batteries is the use of high specific capacity positive and negative electrodes. Among anode materials, Li metal anodes are considerably superior due to having the highest theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh g–1) and lowest negative redox potential (−3.040 V vs a standard hydrogen electrode). Combination of Li metal anodes with Li[NiCoM]O2-layered cathodes with a high stable specific capacity of about 200 up to 250 mAh g–1 is particularly attractive. The development of advanced electrolyte solutions which ensure effective passivation of the electrodes’ surfaces is of critical importance. Considerable efforts have been focused on fluorinated organic co …

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Nov 2021 • Nature Machine Intelligence

The immuneML ecosystem for machine learning analysis of adaptive immune receptor repertoires

Milena Pavlović, Lonneke Scheffer, Keshav Motwani, Chakravarthi Kanduri, Radmila Kompova, Nikolay Vazov, Knut Waagan, Fabian LM Bernal, Alexandre Almeida Costa, Brian Corrie, Rahmad Akbar, Ghadi S Al Hajj, Gabriel Balaban, Todd M Brusko, Maria Chernigovskaya, Scott Christley, Lindsay G Cowell, Robert Frank, Ivar Grytten, Sveinung Gundersen, Ingrid Hobæk Haff, Eivind Hovig, Ping-Han Hsieh, Günter Klambauer, Marieke L Kuijjer, Christin Lund-Andersen, Antonio Martini, Thomas Minotto, Johan Pensar, Knut Rand, Enrico Riccardi, Philippe A Robert, Artur Rocha, Andrei Slabodkin, Igor Snapkov, Ludvig M Sollid, Dmytro Titov, Cédric R Weber, Michael Widrich, Gur Yaari, Victor Greiff, Geir Kjetil Sandve

Adaptive immune receptor repertoires (AIRR) are key targets for biomedical research as they record past and ongoing adaptive immune responses. The capacity of machine learning (ML) to identify complex discriminative sequence patterns renders it an ideal approach for AIRR-based diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. So far, widespread adoption of AIRR ML has been inhibited by a lack of reproducibility, transparency and interoperability. immuneML (immuneml. uio. no) addresses these concerns by implementing each step of the AIRR ML process in an extensible, open-source software ecosystem that is based on fully specified and shareable workflows. To facilitate widespread user adoption, immuneML is available as a command-line tool and through an intuitive Galaxy web interface, and extensive documentation of workflows is provided. We demonstrate the broad applicability of immuneML by (1 …

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Nov 2021 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2111.12078

Spatial symmetry breaking by non-local Kerr-lensing in mode-locked lasers

Idan Parshani, Leon Bello, Mallachi-Elia Meller, Avi Pe'er

Kerr-lens mode-locking (KLM) is the work-horse mechanism for generation of ultrashort pulses, where a non-linear lens forms an effective ultrafast saturable absorber within the laser cavity. According to standard theory, the pulse in the cavity is a soliton, with a temporal profile and power determined by the non-linearity to exactly counteract diffraction and dispersion, resulting in pulses, whose power and shape are fixed across a wide range of pump powers. We show numerically and demonstrate experimentally that the non-local effect of the Kerr lens in a linear cavity allows the laser to deviate from the soliton model by breaking the spatial symmetry in the cavity between the forward and backward halves of the round-trip, and hence to extract more power in a single pulse, while maintaining stable cavity propagation. We confirm this prediction experimentally in a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser with a quantitative agreement to the simulation results. Our numerical tool opens new avenues to optimization and enhancement of the mode-locking performance based on direct examination of the Kerr medium and the spatio-temporal dynamics within it, which is difficult (or even impossible) to observe experimentally.

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Nov 2021 • Progress in retinal and eye research, 101029, 2021

Inherited retinal diseases: Linking genes, disease-causing variants, and relevant therapeutic modalities

Nina Schneider, Yogapriya Sundaresan, Prakadeeswari Gopalakrishnan, Avigail Beryozkin, Mor Hanany, Erez Y Levanon, Eyal Banin, Shay Ben-Aroya, Dror Sharon

Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a clinically complex and heterogenous group of visual impairment phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in at least 277 nuclear and mitochondrial genes, affecting different retinal regions, and depleting the vision of affected individuals. Genes that cause IRDs when mutated are unique by possessing differing genotype-phenotype correlations, varying inheritance patterns, hypomorphic alleles, and modifier genes thus complicating genetic interpretation. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced the identification of novel IRD-related genes and pathogenic variants in the last decade. For this review, we performed an in-depth literature search which allowed for compilation of the Global Retinal Inherited Disease (GRID) dataset containing 4,798 discrete variants and 17,299 alleles published in 31 papers, showing a wide range of frequencies and complexities among …

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Nov 2021 • Journal of Experimental Medicine

Inherited SLP76 deficiency in humans causes severe combined immunodeficiency, neutrophil and platelet defects

Atar Lev, Yu Nee Lee, Guangping Sun, Enas Hallumi, Amos J Simon, Keren S Zrihen, Shiran Levy, Tal Beit Halevi, Maria Papazian, Neta Shwartz, Ido Somekh, Sarina Levy-Mendelovich, Baruch Wolach, Ronit Gavrieli, Helly Vernitsky, Ortal Barel, Elisheva Javasky, Tali Stauber, Chi A Ma, Yuan Zhang, Ninette Amariglio, Gideon Rechavi, Ayal Hendel, Deborah Yablonski, Joshua D Milner, Raz Somech

The T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway is an ensemble of numerous proteins that are crucial for an adequate immune response. Disruption of any protein involved in this pathway leads to severe immunodeficiency and unfavorable clinical outcomes. Here, we describe an infant with severe immunodeficiency who was found to have novel biallelic mutations in SLP76. SLP76 is a key protein involved in TCR signaling and in other hematopoietic pathways. Previous studies of this protein were performed using Jurkat-derived human leukemic T cell lines and SLP76-deficient mice. Our current study links this gene, for the first time, to a human immunodeficiency characterized by early-onset life-threatening infections, combined T and B cell immunodeficiency, severe neutrophil defects, and impaired platelet aggregation. Hereby, we characterized aspects of the patient's immune phenotype, modeled them with an …

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Nov 2021 • Quantum Information and Measurement, W3A. 5, 2021

The Coherent Dynamics of Coupled Non-Degenerate Parametric Oscillators

Shai Ben-Ami, Igal Aharonovich, Avi Pe'er

We explore experimentally synchronization and persistent beating dynamics in coupled non-degenerate parametric oscillators. We demonstrate that synchronization is completely prevented due to mode competition, which is unique to non-degenerate oscillators.

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Nov 2021 • arXiv preprint arXiv:2111.09709

Generalized equipartition for nonlinear multiplicative Langevin dynamics: application to laser-cooled atoms

Gianmaria Falasco, Eli Barkai, Marco Baiesi

The virial theorem, and the equipartition theorem in the case of quadratic degrees of freedom, are handy constraints on the statistics of equilibrium systems. Their violation is instrumental in determining how far from equilibrium a driven system might be. We extend the virial theorem to nonequilibrium conditions for Langevin dynamics with nonlinear friction and multiplicative noise. In particular, we generalize the equipartition theorem for confined laser-cooled atoms in the semi-classical regime. The resulting relation between the lowest moments of the atom position and velocity allows to measure in experiments how dissipative the cooling mechanism is. Moreover, its violation can reveal the departure from a strictly harmonic confinement or from the semi-classical regime.

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Nov 2021 • Advanced Materials Interfaces

Photopolymerized Thin Coating of Polypyrrole/Graphene Nanofiber/Iron Oxide onto Nonpolar Plastic for Flexible Electromagnetic Radiation Shielding, Strain Sensing, and Non …

Sayan Ganguly, Naftali Kanovsky, Poushali Das, Aharon Gedanken, Shlomo Margel

The current work presents the fabrication of micrometer‐thick single‐side‐coated surface‐engineered polypropylene (PP) film for versatile flexible electronics applications. Herein, the authors report, for the first time, photopolymerized thin coating of graphene nanofibers (GNFs) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) onto non‐polar plastic via surface chemistry. The fabrication is achieved by adopting three consecutive steps; initially corona treated PP films are treated with silane for thin layer silica coating. Then, the silylated PP films are brushed up by pyrrole/GNFs/IONPs mixture, followed by UV exposure. The coated films show surface conductivity in the range of ≈20 S cm−1 at room temperature. Moreover, ≈15 microns of the coated film is tested against electromagnetic waves in the X‐band region (8.2–12.4 GHz) and its shielding behavior (≈24 dB) is confirmed. To demonstrate its wide range of versatility, the …

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Nov 2021 • Progress in retinal and eye research, 101029, 2021

Inherited retinal diseases: Linking genes, disease-causing variants, and relevant therapeutic modalities

Nina Schneider, Yogapriya Sundaresan, Prakadeeswari Gopalakrishnan, Avigail Beryozkin, Mor Hanany, Erez Y Levanon, Eyal Banin, Shay Ben-Aroya, Dror Sharon

Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a clinically complex and heterogenous group of visual impairment phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in at least 277 nuclear and mitochondrial genes, affecting different retinal regions, and depleting the vision of affected individuals. Genes that cause IRDs when mutated are unique by possessing differing genotype-phenotype correlations, varying inheritance patterns, hypomorphic alleles, and modifier genes thus complicating genetic interpretation. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced the identification of novel IRD-related genes and pathogenic variants in the last decade. For this review, we performed an in-depth literature search which allowed for compilation of the Global Retinal Inherited Disease (GRID) dataset containing 4798 discrete variants and 17,299 alleles published in 31 papers, showing a wide range of frequencies and complexities among …

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