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Dec 2021 • Desalination 520, 115336, 2021

Anions-capture materials for electrochemical electrode deionization: Mechanism, performance, and development prospects

Xiumei Ma, Wei Alex Wang, Lupeng Zhang, Qinghao Wu, Shanfu Lu, Doron Aurbach, Yan Xiang

Desalination is a critical process to resolve the crisis of insufficient freshwater resources. Among desalination technologies, electrochemical electrode deionization (EEDI) has attracted wide attention because of the advantages in low cost, no secondary pollution, and low energy consumption etc. Electrode materials are the critical factors for determining the performance of EEDI. However, the traditional EEDI with carbon electrode (capacitive deionization, CDI) often showed inefficient desalination capacity, charge efficiency, cycle stability as well as ions selectivity due to the anode oxidation. Therefore, the development of anions-capture materials is crucial for the development of EEDI devices. In this review, the anions-capture materials are classified into four categories according to their capture mechanisms: (i) Electrosorption materials, mainly including conventional and modified carbon materials; (ii) conversion …

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Dec 2021 • Journal of translational medicine 19 (1), 1-9, 2021

Expression and regulatory roles of lncRNAs in G-CIMP-low vs G-CIMP-high Glioma: an in-silico analysis

Indrani Datta, Houtan Noushmehr, Chaya Brodie, Laila M Poisson

Clinically relevant glioma subtypes, such as the glioma-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), have been defined by epigenetics. In this study, the role of long non-coding RNAs in association with the poor-prognosis G-CMIP-low phenotype and the good-prognosis G-CMIP-high phenotype was investigated. Functional associations of lncRNAs with mRNAs and miRNAs were examined to hypothesize influencing factors of the aggressive phenotype. RNA-seq data on 250 samples from TCGA’s Pan-Glioma study, quantified for lncRNA and mRNAs (GENCODE v28), were analyzed for differential expression between G-CIMP-low and G-CIMP-high phenotypes. Functional interpretation of the differential lncRNAs was performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Spearman rank order correlation estimates between lncRNA, miRNA, and mRNA nominated differential lncRNA with a likely miRNA sponge function. We identified 4371 differentially expressed features (mRNA = 3705; lncRNA = 666; FDR ≤ 5%). From these, the protein-coding gene TP53 was identified as an upstream regulator of differential lncRNAs PANDAR and PVT1 (p = 0.0237) and enrichment was detected in the “development of carcinoma” (p = 0.0176). Two lncRNAs (HCG11, PART1) were positively correlated with 342 mRNAs, and their correlation estimates diminish after adjusting for either of the target miRNAs: hsa-miR-490-3p, hsa-miR-129-5p. This suggests a likely sponge function for HCG11 and PART1. These findings identify differential lncRNAs with oncogenic features that are associated with G-CIMP phenotypes. Further investigation with controlled experiments …

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Dec 2021 • Virology journal 18 (1), 1-12, 2021

Targeting the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome with the CRISPR-Cas9 platform in latently infected cells

Coral Orel Haddad, Inna Kalt, Yehuda Shovman, Lei Xia, Yehuda Schlesinger, Ronit Sarid, Oren Parnas

Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a transforming gammaherpesvirus. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV infection is for life long and there is no treatment that can cure patients from the virus. In addition, there is an urgent need to target viral genes to study their role during the infection cycle. The CRISPR-Cas9 technology offers a means to target viral genomes and thus may offer a novel strategy for viral cure as well as for better understanding of the infection process. We evaluated the suitability of this platform for the targeting of KSHV. We have used the recombinat KSHV BAC16 genome, which contains an expression cassette encoding hygromycin-resistance and a GFP marker gene. Three genes were targeted: gfp, which serves as a marker for infection; orf45 encoding a lytic viral protein; and orf73, encoding LANA which is crucial for latent infection. The fraction of cells expressing GFP, viral DNA levels and LANA expression were monitored and viral genomes were sequenced. We found that KSHV episomes can be targeted by CRISPR-Cas9. Interestingly, the quantity of KSHV DNA declined, even when target sites were not functionally important for latency. In addition, we show that antibiotic selection, used to maintain infection, interferes with the outcome of targeting. Our study provides insights into the use of this fundamental approach for the study and manipulation of KSHV. It provides guidelines for the targeting CRISPR-Cas9 to the viral genome and for outcomes interpretation.

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Nov 2021 • Optics Communications 498, 127218, 2021

Digital micromirror device based ptychographic phase microscopy

Juanjuan Zheng, Kai Wen, Zhaolin Gao, Zeev Zalevsky, Peng Gao

In this paper, ptychographic phase microscopy (PPM) with digital illumination addressing via a digital micromirror device (DMD) was demonstrated. A moving circular pattern is sequentially lighted up by a DMD and projected on the sample for illumination stepping, and a CCD camera records the generated diffraction patterns. Then, the quantitative phase distribution of the sample can be reconstructed from the diffraction patterns by using an iterative algorithm. Compared with conventional PPM approaches, this method has a fundamentally enhanced imaging speed due to the usage of the digital scan to replace the conventional mechanical scan. Furthermore, parallelized illumination strategy, which loads multiple pupils to DMD simultaneously, is used to further improve the imaging speed to 0.8 s per phase image. We envisage that this method will contribute to high-contrast, quantitative phase imaging of …

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Nov 2021 • Energy Storage Materials 42, 594-607, 2021

Boron doped Ni-rich LiNi0. 85Co0. 10Mn0. 05O2 cathode materials studied by structural analysis, solid state NMR, computational modeling, and electrochemical performance

Susai Francis Amalraj, Ravikumar Raman, Arup Chakraborty, Nicole Leifer, Raju Nanda, Sooraj Kunnikuruvan, Tatyana Kravchuk, Judith Grinblat, Vladimir Ezersky, Rong Sun, Francis Leonard Deepak, Christoph Erk, Xiaohan Wu, Sandipan Maiti, Hadar Sclar, Gil Goobes, Dan Thomas Major, Michael Talianker, Boris Markovsky, Doron Aurbach

This work is part of ongoing and systematic investigations by our groups on the synthesis, electrochemical behavior, structural investigations, and computational modeling of the Ni-rich materials Li[NixCoyMnz]O2 (x+y+z=1; x≥0.8) for advanced lithium-ion batteries. This study focuses on the LiNi0.85Co0.10Mn0.05O2 (NCM85) material and its improvement upon doping with B3+ cations. The data demonstrate the substantial improvement of the doped electrodes in terms of cycling performance, lower voltage hysteresis and reduced self-discharge upon high temperature storage. The electronic structure of the undoped and B-doped material was modelled using density functional theory (DFT), which identified interstitial positions as the preferential location of the dopant. DFT models were also used to shed light on the influence of boron on surface segregation, surface stability, and oxygen binding energy in NCM85 …

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Nov 2021 • Optical Society of America

Light detection and ranging (lidar): introduction

Zeev Zalevsky, Gerald S Buller, Tao Chen, Moshik Cohen, Rory Barton-Grimley

In this introduction we provide an overview of the papers that were accepted for publication in the special issue on light detection and ranging (lidar). Four of the papers were published in JOSA A, and four were published in JOSA B. They represent different aspects of this important and fast-growing field while showing the relevant state-of-the-art achievements currently existing in the field of lidars in the world of science and engineering.

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Oct 2021

Interfacial Engineering of Na3V2(PO4)2F3 Hollow Spheres through Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2: Boosting Capacity and Mitigating Structural Instability

Tali Sharabani, Sarah Taragin, Ilana Perelshtein, Malachi Noked, Ayan Mukherjee

To mitigate the associated challenges of instability and capacity improvement in Na3V2(PO4)2F3 (NVPF), rationally designed uniformly distributed hollow spherical NVPF and coating the surface of NVPF with ultrathin (≈2 nm) amorphous TiO2 by atomic layer deposition is demonstrated. The coating facilitates higher mobility of the ion through the cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) and enables higher capacity during cycling. The TiO2@NVPF exhibit discharge capacity of >120 mAhg−1, even at 1C rates, and show lower irreversible capacity in the first cycle. Further, nearly 100% capacity retention after rate performance in high current densities and 99.9% coulombic efficiency after prolonged cycling in high current density is reported. The improved performance in TiO2@NVPF is ascribed to the passivation behavior of TiO2 coating which protects the surface of NVPF from volume expansion, significantly less …

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Oct 2021 • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2021

Polarization-Driven Asymmetric Electronic Response of Monolayer Graphene to Polymer Zwitterions Probed from Both Sides

Nicholas Hight-Huf, Yehiel Nagar, Adi Levi, James Nicolas Pagaduan, Avdhoot Datar, Reika Katsumata, Todd Emrick, Ashwin Ramasubramaniam, Doron Naveh, Michael D Barnes

We investigated the nature of graphene surface doping by zwitterionic polymers and the implications of weak in-plane and strong through-plane screening using a novel sample geometry that allows direct access to either the graphene or the polymer side of a graphene/polymer interface. Using both Kelvin probe and electrostatic force microscopies, we observed a significant upshift in the Fermi level in graphene of ∼260 meV that was dominated by a change in polarizability rather than pure charge transfer with the organic overlayer. This physical picture is supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which describe a redistribution of charge in graphene in response to the dipoles of the adsorbed zwitterionic moieties, analogous to a local DC Stark effect. Strong metallic-like screening of the adsorbed dipoles was observed by employing an inverted geometry, an effect identified by DFT to arise from a …

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Oct 2021 • IOP Publishing

Optimal detection of ultra-broadband bi-photons with quantum nonlinear SU (1, 1) interference

Nir Nechushtan, Hanzhong Zhang, Mallachi Meller, Avi Pe'er

The visibility of nonlinear SU(1,1) interference directly reflects the nonclassical properties of entangled bi-photons and squeezed light with practically unlimited bandwidth, high efficiency and ultra-high photon flux, orders of magnitude beyond the abilities of standard photo-detectors. We study experimentally the dependence of the SU(1,1) visibility on the phase matching conditions and beam parameters in a free-space configuration, and show that maximal SU(1,1) visibility requires extreme collinear conditions, which deviate from the conditions for maximal nonlinear conversion. We demonstrate near-ideal visibility of ~95% (limited only by internal loss) in an ultra-broadband SU(1,1), interferometer with over 120THz of squeezed light bandwidth. Utilizing this analysis we demonstrate efficient detection of the spectral phase of single-cycle bi-photons and precise compensation of the dispersion over a full octave of …

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Oct 2021 • American Chemical Society

Benchmark Test and Guidelines for DEER/PELDOR Experiments on Nitroxide-Labeled Biomolecules

Olav Schiemann, Caspar A Heubach, Dinar Abdullin, Katrin Ackermann, Mykhailo Azarkh, Elena G Bagryanskaya, Malte Drescher, Burkhard Endeward, Jack H Freed, Laura Galazzo, Daniella Goldfarb, Tobias Hett, Laura Esteban Hofer, Luis Fábregas Ibáñez, Eric J Hustedt, Svetlana Kucher, Ilya Kuprov, Janet Eleanor Lovett, Andreas Meyer, Sharon Ruthstein, Sunil Saxena, Stefan Stoll, Christiane R Timmel, Marilena Di Valentin, Hassane S Mchaourab, Thomas F Prisner, Bela Ernest Bode, Enrica Bordignon, Marina Bennati, Gunnar Jeschke


Oct 2021 • Biotechnology Advances, 107843, 2021

Microbial inhibition and biosensing with multifunctional carbon dots: Progress and perspectives

Moorthy Maruthapandi, Arumugam Saravanan, Poushali Das, John HT Luong, Aharon Gedanken

Carbon dots (CDs) and their doped counterparts including nitrogen-doped CDs can be synthesized by bottom-up or top-down approaches from different precursors. The attractiveness of such emerging 2D‑carbon-based nanosized materials can be attributed to their excellent biocompatibility, preparation, aqueous dispersibility, and functionality. The antimicrobial, optical, and electrochemical properties of CDs have been advocated for two important biotechnological applications: bacterial eradication and sensing/biosensing. CDs as well as N@CDs act as antimicrobial agents as their surface encompasses functional hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino groups that generate free radicals. As a new class of photoluminescent nanomaterials, CDs can be employed in diversified analytics. CDs with surface carboxyl or amino groups can form nanocomposites with nanomaterials or be conjugated with biorecognition molecules …

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Oct 2021 • Nature Publishing Group

Commentary on Population matched (pm) germline allelic variants of immunoglobulin (IG) loci: relevance in infectious diseases and vaccination studies in human populations

Andrew M Collins, Ayelet Peres, Martin M Corcoran, Corey T Watson, Gur Yaari, William D Lees, Mats Ohlin

In their recent publication, Khatri et al.[1] describe an immunoglobulin germline gene database inferred from shortread genomic sequence data derived from five superpopulations. The development of methods for the compilation of more complete and accurate germline gene databases would be an important achievement, but we do not believe that this has been achieved. Existing databases are clearly incomplete. Germline sequences differ substantially between subjects, and alleles found in some populations may be absent in others. Existing databases are likely biased towards alleles found in European populations and may lack many sequences found in understudied populations [2]. Improved, properly designed and curated germline gene databases are therefore needed for analysis of antibody repertoires.Extensive efforts are under way to better document germline genes, and the study by Khatri et al …

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Oct 2021 • Materials Research Bulletin, 111598, 2021

In-situ Design, Characterization and Use of Durable Superhydrophobic Thin Coatings Applied on Polymeric Films

Naftali Kanovsky, Sarit Cohen, Shlomo Margel

Superhydrophobic coatings on polymeric films are in high demand due to their various real-world applications in a number of different fields. However, reported coatings lack durability or have complicated processes rendering them impractical. Here, tetraethylorthosilicate is polymerized via a modified Stöber method in the presence of a corona treated PP film (in-situ) which results in a thin silica-structured layer, covalently bonded to the PP film. Fluorocarbon silanes are then further reacted with the silica layer. The high surface roughness of the silica structures and low surface energy of the fluorocarbon silanes produce superhydrophobic surfaces. PP films coated with flake-like silica structures resulted in higher surface roughness and superhydrophobicity than the particle-like coating. Additionally, the flake-like silica coating exhibited good self-cleaning properties and durability to sandpaper abrasion tests. This …

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Oct 2021 • JOSA A 38 (10), B29-B36, 2021

Effects of lidar and radar resolution on DNN-based vehicle detection

Itai Orr, Harel Damari, Meir Halachmi, Mark Raifel, Kfir Twizer, Moshik Cohen, Zeev Zalevsky

Vehicle detection plays a critical role in autonomous driving, where two central sensing modalities are lidar and radar. Although many deep neural network (DNN)-based methods have been proposed to solve this task, a systematic and methodological examination on the influence of the data on those methods is still missing. In this work, we examine the effects of resolution on the performance of vehicle detection for both lidar and radar sensors. We propose subsampling methods that can improve the performance and efficiency of DNN-based solutions and offer an alternative approach to traditional sensor-design trade-offs.

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Oct 2021 • Journal of Cell Biology 220 (11), e202103079, 2021

Subunit cooperation in the Get1/2 receptor promotes tail-anchored membrane protein insertion

Un Seng Chio, Yumeng Liu, SangYoon Chung, Woo Jun Shim, Sowmya Chandrasekar, Shimon Weiss, Shu-ou Shan

The guided entry of tail-anchored protein (GET) pathway, in which the Get3 ATPase delivers an essential class of tail-anchored membrane proteins (TAs) to the Get1/2 receptor at the endoplasmic reticulum, provides a conserved mechanism for TA biogenesis in eukaryotic cells. The membrane-associated events of this pathway remain poorly understood. Here we show that complex assembly between the cytosolic domains (CDs) of Get1 and Get2 strongly enhances the affinity of the individual subunits for Get3•TA, thus enabling efficient capture of the targeting complex. In addition to the known role of Get1CD in remodeling Get3 conformation, two molecular recognition features (MoRFs) in Get2CD induce Get3 opening, and both subunits are required for optimal TA release from Get3. Mutation of the MoRFs attenuates TA insertion into the ER in vivo. Our results demonstrate extensive cooperation between the Get1/2 …

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Oct 2021 • Nature communications 12 (1), 1-9, 2021

Unveiling unconventional magnetism at the surface of Sr2RuO4

R Fittipaldi, R Hartmann, MT Mercaldo, S Komori, A Bjørlig, W Kyung, Y Yasui, T Miyoshi, LAB Olde Olthof, Palomares Garcia, V Granata, I Keren, W Higemoto, A Suter, T Prokscha, A Romano, C Noce, C Kim, Y Maeno, E Scheer, B Kalisky, JWA Robinson, M Cuoco, Z Salman, A Vecchione, A Di Bernardo

Materials with strongly correlated electrons often exhibit interesting physical properties. An example of these materials is the layered oxide perovskite Sr 2 RuO 4, which has been intensively investigated due to its unusual properties. Whilst the debate on the symmetry of the superconducting state in Sr 2 RuO 4 is still ongoing, a deeper understanding of the Sr 2 RuO 4 normal state appears crucial as this is the background in which electron pairing occurs. Here, by using low-energy muon spin spectroscopy we discover the existence of surface magnetism in Sr 2 RuO 4 in its normal state. We detect static weak dipolar fields yet manifesting at an onset temperature higher than 50 K. We ascribe this unconventional magnetism to orbital loop currents forming at the reconstructed Sr 2 RuO 4 surface. Our observations set a reference for the discovery of the same magnetic phase in other materials and unveil an electronic …

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Oct 2021 • Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, 1-22, 2021

Fluorophore spectroscopy in aqueous glycerol solution: the interactions of glycerol with the fluorophore

Haim Feldman, Mark A Iron, Dror Fixler, Sergei Moshkov, Naomi Zurgil, Elena Afrimzon, Mordechai Deutsch

A common perception exists that glycerol provides an inert-like environment modifying viscosity and index of refraction by its various concentrations in aqueous solution. Said perception is herein challenged by investigating the effects of the glycerol environment on the spectroscopic properties of fluorescein, as a representative fluorophore, using steady-state and time-resolved techniques and computational chemistry. Results strongly suggest that the fluorescence quantum yield, measured fluorescence lifetime (FLT), natural lifetime and calculated fluorescence lifetime are all highly sensitive to the presence of glycerol. Glycerol was found to impact both the ground and first excited states of fluorescein, quenching and modifying both absorption and emission spectra, affecting the fundamental electrical dipoles of the ground and first excited singlet states, and lowering FLT and quantum yield. Furthermore, the Stern …

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Oct 2021 • Cold Spring Harbor Lab

Global quantification exposes abundant low-level off-target activity by base editors

Ilana Buchumenski, Shalom Hillel Roth, Eli Kopel, Efrat Katsman, Ariel Feiglin, Erez Y Levanon, Eli Eisenberg

Base editors are dedicated engineered deaminases that enable directed conversion of specific bases in the genome or transcriptome in a precise and efficient manner, and hold promise for correcting pathogenic mutations. A major concern limiting application of this powerful approach is the issue of off-target edits. Several recent studies have shown substantial off-target RNA activity induced by base editors and demonstrated that off-target mutations may be suppressed by improved deaminases versions or optimized guide RNAs. Here we describe a new class of off-target events that are invisible to the established methods for detection of genomic variations, and were thus far overlooked. We show that much of the off-target activity of the deaminases is nonspecific, seemingly stochastic, affecting a large number of sites throughout the genome or the transcriptome and accounting for the majority of off-target activity …

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Oct 2021 • American Chemical Society

Novel Nanocarrier Platform for Effective Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

Sriram Kannan, Yifat Harel, Liron Limor Israel, Emmanuel Lellouche, Alexander Varvak, Merav Nadav Tsubery, Jean-Paul Lellouche, Shulamit Michaeli

Leishmaniasis is among the five parasitic diseases that still require the development of new drugs. Ultrasmall cerium (Ce3/4+) cation-doped maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) were tested as a potential drug to treat visceral leishmaniasis, a disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The NPs were engineered for binding a polycationic branched polyethylenimine (PEI) polymer, thereby rupturing the single lysosome of these parasites and enabling entry of the anti-Leishmania drug, pentamidine. Exploiting the known lanthanide cation/complex-based coordinative chemical reactivity enabled the binding of both active agents onto the surface of the NPs. To optimize the fabrication of the cytotoxic NPs, optimization via a DoE (Design of Experiments) process was used to identify the optimal NP with toxicity against the two stages of the parasite, promastigotes, which propagate in the insect, and amastigotes …

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Oct 2021 • American Chemical Society

Novel Nanocarrier Platform for Effective Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

Sriram Kannan, Yifat Harel, Liron Limor Israel, Emmanuel Lellouche, Alexander Varvak, Merav Nadav Tsubery, Jean-Paul Lellouche, Shulamit Michaeli

Leishmaniasis is among the five parasitic diseases that still require the development of new drugs. Ultrasmall cerium (Ce3/4+) cation-doped maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) were tested as a potential drug to treat visceral leishmaniasis, a disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The NPs were engineered for binding a polycationic branched polyethylenimine (PEI) polymer, thereby rupturing the single lysosome of these parasites and enabling entry of the anti-Leishmania drug, pentamidine. Exploiting the known lanthanide cation/complex-based coordinative chemical reactivity enabled the binding of both active agents onto the surface of the NPs. To optimize the fabrication of the cytotoxic NPs, optimization via a DoE (Design of Experiments) process was used to identify the optimal NP with toxicity against the two stages of the parasite, promastigotes, which propagate in the insect, and amastigotes …

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Oct 2021

Geometric phases and the Sagnac effect: Foundational aspects and sensing applications

Ismael L Paiva, Rain Lenny, Eliahu Cohen

Geometric phase is a key player in many areas of quantum science and technology. In this review article, we outline several foundational aspects of quantum geometric phases and their relations to classical geometric phases. We then discuss how the Aharonov-Bohm and Sagnac effects fit into this context. Moreover, we present a concise overview of technological applications of the latter, with special emphasis on gravitational sensing, like in gyroscopes and gravitational wave detectors.

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